The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions

Paperback | December 1, 1994

EditorPaul Ekman, Richard J. Davidson

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The editors of this unique volume have selected 24 leading emotion theorists and asked them to address 12 fundamental questions about the subject of emotion. For example; Are there basic emotions? How do you distinguish emotions from moods, temperament, and emotional traits? Can we control ouremotions? Can emotions be non-conscious? What is the relation between emotion and memory? What develops in emotional development? Each chapter addresses a different one of these fundamental questions about emotion, with often divergent answers from several of leading researchers represented here:James Averill, Gordon Bower, Linda Camras, Lee Clark, Gerald Clore, Richard Davidson, Judy Dunn, Paul Ekman, Phoebe Ellsworth, Nico Frijda, Hill Goldsmith, Jeffrey Gray, Carroll Izard, Jerome Kaga, Richard Lazarus, Joseph Le Doux, Robert Levenson, Jaak Panksepp, Mary Rothbart, Klaus Shere, RichardShweder, David Watson, and Robert Zajonc. At the end of each chapter, the editors--Ekman and Davidson--highlight the areas of agreement and disagreement about each of the 12 questions about emotion. In the final chapter, Affective Science: A Research Agenda, the editors describe the research theybelieve would help answer each of the questions. Not a textbook offering a single viewpoint, The Nature of Emotion, uniquely reveals the central issues in emotion research and theory in the words of many of the leading scientists working in the field today. It is ideal for students, researchers, andclinicians interested in emotion.

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The editors of this unique volume have selected 24 leading emotion theorists and asked them to address 12 fundamental questions about the subject of emotion. For example; Are there basic emotions? How do you distinguish emotions from moods, temperament, and emotional traits? Can we control ouremotions? Can emotions be non-conscious? Wh...

Dr. Paul Ekman, Ph.D. is Professor of Psychology at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Richard J. Davidson, Ph.D. is Williams James Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:512 pages, 6.06 × 9.17 × 1.34 inPublished:December 1, 1994Publisher:Oxford University Press

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195089448

ISBN - 13:9780195089448

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Table of Contents

Question 1: Are There Basic Emotions?1.1. James R. Averill: In the Eyes of the Beholder1.2. Paul Ekman: All Emotions are Basic1.3. Jaak Panksepp: The Basics of Basic Emotion1.4. Klaus R. Scherer: Toward a Concept of "Modal Emotions"1.5. Richard A. Shweder: "You're Not Sick, You're Just in Love": Emotion as an Interpretive System1.6. Paul Ekman and Richard J. Davidson: AfterwordQuestion 2: How Do You Distinguish Emotions?2.1. Richard J. Davidson: On Emotion, Mood, and Related Affective Constructs2.2. Paul Ekman: Moods, Emotions, and Traits2.3. Nico H. Frijda: Varieties of Affect: Emotions and Episodes, Moods, and Sentiments2.4. H.H. Goldsmith: Parsing the Emotional Domain from a Developmental Perspective2.5. Jerome Kagan: Distinctions Among Emotions, Moods, an Temperamental Qualities2.6. Richard Lazarus: The Stable and Unstable in Emotion2.7. Jaak Panksepp: Basic Emotions Ramify Widely in the Brain, Yielding Many Concepts That Cannot Be Distinguished Unambiguously...Yet2.8. David Watson and Lee Anna Clark: Emotions, Moods, Traits, and Temperaments: Conceptual Distinctions and Empirical Findings2.9. Richard J. Davidson and Paul Ekman: AfterwordQuestion 3: What Is the Function of Emotions?3.1. James R. Averill: Emotions Are Many Splendored Things3.2. Gerald L. Clore: Why Emotions Are Felt3.3. Nico H. Frijda: Emotions Are Functional, Most of the Time3.4. Robert W. Levenson: Human Emotions: A Functional View3.5. Klaus R. Scherer: A Phylogenetic View3.6. Lee Anna Clark and David Watson: Distinguishing Functional from Dysfunctional Affective Responses3.7. Paul Ekman and Richard J. Davidson: AfterwordQuestion 4: How Do You Explain Evidence of Universals in Antecedents of Emotion?4.1. James R. Averill: It's a Small World, But a Large Stage4.2. Paul Ekman: Antecedent Events and Emotion Metaphors4.3. Phoebe C. Ellsworth: Levels of Thought and Levels of Emotion4.4. Nico H. Frijda: Emotions Require Cognitions, Even if Simple Ones4.5. Richard Lazarus: Universal Antecedents of the Emotions4.6. Klaus R. Scherer: Evidence for Both Universality and Cultural Specificity of Emotion Elicitation4.7. Paul Ekman and Richard J. Davidson: AfterwordQuestion 5: What Are the Minimal Cognitive Prerequisites for Emotion?5.1. Gerald L. Clore: Why Emotions Require Cognition5.2. Phoebe C. Ellsworth: Levels of Thought and Levels of Emotion5.3. Nico H. Frijda: Emotions Require Cognitions, Even if Simple Ones5.4. Carroll E. Izard: Answer--None: Cognition Is One of Four Types of Emotion Activating Systems5.5. Richard Lazarus: Appraisal: The Long and Short of It5.6. Joseph E. LeDoux: Cognitive-Emotional Interactions in the Brain5.7. Jaak Panksepp: A Proper Distinction Between Affective and Cognitive Process Is Essential for Neuroscientific Progress5.8. Klaus R. Scherer: An Emotion's Occurrence Depends of the Relevance of an Event to the Organism's Goal/Need Hierarchy5.9. Paul Ekman and Richard J. Davidson: AfterwordQuestion 6: Is There Emotion-Specific Physiology?6.1. Richard J. Davidson: Complexities in the Search for Emotion-Specific Physiology6.2. Jeffrey A. Gray: Three Fundamental Emotion Systems6.3. Joseph E. LeDoux: Emotion-Specific Physiological Activity: Don't Forget About CNS Physiology6.4. Robert W. Levenson: the Search for Autonomic Specificity6.5. Jaak Panksepp: The Clearest Physiological Distinctions Between Emotions Will Be Found Among the Circuits of the Brain6.6. Richard J. Davidson and Paul Ekman: AfterwordQuestion 7: Can We Control Our Emotions?7.1. James R. Averill: Emotions Unbecoming and Becoming7.2. Joseph E. LeDoux: The Degree of Emotional Control Depends on the Kind of Personal System Involved7.3. Robert W. Levenson: Emotional Control: Variations and Consequences7.4. Paul Ekman and Richard J. Davidson: AfterwordQuestion 8: Can Emotions Be Nonconscious?8.1. Gerald L. Clore: Why Emotions Are Never Unconscious8.2. Joseph E. LeDoux: Emotional Processing, but Not Emotions, Can Occur Unconsciously8.3. R.B. Zajonc: Evidence for Nonconscious Emotions8.4. Richard J. Davidson and Paul Ekman: AfterwordQuestion 9: What Is the Relation Between Emotion and Memory?9.1. Gordon H. Bower: Some Relations Between Emotions and Memory9.2. Richard Lazarus: The Past and the Present in Emotion9.3. Joseph E. LeDoux: Memory Versus Emotional Memory in the Brain9.4. Jaak Panksepp: Subjectivity May Have Evolved in the Brain as a Simple Value-Coding Process That Promotes the Learning of New Behaviors9.5. Richard J. Davidson and Paul Ekman: AfterwordQuestion 10: How Do Individuals Differ in Emotion-Related Activity?10.1. Richard J. Davidson: Honoring Biology in the Study of Affective Style10.2. Jeffrey A. Gray: Personality Dimensions and Emotions Studies10.3. Richard Lazarus: Individualized Differences in Emotion10.4. Mary K. Rothbart: Broad Dimensions of Temperament and Personality10.5. Paul Ekman and Richard J. Davidson: AfterwordQuestion 11: What Develops in Emotional Development?11.1. Linda A. Camras: Two Aspects of Emotional Development: Expression and Elicitation11.2. Judy Dunn: Experience and Understanding of Emotions, Relationships, and Membership in a Particular Culture11.3. Carroll E. Izard: Intersystem Connections11.4. Richard Lazarus: Meaning and Emotional Development11.5. Jaak Panksepp: Lots of "Stuff"...Especially Mind "Stuff" That Emerges from Brain "Stuff"11.6. Mary K. Rothbart: Emotional Development: Changes in Reactivity and Self-Regulation11.7. Richard J. Davidson and Paul Ekman: AfterwordQuestion 12: What Influences the Subjective Experience of Emotion?12.1. James R. Averill: I Feel, Therefore I Am--I Think12.2. Gerald L. Clore: Why Emotions Vary in Intensity12.3. Joseph E. LeDoux: Emotional Experience Is an Output of, Not a Cause of, Emotional Processing12.4. Jaak Panksepp: Evolution Constructed the Potential for Subjective Experience Within the Neurodynamics of the Mammalian Brain12.5. Paul Ekman and Richard J. Davidson: Afterword

Editorial Reviews

"An outstanding text--much more than just a compilation of articles--rich in scope and information, well organized and put together with a fine discussion by the editors at the end of each section."--Philip Very, National-Louis University