In the mid-20th century, integrative efforts began concerning the brain and its social and humanistic functions. These efforts were led by Paul D. MacLean's integrative research and thought. As the century ended, however, such efforts were lost in the surge of new effort in brain and genome research. Nobel Prizes were awarded on biochemical and cellular findings relevant to psychiatry. Findings on these levels seemed to provide ultimate answers. By contrast, Cory, Gardner, and their contributors provide a more comprehensive view by extending MacLean's findings and integrative theory. Supported by new findings and extended by critical analyses of current work, the collection provides foundations for more integrative efforts that the editors and contributors believe will prevail increasingly in coming decades. Looked at from another vantage point, therapeutic, social, economic, and politial sciences have proceeded wtihout operating theories congruent with, or based on, brain functions. Across-species perspectives have been lacking. This collection redresses this problem and leads the way toward more comprehensive 21st century research on the one hand, and practical applications on the other. Multiple approaches extend from modeling efforts to across-species comparisons, to the basic science of psychiatry to theoretical explanations of political and economic systems. But most important, these essays abolish the Berlin wall that currently separates the brain from its social functions. A major guide for scholars, students, and researchers involved in the neurobehavioral sciences, for psychologists, psychiatrists, and others involved with human clinical sciences, and for social scientistsconcerned with the impact of the nervous system and its function.