Camillo Golgi (1843-1926) is widely regarded as one of the founders of modern neuroscience. In 1873 he discovered the 'reazione nera' - the black reaction - a histological stain which was to prove to be a revolutionary method for studying the structure of the nervous system. To this day, theGolgi stain is still widely used. For every student of medicine or biology, Golgi's name is synonymous with one of the basic structures in the cell: Golgi Apparatus, a cellular structure involved in protein glycosylation and transport. Golgi discovered the apparatus in 1898, and as a result ofwhich, he is probably the most widely cited biologist in the scientific literature. But this is only one of Golgi's many contributions to scientific research. Amongst other things, he devised a system for the classification of neurons on the basis of axonal distribution, and identified a type ofcell in the cerebellum. He identified and described the malarial cycle in the human. His discoveries were both basic, and rich with therapeutic implications. His remarkable achievements earned him a Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1906. It is enough to open any book of biology or medicine to realizethat Golgi is one of the giants of 19th Century scientific endeavour. Despite this, Golgi remains a relatively unknown figure in the history of neuroscience and cell biology. This long-awaited biography, in a new translation from the Italian, is a fascinating analysis of Golgi's experiments, ideas,and personal life. It will be welcomed by anyone who has ever wondered about this brilliant Italian scientist and his seminal contributions to the fields of neuroscience, cytology and cell biology, pathology, and biochemistry today.