The Human Strategy: An Evolutionary Perspective on Human Anatomy

Paperback | February 8, 2005

byJohn H. Langdon

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The Human Strategy brings a unique and accessible evolutionary approach to the study of human anatomy. Bridging the disciplines of anthropology and biology, it acknowledges that human beings are vertebrates, mammals, and primates, and that the anatomical systems of the human body reflectadaptations from each of these levels of classification. John H. Langdon identifies the significance of those traits that make humans distinct from other vertebrates, exploring adaptations to the musculoskeletal, nervous, and reproductive systems and to systems of homeostasis. He addresses thequestion: "What functions are represented in the body structure and what history lies behind them?" Framing the answers in terms of physiological goals, functional adaptation, and evolutionary contingency, he covers both soft- and hard-tissue systems. Langdon considers how behavioral changes in ourancestors--bipedalism and a changing diet that incorporated meat--relate to anatomical changes in nearly every organ system and contributed to expansion of the brain, a higher energy budget, and a prolongation of life history. Integrating the most recent research in the field, The Human Strategy features more than 250 clear and well-labeled illustrations that explain anatomical systems and processes. It includes tables that detail the differences between the major classes of vertebrates, helping students to putevolutionary variations among species in context. A comprehensive glossary and an extensive bibliography are also provided. Ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in human evolutionary anatomy, The Human Strategy can also be used in human anatomy and human evolution courses. Takinga more complete look at the human body in an evolutionary sense than any other existing text--and demonstrating that the human present is best understood in terms of our past--this volume serves as an excellent starting point for discussion, critical thinking, and further research.

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The Human Strategy brings a unique and accessible evolutionary approach to the study of human anatomy. Bridging the disciplines of anthropology and biology, it acknowledges that human beings are vertebrates, mammals, and primates, and that the anatomical systems of the human body reflectadaptations from each of these levels of classifi...

John H. Langdon is at University of Indianapolis.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:384 pages, 7.6 × 9.41 × 0.98 inPublished:February 8, 2005Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:019516735X

