The Many Faces of Imitation in Language Learning by Gisela E. SpeidelThe Many Faces of Imitation in Language Learning by Gisela E. Speidel

The Many Faces of Imitation in Language Learning

byGisela E. SpeidelEditorKeith E. Nelson

Paperback | October 31, 2012

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In this book we take a fresh look at imitation. With the knowledge of some 20 years of research after Chomsky's initial critique of the behavioristic approach to language learning, it is time to explore imitation once again. How imitation is viewed in this book has changed greatly since the 1950s and can only be under­ stood by reading the various contributions. This reading reveals many faces, many forms, many causes, and many functions of imitation-cognitive, social, information processing, learning, and biological. Some views are far removed from the notion that an imitation must occur immediately or that it must be a per­ fect copy of an adult sentence. But the essence of the concept of imitation is retained: Some of the child's language behavior originates as an imitation of a prior model. The range of phenomena covered is broad and stimulating. Imitation's role is discussed from infancy on through all stages of language learning. Individual differences among children are examined in how much they use imitation, and in what forms and to what purposes they use it. The forms and functions of parent imitation of their child are considered. Second-language learning is studied alongside first-language learning. The juxtaposition of so many views and facets of imitation in this book will help us to study the commonalities as well as differences of various forms and functions of imitative language and will help us to discern the further dimensions along which we must begin to differentiate imitation.
Title:The Many Faces of Imitation in Language LearningFormat:PaperbackDimensions:342 pagesPublished:October 31, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:1461269830

ISBN - 13:9781461269830

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Table of Contents

1 A Fresh Look at Imitation in Language Learning.- 1.1 A Brief Overview of This Book.- 1.2 The "New Look" for Imitation.- 1.2.1 Imitation: A Complex Behavior.- 1.2.2 Imitation and Observational Learning.- 1.2.3 Child and Adult Imitation.- 1.2.4 Multiple Dimensions of Imitation.- 1.2.4.1 Time Interval Between the Model and the Imitation.- 1.2.4.2 Accuracy of the Match Between Model and Reproduction.- 1.2.5 Developmental Changes in Imitation.- 1.2.6 Biological Foundations of Imitation.- 1.2.7 Sources of Individual Differences in Imitativeness and Imitation Skill.- 1.2.8 Verbal Imitativeness and Language Acquisition Rate.- 1.2.9 Imitation and Memory.- 1.3 Specific Contributions of Children's Imitations to the Children's Language Growth.- 1.3.1 The Past.- 1.3.2 The Future.- 1.4 Specific Contributions of Adult Imitations to Children's Language Growth.- 1.5 The Need for Differentiation: Intents, Processes, and Impacts.- 1.6 A Final Word.- Acknowledgment.- References.- 2 On Linking Nonverbal Imitation, Representation, and Language Learning in the First Two Years of Life.- 2.1 Deferred Imitation: A Statement of the Problem.- 2.2 Deferred Imitation of Object-Related Acts in 1- to 2-Year-Old Infants.- 2.3 Deferred Imitation in 9-Month-Old Infants.- 2.4 Long Term Memory and Imitation: Novel Acts and Multiple Stimuli.- 2.5 Newborn Imitation of Primary Actions: Roots of Sociality, Reciprocity, and Communication.- 2.6 Connections Among Deferred Imitation, Representation, and Language Learning.- 2.6.1 Deferred Imitation as a Mechanism for Language Learning.- 2.6.2 Deferred Imitation and Piagetian Theory.- 2.7 On Characterizing the Cognitive-Linguistic Transition at 18 Months of Age: The Shift FromEmpirical RepresentationstoHypothetical Representations.- 2.7.1 Representation and Language at 18 Months.- 2.7.2 Representation, Imitation, and Symbolic Play at 18 Months.- 2.8 Summary and Conclusion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 3 Individual and Dyadic Patterns of Imitation: Cognitive and Social Aspects.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.1.1 Nonverbal Imitation.- 3.1.2 Language Imitation.- 3.2 Method.- 3.2.1 Participants and Procedure.- 3.2.2 Transcription and Coding.- 3.3 Results and Discussion.- 3.3.1 Mothers' and Infants' Spontaneous Imitation.- 3.3.2 Vocal and Verbal Imitation.- 3.3.3 Individual and Dyadic Patterns of Vocal and Verbal Imitation.- 3.3.4 Social and Cognitive Functions of Vocal and Verbal Imitation.- 3.4 Conclusion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 4 Imitativeness: A Trait or a Skill?.- 4.1 The Study.- 4.1.1 Data Collection.- 4.1.2 Coding.- 4.2 Results.- 4.2.1 Frequency of Imitations.- 4.2.2 Interrelations Among Types of Imitations.- 4.2.3 Imitations at 14 and 20 Months.- 4.2.4 Imitativeness and Language Development.- 4.2.5 Performance on Articulation Task.- 4.3 Conclusion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 5 Imitation in Mother-Child Conversations: A Focus on the Mother.- 5.1 Imitation in Early Interactions.- 5.2 Method.- 5.2.1 Subjects.- 5.2.2 Procedure.- 5.2.3 Coding.- 5.2.3.1 Self-Repetition.- 5.2.3.2 Pragmatic Functions.- 5.3 Results.- 5.3.1 Prevalence of Specific Imitation Categories.- 5.3.2 Correlation Between Maternal Imitation and Child Language.- 5.3.3 Relationship Between Mother and Child Imitation.- 5.3.4 Pragmatic Function of Maternal Imitation.- 5.4 Discussion.- 5.5 Interaction and Conversation.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 6 Bidirectional Effects of Imitation and Repetition in Conversation: A Synthesis Within a Cognitive Model.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.1.1 Repetitive Sequences in Conversation.- 6.2 Language as a Cognitive Process.- 6.2.1 Development of Automatic Processing Procedures.- 6.3 Imitation and Repetition in Conversation.- 6.3.1 Sources of Imitation and Repetition: Priming and Rote.- 6.3.2 Adult Self-Repetition.- 6.3.3 Children's Imitations.- 6.4 The Developmental Nature of Children's Imitation.- 6.5 The Issue of Negative Evidence.- 6.6 Summary.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 7 Imitation: A Bootstrap for Learning to Speak?.- 7.1 The Model.- 7.1.1 Language Has a Significant Motor Component.- 7.1.2 Comprehension and Speaking: Related but Separate Processes.- 7.1.3 Development of Comprehension and Speaking.- 7.1.3.1 Development of Comprehension.- 7.1.3.2 Development of Speaking.- 7.2 Patterns of Activation During Verbal Imitation.- 7.2.1 Pattern 0: Partial Activation of the Speech-Planning Network.- 7.2.2 Pattern 1: Immediate Self-Selected Imitation.- 7.2.2.1 Pattern la: Immediate Reduced Imitation.- 7.2.3 Pattern 2: Immediate Rote Imitation.- 7.2.4 Pattern 3: Deferred Imitation and the Road to Spontaneous Speech.- 7.2.5 Pattern 4: Expanded Immediate Imitation.- 7.2.6 First Word Combinations.- 7.3 Imitation and Articulation.- 7.4 Imitation and the Production of Longer Utterances.- 7.5 Imitation and the Acquisition of Syntactic Speech.- 7.5.1 Bootstrapping Operations.- 7.5.1.1 Chaining.- 7.5.1.2 Insertion.- 7.5.1.3 Replacement/Equivalence.- 7.5.1.4 Sense of Temporal Position.- 7.5.2 Implications and Evidence.- 7.6 Articulation, Imitation Span, and Syntactic Development.- 7.7 Conclusion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 8 Imitation and the Construction of Long Utterances.- 8.1 A Model of Language Comprehension and Production.- 8.2 Implications of the Network Model for Imitation.- 8.3 A Limited-Capacity Processing System and Implications for Imitation.- 8.4 Framework of the Study.- 8.5 Method.- 8.5.1 Subjects.- 8.5.1.1 Low-MLU Group.- 8.5.1.2 High-MLU Group.- 8.5.2 Setting.- 8.5.3 Analysis of Long Utterances.- 8.5.4 Coding.- 8.5.4.1 Similarity.- 8.5.4.2 Elapsed Time.- 8.6 Results.- 8.6.1 Are Utterances With Imitation Longer?.- 8.6.2 Imitation and Very Long Utterances.- 8.6.3 Do High-and Low-MLU Groups Use Different Amounts of Imitation.- 8.7 Discussion and Conclusion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 9 A Biological Basis for Individual Differences in Learning to Speak?.- 9.1 Hypothesis.- 9.2 Medical History.- 9.3 Language Development.- 9.3.1 Case-History Observations.- 9.3.1.1 Early Language Development: Ages 7 Months to 2 Years.- 9.3.1.2 Age 2 to 4 Years.- 9.3.1.3 Age 5 to 7 Years.- 9.3.1.4 Visits to Germany.- 9.3.2 Speech Samples.- 9.4 Language and Cognitive Test Data.- 9.4.1 Cognitive Ability Tests.- 9.4.2 Language Tests.- 9.4.3 Memory Tests.- 9.4.3.1 Repetition of Unrelated Words.- 9.4.3.2 Digit Span.- 9.4.3.3 Paired-Associate Learning.- 9.4.3.4 Visual Memory.- 9.4.4 Summary of Test Findings.- 9.5 Reading Development.- 9.6 Developmental Dysphasia, Short-Term Verbal Memory, and Articulation Problems.- 9.7 Biological Factors in Articulation and Verbal Memory.- 9.8 Putting Together the Pieces of the Puzzle.- 9.9 Factors Affecting Learning to Speak.- 9.10 Conclusion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 10 The Phylogenetic Processes of Verbal Language Imitation.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Levels of Genetic Analysis.- 10.3 Overview.- 10.4 Vocal Mimicry in Subhuman Species.- 10.5 Phylogenesis, Language, and Behaviorism.- 10.6 Neoteny.- 10.7 Relevant Data From the Study of Early Language Development.- 10.8 Arguments by Analogy: Imitation of Facial Expressions and Gestures.- 10.9 Critical Period, Imitation, and Language Learning.- 10.10 Conclusions.- References.- 11 Observational Learning and Language Acquisition: Principles of Learning, Systems, and Tasks.- 11.1 Learning Principles.- 11.1.1 Associative Principles.- 11.1.1.1 Attention.- 11.1.1.2 Value.- 11.1.1.3 Informativeness.- 11.1.1.4 Frequency.- 11.1.2 Operant Principles.- 11.1.2.1 Information Function of Reinforcement.- 11.1.2.2 Motivation Function of Reinforcement.- 11.1.2.3 Practice Function of Reinforcement.- 11.2 System Variables.- 11.2.1 Child Effects on Adult Behavior.- 11.2.2 Developmental Level and Forms of Stimulation.- 11.2.3 Developmental Level, Rule Knowledge, and Strategy Use.- 11.3 Task Variables.- 11.3.1 Reception and Expression.- 11.3.1.1 Variables in Reception and Expression.- 11.4 Final Discussion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 12 The Fuzzy Set Called "Imitations".- 12.1 A Set-Theoretical Conceptualization of Imitation.- 12.1.1 Perceptual Learning.- 12.1.2 Learning Through Doing.- 12.1.3 Observational Learning.- 12.1.4 The Overlapping Sets.- 12.2 Developmental and Process-Based Aspects of Imitation.- 12.2.1 Changes in the Product.- 12.2.2 Changes in the Process.- 12.3 Major Dimensions of Imitation.- 12.3.1 The Temporal Dimension.- 12.3.2 The Similarity Dimension.- 12.3.2.1 Subsets Varying in Degree of Similarity.- 12.3.2.2 Minimal Matching.- 12.3.2.3 Subsets of Imitation Seen in Interactional Perspective.- 12.4 Summary and Discussion.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 13 Implications for Language Acquisition Models of Childrens' and Parents' Variations in Imitation.- 13.1 How Extensive Are Individual Differences in Children's Imitation in the First 60 Months of Life?.- 13.2 How Do Imitations Directly Affect Immediate and Subsequent Information Processing by the Child9.- 13.3 How Do Children's Imitations Indirectly Affect the Information Available to the Child and How the Child Processes This Information?.- 13.4 How Do Differences in Temperament Between Children Relate to Imitative Differences in Children's Language Behavior').- 13.5 How Can a Process-Oriented Model Incorporate Imitative and Temperament Differences Between Children?.- 13.6 How Extensive Are Parental Individual Differences in Language Imitation When Their Children Are Developing During the First 60 Months of Life?.- 13.7 How Do Parental Differences in Various Forms of Imitation Affect the Child's Immediate and Subsequent Information Processing of Language Examples?.- 13.8 How Do Parental Variations in Imitations Affect the Child's Temperament and the Child's Own Imitative Tendencies?.- 13.9 How Can a Process-Oriented Model Incorporate Parental Differences in Various Kinds of Imitations of Utterances?.- 13.10 Conclusions.- Acknowledgments.- References.- Author Index.