The Microflora of Lakes and Its Geochemical Activity by S. I. KuznetsovThe Microflora of Lakes and Its Geochemical Activity by S. I. Kuznetsov

The Microflora of Lakes and Its Geochemical Activity

byS. I. KuznetsovEditorCarl H. Oppenheimer

Paperback | February 15, 2012

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The geochemical processes that take place in water bodies do not stem entirely from the activity of bacteria, but are also determined by the biological activity of higher plants and animals. The Microflora of Lakes and Its Geochemical Activity, the first English translation of the work of S. I. Kuznetsov, renowned Soviet microbiologist, is a detailed description of these processes.

The Microflora of Lakes opens with a complete outline of the ecology and physical and chemical properties of water bodies and a discussion of the entire complex of hydrobionts, since these factors exert tremendous influence on the microbial population. The work then focuses on the principles of the morphology and physiology of the living cell, background knowledge essential to the understanding of the role of microorganisms in the chemical cycle. Having laid the groundwork for the discussion, Kuznetsov follows with chapters on the distribution of bacteria and transformations of organic matter in lakes. He then examines the role of bacteria in the oxygen regime, and the cycles of organic matter, nitrogen, sulfur, iron, manganese and phosphorus. The last chapter describes the role of microorganisms in sediments of calcium carbonate waters.

The Microflora of Lakes and Its Geochemical Activity provides a wealth of information on the microbial limnology of fresh-water lakes throughout the world, particularly in the Soviet Union. As a summary of the geochemical activities as related to the geographic, geological, and physical relationships of fresh-water lakes, it is a monumental study.

The Microflora of Lakes was translated for the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations in Jerusalem.

S. I. Kuznetsov (1900–1987) was chief of the Department of Geochemical and Water Microbiology at the Institute of Microbiology of Academic Sciences of the USSR. He wrote numerous publications on water microbiology and limnology. Carl H. Oppenheimer (1921–2007), who edited the translation of Kuznetsov’s work, was a professor at the Ma...
Title:The Microflora of Lakes and Its Geochemical ActivityFormat:PaperbackDimensions:520 pages, 10 × 7 × 1 inPublished:February 15, 2012Publisher:University Of Texas PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0292741243