ISBN - 13:9780195167351

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Table of Contents

List of Tables: Preface: PART I. INTRODUCTION1. EVOLUTION AND ADAPTATIONWhat Is Evolution?The Theory of EvolutionThe Evidence for EvolutionDarwinism: Evolution by Natural SelectionNatural SelectionEvidence for Natural SelectionThe Origin of Heritable VariationHow Variation Takes FormDifferences in Degree of Development: Differences in Direction of Development: The Limits of Natural SelectionSexual SelectionAdaptationism: An Evolutionary PerspectiveOther Paths to AdaptationImportant Evolutionary Concepts2. A PLACE IN NATURE: HUMANS IN AN EVOLVING WORLDA Place in TimeA Place in Life: Biological ClassificationComparative Background of the Human SpeciesKingdom AnimaliaPhylum ChordataSubphylum VertebrataTetrapodsClass MammaliaOrder PrimatesFamily HominidaeThe Emergence of HumansPART II. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM3. BONES, JOINTS, AND MUSCLESStresses and StrainsCartilageBoneDevelopment and Growth of BoneRemodeling of BoneAdaptations of Mammalian BoneLigament and TendonJointsAccessory and Conjunct MotionsMuscleConcepts of Functional DesignReduction of MassEnergetic Efficiency4. THE SKULLThe Human SkullEvolution of the Mammalian SkullOrigins of the Vertebrate CraniumMammalian Modifications of the Tetrapod SkullChanges in the Primate SkullThe Primate FaceOrbital Convergence: Shortening the Face: The Cranial VaultBrowridges: Basicranial Flexion: Mechanics of Head BalanceJawsThe Mandibular Symphysis and the ChinThe Australopithecine Chewing ComplexThe Problem of Skeletal and Dental Reduction5. TEETHTooth DevelopmentEvolution of Vertebrate TeethOrigins of TeethMammalian Dental AdaptationsThe Tribosphenic MolarHominin TeethDental FormulaeAnterior DentitionPosterior DentitionThe Dental Arcade and the Chewing CycleHominin Enamel AdaptationsDental Adaptations of the NeanderthalsModern Trends and Variations in Human Dentition6. THE SPINEStages in the Evolution of Vertebrate Body DesignFishEarly TetrapodsMammalsStructure of the Human Vertebral ColumnIntervertebral JointsRegions of the Human SpineCurvatures of the SpineFossil EvidenceMusculature of the Trunk7. THE UPPER LIMBEvolution of the ForelimbThe Origin of Tetrapod LimbsThe Mammalian ForelimbHominoid AdaptationsThe Pectoral GirdleThe ElbowHandsKnuckle-WalkingHuman HandsAdaptations for ManipulationEvolution of the ThumbFossil Tool-Makers?8. THE LOWER LIMBThe PelvisAdaptations of the Hip Joint for BipedalismThe ThighThe KneeAdaptations of the Knee for BipedalismThe LegThe Ankle and FootThe Bones of the FootThe ToesEvolutionary Trends in Ankle and Foot MusculatureThe Longitudinal Arch of the FootConversion Mechanism of the FootSupport for the ArchFunction of the Longitudinal ArchFunctional Variation in the Design of the Arch9. THE HUMAN STRATEGY: BIPEDALISMThe Transition to BipedalismThe Pelvis and HipThe KneeThe FootThe Australopithecine BodyAfter the AustralopithecinesThe Adaptive Significance of BipedalismHistorical Speculations Concerning the Origin of BipedalismThe Problem with Cultural ModelsReconstructing the TransitionPART III. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM10. ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAINInitial Development of Nervous SystemGeneral Anatomy of the BrainThe BrainstemThe ForebrainDiencephalon: Cerebrum: Functional Organization of the BrainSpecific and Nonspecific ProjectionsConsciousnessFunctional LocalizationSomatotopic OrganizationPhylogenetic LayeringThe Motor SystemDecussationFunctional LateralizationLanguage and LateralizationThe Evolution of Language and LateralizationLateralization in Primates: Evidence of Language in Nonhuman Primates: Fossil Evidence for Language: Integration with Other SystemsThe Neuroendocrine SystemThe Autonomic Nerves: The Neuroendocrine Axis: Neuroendocrine Integration: The Stress Response: Integration with the Immune SystemIntegration with Consciousness: The Limbic SystemEmotions: The Reward System: Memory: 11. THE HUMAN STRATEGY: BRAIN SIZEComparing BrainsThe Relation of Brain and Body SizeBrain Size and FunctionThe Rate of Hominin Brain EvolutionSelecting for Brain SizeThe Social ModelDietary ModelsMetabolic Needs: Environmental ModelsOvercoming ConstraintsSelecting for Reorganization and New AbilitiesDevelopmental PossibilitiesQualitative Differences in Function12. THE SPECIAL SENSESOlfactionCentral PathwaysThe Evolution of SmellThe Vomeronasal OrganTasteVisionFrontally Directed VisionPhotoreceptors and Color VisionEvolution of Vision in the BrainEquilibriumHearingThe Outer and Middle EarsThe Evolution of the EarPART IV. SYSTEMS OF HOMEOSTASIS13. SKINThe Anatomy of SkinThe EpidermisThe DermisThe HypodermisDifferences among VertebratesGetting a Grip: Fingerprints and NailsFriction Pads and FingerprintsNailsHairHair ReductionGlands of the SkinApocrine GlandsEccrine GlandsSweat and Hair Reduction as a Human Strategy for ThermoregulationA Problem of FatFat as InsulationFat Is an Adaptation for the BrainExplaining Human Skin PigmentationMelanin and PhotoprotectionThe Vitamin D HypothesisOther Hypotheses of Human PigmentationMore PigmentsHair and Eye Color: Melanin in Other Tissues: Genetics of Skin Pigmentation14. DIGESTION AND DIETA Natural DietThe Digestive SystemThe Coelom and the PeritoneumTissue Structure of the Alimentary CanalOrgans of the Digestive TractThe Start of the Canal: Esophagus: Stomach: Small Intestine: Accessory Glands: Colon: Reconstructing the Diet of Early HomininsThe Evidence of Dental AnatomyThe Evidence of Dental MicrowearBone Composition and DietArchaeological Evidence of Meat ConsumptionAnd Other Evidence. . .Later HomininsA Backward Look from the PresentModern Hunter-Gatherer DietFeeding the BrainAnatomical AdaptationsFrugivory, Carnivory, OmnivoryRecent Changes in Diet and Health15. RESPIRATIONEvolution of Vertebrate BreathingThe Problem of Gas Exchange and TransportGillsLungs and Swim BladdersBreathing in Simple TetrapodsBreathing in MammalsMechanics of Human RespirationFunctional Specializations of the Human Respiratory TractThe Nasal PassagesThe PharynxThe LarynxThe Evolution of SpeechClimatic Adaptations16. CIRCULATIONThe HeartThe Chambered HeartStructure and Function of the Human HeartEvolution of Vertebrate CirculationCirculation through GillsCirculation through LungsHuman Ontogeny Recapitulating PhylogenyThe Fetal Circulation Pattern: Changes at Birth: Circulation and ThermoregulationCountercurrent Exchanges: Maintaining a Temperature DifferentialCooling the Body: Regulating Cutaneous Blood FlowCooling the Brain17. EXCRETIONEvolution of the Vertebrate KidneyThe Vertebrate NephronVertebrate StrategiesKidneys of Simple VertebratesThe Mammalian KidneyThe Concentration of UrineHuman Water Balance18. THE HUMAN STRATEGY: ENERGY FLOW, HOMEOSTASIS, AND ENDURANCELimitations on Energy ProcessingEndurance Requires EnergyEnergy and Oxygen ConsumptionManaging HeatThe Significance of Body Size and FormBody Form and Climate AdaptationThe Human StrategyPART V. REPRODUCTION19. REPRODUCTIONThe Origin of Sexual ReproductionGametes and the Basis of Sexual SelectionDimorphism and Secondary Sexual CharacteristicsVertebrate Reproductive StrategiesMammalian StrategiesMenstruation: The Placenta: Labor and DeliveryLabor: A Positive Feedback Mechanism: The Anatomy of Delivery: The Evolution of BirthLactation and the BreastThe Composition of MilkBreasts and the Female FigureBreasts as Erotic AttractorsBreasts as AdvertisementsBreasts as Deceitful AdvertisementsThe Problem of Gender Recognition20. SEX AND HUMAN EVOLUTIONSexuality and Mating among the ApesTwo Adaptationist ModelsThe Pair-Bond Model: The Promiscuity Model: Contrasting the Models: Sexual Selection in the Human SpeciesSexual Dimorphism in Body SizeEvidence for Sexual Selection of MenSexual Selection and Genital Size: Sperm Competition: Evidence for Sexual Selection among WomenSexual Selection and Contemporary Mate SelectionWomen: Choosing Status: Men: Choosing Reproductive Potential: Support for the Pair-Bond ModelHuman Sexual BehaviorThe Problem of EstrusIs Ovulation Concealed?: The Pleasure of SexThe Obscuring of Estrus: Support for the Promiscuity Model?Human Mating Systems Are FlexibleConclusions21. THE HUMAN STRATEGY: LIFE HISTORYThe r and K StrategiesTrendsHuman Life HistoryStages of Life HistoryFetal Life: Infancy and Nursing: Juvenile Life and Childhood: Subadults and Maturity: Postreproductive Life: Longevity and Evolution of the Modern Life SpanDental Maturation in Early Hominins: Foraging, Energy, and SocietyGlossary: Bibliography: Index: