In this unique exploration of Nietzsche's life and behavior, Dr. Richard Schain challenges the widely held view that this important philosopher's actions and erratic writings were due to general paresis, or syphilis of the brain. The author offers a detailed biography of Nietzsche's life, at each major turning point offering his own thoughts regarding why the diagnosis of syphilis is unsatisfactory to explain Nietszche's behavioral and thought patterns. With an accessible writing style and close attention to detail, Schain offers important reasons for one to reevaluate the claims made regarding Nietzsche's mental illness. Schain also explores another common diagnosis, namely, that of schizophrenia. While this diagnosis, seems more plausible than that of general paresis, it is still inadequate to fully explain the aberrant behavior and eventual mental deterioration of one of the leading Western philosophers of our time. By examining Nietzsche's life and challenging the medical opinions of the time, Schain lays the foundation for rigorous reexamination of the diagnoses of both general paresis and schizophrenia as causes for Nietzsche's actions, thoughts, and philosophies.