The Income Tax; A Study Of The History, Theory And Practice Of Income Taxation At Home And Abroad

Paperback | January 31, 2012

byEdwin Robert Anderson Seligman

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1911. Excerpt: ... payer's income in the Springer case was derived consisted of personalty. The court accordingly now held in the first of the Pollock cases that since a tax on land is a direct tax, a tax on the income from land must also be direct; and in the second case they held that a tax on income not only from real estate, but also from personal property, was a direct tax, and since it is impracticable to differentiate income from property from other incomes, the whole income tax, constituting an entire scheme of taxation, is invalid. Both of these decisions were made by a divided court, the final judgment being rendered by a bare majority of five to four. This was in marked distinction to the earlier cases, in all of which the judges had been unanimous. It is but natural, therefore, that so close a decision should arouse widespread comment and much criticism. We shall hence, perhaps, be pardoned if we undertake to examine the whole question afresh from the historical and economic points of view; for the legal problem resolves itself into the question of what was actually meant by the term "direct taxes"; and that is at once an historical and an economic question. In order to answer this question, we must consider several points. First, what is the economic meaning of the words "direct tax," and what light does the answer throw upon the constitutional interpretation? Secondly, what was the origin of the direct-tax clause, and why was it adopted? Thirdly, what did the framers of the constitution mean by the term "direct tax"? And fourthly, what has the Supreme Court really held as to the meaning of the term, and to what extent are its decisions justifiable? § 2. The Economic Meaning of "Direct Tar." The words "direct" and "indirect" taxes are of comparatively rece...

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1911. Excerpt: ... payer's income in the Springer case was derived consisted of personalty. The court accordingly now held in the first of the Po...

Format:PaperbackDimensions:250 pages, 9.69 × 7.44 × 0.53 inPublished:January 31, 2012Publisher:General Books LLCLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0217118135

ISBN - 13:9780217118132

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