ISBN - 13:9780292741249

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Table of Contents

  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Elements of Limnology as Environmental Factors in the Development of Microorganisms in Lakes
    • Hydrological Elements of Lake-Type Water Bodies
      • Origin of a water body
        • Lakes formed by tectonic activity. Lakes associated with volcanic activity, situated in craters or calderas. Lakes formed by mountain landslides. Glacial lakes. Sink lakes. River or oxbow lakes. Lakes situated in the marginal zone of seas or large lakes. Man-made lakes or artificial reservoirs. Lakes formed in meteorite craters.
      • Sources of water supply to the lake
      • Thermal regime of the lake
        • Density of water. Spring circulation. Summer stagnation and thermocline formation. Fall circulation. Winter stagnation. Thermal stratification of lakes.
      • Optic properties of the water
        • Turbidity of lake water. Color of lake water. Transparency of water. Penetration of light into the lake.
    • Basic Hydrochemistry of Lakes
      • Salt composition of the water
      • Dissolved gases
      • Active acidity
      • Oxidation-reduction potential of lake water
      • Organic matter in the water mass of lakes
    • Lake Silts and Their Physical-Chemical Characteristics
      • Terminology and classification of lake sediments
      • Microzonal theory of silt structure
      • Geographic zonality of lake sediments
      • Thermal relationships of silt sediments
      • Chemical composition of silt sediments
        • Composition of organic matter. Forms of nitrogen in silt sediments. Mineral composition of silt sediments. Electric conductivity of the silt solution.
      • Oxidation-reduction potential of silt sediments
    • Classification of Lakes according to Their Trophic Conditions
  • Principles of the Morphology and Physiology of the Living Cell
    • Basic Features of the Cell of the Living Organism
      • DNA and RNA
        • The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule. Replication of DNA. the ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecule. Distribution of DNA in cells.
      • Composition of the cytoplasm
      • Nutrition of the cell
      • Structure of the plant cell
        • Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Chromosomes. Nucleolus. Nuclear membrane. Locomotor organelles.
    • Morphology of the Bacterial Cell
      • Chemical composition of the bacterial cell
      • Structure of the bacterial cell
        • Protoplast. Cytoplasmic membrane. Cytoplasmic inclusions. Nucleus or chromatin body. Flagella. Endospores.
    • General Physiology of Bacteria
      • Growth, reproduction, and death of bacteria
        • The process of cell production. Vegetative reproduction of bacteria. Reproduction and death of bacteria.
      • Enzymes and their role as carriers of energy
        • The nature of enzymes. Factors affecting the activity of enzymes. Enzymes and the live cell. Specificity of enzymes. Inductive and constitutive enzymes. Reversibility of enzyme action. Nomenclature, classification, and activity of enzymes.
      • Classification of bacteria on the basis of their nutrition and energy supply
      • Sources and carriers of energy in microorganisms
        • Chemically bound energy. Coupling of reactions. High-energy compounds.
      • Biological oxidation as a source of energy in the heterotrophic mode of life
        • Respiration as biological oxidation. Pasteur effect. Mechanism of the formation of energy-rich phosphorus compounds. Phosphorylation on substrate level. Oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative assimilation. Other hydrogen acceptors.
      • Development involving the utilization of bound oxygen
        • Organisms capable of utilizing both free and bound oxygen. Anaerobic respiration. Fermentation.
      • Dissimilation
        • Dissimilation of carbohydrates. Mechanism of the oxidation of organic compounds in the process of respiration. Aerobic oxidation of pyruvic acid (respiration process) - Krebs cycle. Anaerobic breakdown (fermentation) of pyruvic acid.
      • Assimilation in microorganisms and the role of CO2 in the process
        • Growth factors. Synthesis of polysaccharides. Synthesis of fatty acids. Synthesis of proteins.
      • Sources of energy in autotrophic bacteria
        • General scheme of energy transfer. Bacterial photosynthesis. Mechanism of CO2 fixation. General scheme of anabolism in chemosynthetic organisms.
  • Distribution of Bacteria in Lakes
    • Specific Composition and Density of Aquatic Bacteria
      • Specific composition of the bacterial population of lakes
      • The total amount of microorganisms in lake water
      • The total amount of microorganisms in lake silts
      • Characteristics of the aquatic microflora that can be detected only at very high magnification
    • Factors Affecting the Growth of Bacteria
      • The effect of organic compounds
      • The effect of sunlight on the distribution of bacteria in lakes
      • The effect of temperature
      • The effect of the zooplankton on the density of bacteria in lakes
      • Relationships between the phytoplankton and the aquatic microflora
  • Transformations of Organic Matter in Lakes
    • The Origin of Organic Matter in Lakes
      • Photosynthesis by the phytoplankton
      • Photosynthesis by pigmented sulfur bacteria
      • Chemosynthetic production of organic matter in lakes
      • Production of bacterial biomass from organic compounds dissolved in the water
    • Mineralization of Organic Matter in Lakes
      • Microbiology of cellulose
        • Aerobic mesophilic organisms that attack cellulose. Anaerobic mesophilic microflora that attack cellulose. Methane-producing bacteria.
      • Hydrogen bacteria
      • Methane-oxidizing bacteria
      • Bacterial oxidation of hydrocarbons
      • Microbiology of hemicellulose
      • Microbiology of chitin
      • Microbiology of lignin
      • Microbiological breakdown of humic compounds
      • Less known organisms participating in the mineralization of organic matter in water bodies
        • Stalked microorganisms of the order Caulobacteriales. the order of budding bacteria - Hyphomicrobiales. Predatory bacteria.
    • Degradation of Organic Matter in Lakes
      • Degradation of organic matter in the water mass of lakes
      • Breakdown of organic matter suspended in the water mass of lakes
      • Decay of the higher aquatic vegetation
      • Decomposition of organic matter in silt
        • Anaerobic breakdown of hydrocarbons with the production of gases. Anaerobic breakdown of hemicelluloses and sugars. Anaerobic breakdown of cellulose. Anaerobic breakdown of fatty acids. Fermentation of silt by pure bacterial cultures. Breakdown of the bituminous fraction of organic matter. Vertical range of active breakdown of organic matter in silt.
      • Causes of the localization of the gas-yielding breakdown of organic matter in the deep part of the basin of eutrophic lakes
    • Scheme of Carbon Cycle in Lakes
  • Microbiological Processes Associated with Oxygen Dynamics in Water Bodies
    • Characteristic Types of the Vertical Distribution of Oxygen in Lakes during the Summer and Their Nomenclature
    • Oxygen Dynamics of Lakes and Associated Factors
      • Entry of oxygen into lakes
      • Oxygen consumption in lakes
        • Consumption of oxygen for the oxidation of organic compounds dissolved in the water. Consumption of oxygen by silt and its effect on the overall dynamics of oxygen in lakes. Consumption of oxygen in the water mass of the lake for respiration of the zooplankton and phytoplankton. the contribution of bacterial respiration to the total consumption of oxygen in the water mass of the lake. Consumption of dissolved oxygen for bacterial respiration. Consumption of oxygen for the biological oxidation of methane and hydrogen liberated from the lake bottom.
      • Effect of the biological oxidation of ferrous salts on the oxygen regime of lakes
      • Effect of the biological oxidation of hydrogen sulfide on the oxygen regime of lakes
  • The Nitrogen Cycle in Lakes
    • Morphology and Special Physiology of Microorganisms Participating in the Nitrogen Cycle
      • Nitrogen fixation
        • Azotobacter. Clostridium pasteurianum. Blue-green algae as nitrogen-fixing agents. Other organisms capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Mechanism of nitrogen fixation.
      • Mineralization of organic nitrogen
        • Decomposition of proteins. Dissimilation of amino acids. Mechanism of mineralization of organic nitrogen.
      • Nitrifying bacteria
        • Nitrosomonas. Nitrobacter. Cultural characteristics of nitrifying bacteria.
      • Bacteria that produce free nitrogen
        • Denitrifying bacteria. the mechanism of denitrification.
    • Microbiological Processes of the Nitrogen Cycle in Lakes
      • Fixation of free nitrogen
      • Conversions of one form of nitrogen to another
        • Assimilation of inorganic nitrogen. Ammonification. Nitrification.
      • Losses of molecular nitrogen
    • Scheme of the Nitrogen Cycle in Lakes
  • The Sulfur Cycle in Lakes
    • Hydrochemical and Hydrographical Characteristics of Lakes in Terms of Their Sulfate and Sulfide Content
      • Freshwater hornomictic lakes
        • Lakes poor in sulfate. Lakes with a high sulfate content.
      • Freshwater meromictic lakes with a high sulfate content
      • Salt lakes situated in humid regions and connected with the sea
      • Lakes situated in arid regions and directly linked with the sea
    • Morphology and Special Physiology of Microorganisms that Participate in the Sulfur Cycle
      • Assimilation of sulfur compounds
      • Reduction of sulfate
        • Microorganisms that reduce sulfate. Mechanism of sulfate reduction.
      • Oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds
        • Thiobacillaceae. Mixotrophic strains of Thiobacillaceae. Colorless sulfur bacteria. Filamentous sulfur bacteria. Unicellular colorless sulfur bacteria. Purple sulfur bacteria, Thiorhodaceae. Green sulfur bacteria, Chlorobacteriaceae. Purple nonsulfur bacteria, Athiorhodaceae.
    • Microbiological Processes of the Sulfur Cycle in Lakes
      • Putrefaction of organic materials
      • The role of microorganisms in the reduction of sulfate
        • Distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria in different biotopes. Rate of sulfate reduction.
      • The role of microorganisms in the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds
        • Distribution of sulfur bacteria in natural waters. Distribution of Thiobacillaceae in natural waters. Rate of the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide by Thiobacillaceae and pigmented sulfur bacteria.
    • The Sulfur Cycle in Lakes
  • The Iron and Manganese Cycles in Lakes
    • Hydrochemical and Hydrographical Characterization of Lakes on the Basis of Their Iron and Manganese Content
    • Morphology and Special Physiology of the Microorganisms that Participate in the Iron and Manganese Cycles
      • Microorganisms that reduce compounds of oxidized iron and manganese
      • Microorganisms that precipitate iron and manganese compounds from the solution
        • Main species of iron bacteria capable of autotrophic life. Biogenic oxidation of manganous compounds.
      • Heterotrophic and mixotrophic organisms that deposit iron and manganese hydroxides
        • Filamentous iron bacteria. Unicellular iron bacteria. Heterotrophic and mixotrophic bacteria that oxidize manganese compounds.
      • Microorganisms that utilize the organic component of iron humates
    • Distribution of Iron Bacteria in Lakes
    • Role of Microorganisms in the Formation of Iron and Manganese Lake Ores
      • Distribution of microorganisms that reduce iron and manganese compounds in silt
      • Role of microorganisms in the formation of iron-manganese concretions
      • Scheme of the biogenic formation of manganese lake ore
    • Scheme of the Cycles of Iron and Manganese in Lakes
  • The Phosphorus Cycle in Lakes
    • Hydrochemical and Hydrographical Characteristics of the Distribution of Phosphorus in Lakes
      • Composition of organic phosphorus compounds
      • Composition of inorganic phosphorus compounds
      • Vertical distribution of inorganic phosphorus during the summer stagnation in lakes of different types
      • Annual dynamics of the total and inorganic phosphorus in eutrophic lakes
    • Role of Microorganisms in the Phosphorus Cycle of Lakes
      • Mineralization of organic phosphorus compounds
      • Dissolution of iron phosphates precipitated in the silt
      • Dissolution of calcium phosphates
      • Binding of inorganic phosphorus
      • Biological oxidation and reduction of phosphorus
    • Mechanism of the Phosphorus Cycle in Lakes
  • Deposition of Calcium Carbonate in Lakes
    • Conditions of the Deposition of Calcium Carbonate in Lake Silts
    • Role of Microorganisms in the Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate
      • Formation of calcite by microorganisms in laboratory conditions
      • Role of microorganisms in the formation of calcium carbonate sediments in nature
    • Scheme of the Calcium Cycle of Lakes
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography