The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings

Paperback | July 15, 2011

byBart D. Ehrman

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Featuring vibrant full color throughout, the fifth edition of Bart D. Ehrman's highly successful introduction approaches the New Testament from a consistently historical and comparative perspective, emphasizing the rich diversity of the earliest Christian literature. Distinctive to this studyis its unique focus on the historical, literary, and religious milieux of the Greco-Roman world, including early Judaism. As part of its historical orientation, the book also discusses other Christian writings that were roughly contemporary with the New Testament, such as the Gospel of Thomas, theApocalypse of Peter, and the letters of Ignatius.

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Featuring vibrant full color throughout, the fifth edition of Bart D. Ehrman's highly successful introduction approaches the New Testament from a consistently historical and comparative perspective, emphasizing the rich diversity of the earliest Christian literature. Distinctive to this studyis its unique focus on the historical, liter...

Bart D. Ehrman is the James A. Gray Professor of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has published numerous books and articles, including The Apocryphal Gospels: Texts and Translations (OUP, 2011); A Brief Introduction to the New Testament, Second Edition (OUP, 2010); and Lost Christianities: The Ba...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:608 pages, 7.52 × 9.21 × 0.98 inPublished:July 15, 2011Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

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ISBN - 10:0199757534

ISBN - 13:9780199757534

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Table of Contents

Chapters 2-30 end with Key Terms and Suggestions for Further ReadingBoxesMaps, Time Lines, and DiagramsPreface to the Fourth EditionPreface to the Fifth EditionAcknowledgmentsNotes on Suggestions for Further ReadingCreditsMaster Time Line1. What is the New Testament? The Early Christians and Their LiteratureThe Diversity of Early ChristianityThe New Testament Canon of ScriptureImplications for Our StudyAt a Glance: Box 1.5 The New Testament CanonExcursus: Some Additional Reflections: The Historian and the BelieverTake a Stand2. Do We Have the Original New Testament?Publishing Books: Now and ThenHow Can We Know if We Have an Ancient Author's Actual Words?What Manuscripts of the New Testament Do We Have? The Good News and Bad NewsA Concrete ExampleAccidental MistakesIntentional ErrorsCriteria for Establishing the TextAt a Glance: Box 2.6 The Text of the New TestamentTake a Stand3. The World of Early Christian TraditionsThe Problem of BeginningsOne Remarkable LifeThe Environment of the New Testament: Religions in the Greco-Roman WorldAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 3.3 The Roman EmpireAt a Glance: Box 3.6 The World of Early ChristianityTake a Stand4. The Jewish Context of Jesus and His FollowersJudaism as a Greco-Roman ReligionPolitical Crises in Palestine and Their RamificationsThe Formation of Jewish SectsAt a Glance: Box 4.6 The Jewish World of Early ChristianityTake a Stand5. The Traditions of Jesus in Their Greco-Roman ContextOral Traditions behind the GospelsAt A Glance: Box 5.3 The Traditions of JesusExcursus: Some Additional Reflections: The Authors of the GospelsTake a Stand6. The Christian Gospels: A Literary and Historical IntroductionThe Question of GenreBiography as a Greco-Roman GenreThe Gospels as Ancient BiographiesAt A Glance: Box 6.2 The Christian GospelsTake a Stand7. Jesus, The Suffering Son of God: The Gospel According to MarkThe Beginning of the Gospel: Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God Who Fulfills ScriptureJesus the Authoritative Son of GodJesus the Opposed Son of GodJesus the Misunderstood Son of GodJesus the Acknowledged Son of GodJesus the Suffering Son of GodAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 7.6 Son of God and Son of ManJesus the Crucified Son of GodJesus the Vindicated Son of GodConclusion: Mark and His ReadersAt A Glance: Box 7.8 The Gospel of MarkTake a Stand8. The Synoptic Problem and Its Significance for InterpretationMethods for Studying the GospelsThe Synoptic ProblemThe Methodological Significance of the Four-Source HypothesisAt a Glance: Box 8.3 The Synoptic ProblemTake a Stand9. Jesus, The Jewish Messiah: The Gospel According to MatthewThe Importance of Beginnings: Jesus the Jewish Messiah in Fulfillment of the Jewish ScripturesJesus and His Forerunner from Matthew's PerspectiveThe Portrayal of Jesus in Matthew: The Sermon on the Mount as a SpringboardJesus and the Jewish Cultic Practices Prescribed by the LawJesus Rejected by the Jewish LeadersMatthew and His ReadersAt A Glance: Box 9.6 MatthewTake a Stand10. Jesus, The Savior of the World: The Gospel According to LukeThe Comparative Method and the Gospel of LukeA Comparative Overview of the GospelThe Preface to Luke's GospelLuke's Birth Narrative in Comparative PerspectiveFrom Jew to Gentile: Luke's Portrayal of Jesus the Rejected ProphetLuke's Distinctive Emphases throughout His GospelConclusion: Luke in Comparative PerspectiveAt A Glance: Box 10.7 LukeTake a Stand11. Luke's Second Volume: The Acts of the ApostlesThe Genre of Acts and Its SignificanceThe Thematic Approach to ActsFrom Gospel to Acts: The Opening TransitionThemes in the Speeches in ActsAt A Glance: Box 11.7 The Book of ActsExcursus: The Author of Luke--Acts and His AudienceConclusion: The Author and His Themes in ContextTake a Stand12. Jesus, The Man Sent From Heaven: The Gospel According to JohnThe Gospel of John from a Literary-Historical PerspectiveThe Gospel of John from a Thematic PerspectiveThe Gospel of John from a Comparative PerspectiveThe Gospel of John from a Redactional PerspectiveThe Socio-Historical MethodThe Gospel of John from a Socio-Historical PerspectiveThe Author of the Fourth GospelAt A Glance: Box 12.7 The Gospel of JohnTake a Stand13. From John's Jesus To The Gnostic Christ: The Johannine Epistles and BeyondThe Questions of Genre and AuthorThe New Testament Epistolary Literature and the Contextual MethodAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 13.2 The Gospel and Epistles of John: Some Thematic SimilaritiesThe Johannine Epistles from a Contextual PerspectiveAt a Glance: Box 13.3 Methods for Studying the New TestamentReflections on the Contextual MethodAt a Glance: Box 13.5 The Johannine EpistlesBeyond the Johannine Community: The Rise of Christian GnosticismGnostics and the Johannine CommunityAt a Glance: Box 13.8 GnosticismTake a Stand14. Jesus From Different Perspectives: Other Gospels in Early ChristianityNarrative GospelsSayings GospelsInfancy GospelsPassion GospelsConclusion: The Other GospelsAt a Glance: Box 14.5 The Other GospelsTake a Stand15. The Historical Jesus: Sources, Poblems, and MethodsProblems with SourcesNon-Christian SourcesChristian SourcesUsing Our Sources: Some of the Basic Rules of ThumbSpecific Criteria and Their RationaleAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 15.4 Judas and the Roasting ChickenConclusion: Reconstructing the Life of JesusAt A Glance: Box 15.5 The Sources for the Historical JesusTake a Stand16. Excursus: The Historian and the Problem of MiracleMiracles in the Modern World and in AntiquityThe Historian and Historical MethodAt a Glance: Box 16.1 The Problem of MiraclesTake a Stand17. Jesus in ContextPopular Modes of Resistance to OppressionAn Ideology of ResistanceAt A Glance: Box 17.2 First-Century Palestinian JudaismJesus in His Apocalyptic ContextAt a Glance: Box 17.5 Jesus as an Apocalyptic ProphetTake a Stand18. Jesus, The Apocalyptic ProphetThe Apocalyptic Deeds of JesusThe Apocalyptic Teachings of JesusThe Apocalyptic Death of JesusAt a Glance: Box 18.10 Jesus the Apocalyptic ProphetTake a Stand19. From Jesus to the GospelsThe Beginning of ChristianityJesus' Resurrection from an Apocalyptic PerspectiveJesus' Death, according to the ScripturesThe Emergence of Different Understandings of JesusAt A Glance: Box 19.4 From Jesus to the GospelsTake a Stand20. Paul the Apostle: The Man and His MissionThe Study of Paul: Methodological DifficultiesThe Life of PaulAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 20.3 What Did Paul Look Like?At a Glance: Box 20.5 Paul and His MissionTake a Stand21. Paul and His Apostolic Mission: Thessalonians as a Test CaseThe Founding of the Church in ThessalonicaThe Beginnings of the Thessalonian Church: A Socio-Historical PerspectiveThe Church at Thessalonica after Paul's DepartureConclusion: Paul the ApostleAt a Glance: Box 21.4 1 ThessaloniansTake a Stand22. Paul and the Crises of His Churches: 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, and Philemon1 CorinthiansAt A Glance: Box 22.2 1 Corinthians2 CorinthiansAt A Glance: Box 22.4 2 CorinthiansGalatiansAt A Glance: Box 22.8 GalatiansPhilippiansAt A Glance: Box 22.11 PhilippiansPhilemonAt a Glance: Box 22.12 PhilemonTake a Stand23. The Gospel According to Paul: The Letter to the RomansThe Occasion and Purpose of the LetterThe Theme of the EpistlePauline Models for SalvationThe Flow of Paul's ArgumentConclusion: Paul and the RomansAt A Glance: Box 23.6 RomansTake a Stand24. Does the Tradition Miscarry? Paul in Relation to Jesus, James, Thecla, and TheudasPaul in Relation to What Came BeforePaul in Relation to What Came AfterConclusion: Pauline ChristianitiesAt A Glance: Box 24.3 Paul in Relation to What Came Before and AfterTake a Stand25. In the Wake of the Apostle: The Deutero-Pauline and Pastoral EpistlesPseudonymity in the Ancient WorldThe Deutero-Pauline EpistlesAt a Glance: Box 25.5 The Deutero-Pauline EpistlesThe Pastoral EpistlesThe Historical Situation and Authorship of the Pastoral EpistlesConclusion: The Post-Pauline Pastoral EpistlesAt a Glance: Box 25.7 The Pastoral EpistlesTake a Stand26. From Paul's Female Colleagues to the Pastor's Intimidated Women: The Oppresion of Women in Early ChristianityWomen in Paul's ChurchesWomen Associated with JesusPaul's Understanding of Women in the ChurchWomen in the Aftermath of PaulAncient Ideologies of GenderGender Ideology and the Pauline ChurchesAt A Glance: Box 26.4 Women in Early ChristianityTake a Stand27. Christians and Jews: Hebrews, Barnabas, and Later Anti-Jewish LiteratureEarly Christian Self-DefinitionContinuity and Superiority: The Epistle to the HebrewsAt a Glance: Box 27.3 HebrewsDiscontinuity and Supremacy: The Epistle of BarnabasAt a Glance: Box 27.6 The Epistle of BarnabasConclusion: The Rise of Christian Anti-JudaismTake a Stand28. Christians and Pagans: 1 Peter, The Letters of Ignatius, The Martyrdom of Polycarp, and Later Apologetic LiteratureThe Persecution of the Early ChristiansChristians in a Hostile World: The Letter of 1 PeterAt a Glance: Box 28.3 1 PeterChristians Sentenced to Death: The Letters of IgnatiusAt a Glance: Box 28.5 The Letters of IgnatiusChristians before the Tribunal: The Martyrdom of PolycarpAt a Glance: Box 28.6 The Martyrdom of PolycarpChristians on the Defensive: The Later Apologetic LiteratureTake a Stand29. Christians and Christians: James the Didache, Polycarp, 1 Clement, Jude, and 2 PeterThe Epistle of JamesThe DidachePolycarp's Letter to the PhilippiansJude2 PeterConclusion: Conflicts within the Early Christian CommunitiesAt a Glance: Box 29.5 Christian Internal ConflictsTake a Stand30. Christians and the Cosmos: The Revelation of John, The Shepherd of Hermas, and the Apocalypse of PeterIntroduction: The End of the World and the Revelation of JohnThe Content and Structure of the Book of RevelationThe Book of Revelation from a Historical PerspectiveApocalyptic Worldviews and Apocalypse GenreThe Revelation of John in Historical ContextAt a Glance: Box 30.5 The Book of RevelationThe Shepherd of HermasThe Apocalypse of PeterTake a StandGlossary of TermsIndexBOXES1. Another Glimpse into the Past:Box 1.1 The Canon of ScriptureAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 1.2 The Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old TestamentAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 1.3 The Common Era and Before the Common EraAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 1.4 The Layout of the New TestamentAt a Glance: Box 1.5 The New Testament Canon2. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 2.1 30,000 Variant Readings?!Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 2.2 The Abrupt Ending of the Gospel of MarkAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 2.3 Citing Chapter and VerseAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 2.4 Jesus and the Woman Taken in AdulteryAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 2.5 Is the Doctrine of the Trinity Explicitly Taught in the New Testament?At a Glance: Box 2.6 The Text of the New Testament3. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 3.1 Pagan and GentileAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 3.2 The Greco-Roman WorldAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 3.3 The Roman EmpireWhat Do You Think?: Box 3.4 Divine Rulers as Savior GodsWhat Do You Think?: Box 3.5 Christianity as a Mystery CultAt a Glance: Box 3.6 The World of Early Christianity4. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 4.1 The Septuagint: The Hebrew Bible in GreekAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 4.2 Flavius JosephusAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 4.3 Divine Revelation in the Dead Sea ScrollsAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 4.4 Women in the SynagoguesAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 4.5 Other Jewish Miracle-Working Sons of GodAt a Glance: Box 4.6 The Jewish World of Early Christianity5. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 5.1 Orality and Literacy in the Ancient WorldWhat Do You Think?: Box 5.2 Mark and John on the Time of Jesus' DeathAt A Glance: Box 5.3 The Traditions of Jesus6. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 6.1 Plutarch on BiographyAt A Glance: Box 6.2 The Christian Gospels7. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 7.1 The Jewish MessiahAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 7.2 Jewish Scribes, Herodians, and Chief PriestsWhat Do You Think?: Box 7.3 Jesus' Opponents in MarkWhat Do You Think?: Box 7.4 Jesus the Angry HealerWhat Do You Think?: Box 7.5 The Messianic Secret in MarkAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 7.6 Son of God and Son of ManWhat Do You Think?: Box 7.7 The Charge of Blasphemy according to MarkAt A Glance: Box 7.8 The Gospel of Mark8. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 8.1 Ironing Out the Problems: One Potential Difficulty in Mark's AccountAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 8.2 The Contents of QAt a Glance: Box 8.3 The Synoptic Problem9. What Do You Think?: Box 9.1 Matthew's Scheme of FourteenWhat Do You Think?: Box 9.2 The Women in Matthew's GenealogyAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 9.3 The Golden RuleWhat Do You Think?: Box 9.4 Gentiles in Matthew's CommunityWhat Do You Think?: Box 9.5 Was Matthew a Jew?At A Glance: Box 9.6 Matthew10. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 10.1 Apologetic Literature in Early ChristianityWhat Do You Think?: Box 10.2 Historical Problems with Luke's Birth NarrativeWhat Do You Think?: Box 10.3 The Virginal Conception in Matthew and LukeWhat Do You Think?: Box 10.4 Jesus' Bloody Sweat in LukeAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 10.5 Jesus as a Righteous MartyrWhat Do You Think?: Box 10.6 The Institution of the Lord's Supper in LukeAt A Glance: Box 10.7 Luke11. What Do You Think: Box 11.1 The Book of Acts: An Ancient Novel?What Do You Think? Box 11.2 Luke's Mysterious Two MenAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 11.3 Luke's Artistry as a Storyteller 1Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 11.4 Luke's Artistry as a Storyteller 2What Do You Think? Box 11.5 The Death of JudasAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 11.6 Christianity before PaulAt A Glance: Box 11.7 The Book of Acts12. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 12.1 Jesus' Signs in the Fourth GospelAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 12.2 "The Jews" in the Fourth GospelAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 12.3 Jesus and the "I Am" Sayings in JohnWhat Do You Think?: Box 12.4 The Death of the Beloved Disciple in the Johannine CommunityWhat Do You Think?: Box 12.5 John's De-Apocalypticized GospelAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 12.6 Did the Early Christians Think That Jesus was God?At A Glance: Box 12.7 The Gospel of John13. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 13.1 A Letter from Greco-Roman EgyptAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 13.2 The Gospel and Epistles of John: Some Thematic SimilaritiesAt a Glance: Box 13.3 Methods for Studying the New TestamentAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 13.4 House Churches in Early ChristianityAt a Glance: Box 13.5 The Johannine EpistlesAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 13.6 How Do You Know a Gnostic When You See One?Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 13.7 Gnostics and the Jewish ScripturesAt a Glance: Box 13.8 Gnosticism14. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 14.1 The Gospel of the Ebionites and Early Gospel HarmoniesWhat Do You Think?: Box 14.2 Judas Thomas as Jesus' Twin BrotherAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 14.3 The Older Sayings of the Gospel of ThomasAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 14.4 The Laughing JesusAt a Glance: Box 14.5 The Other Gospels15. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 15.1 Christianity as a Superstition in the Roman WorldAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 15.2 The Testimony of Flavius JosephusWhat Do You Think?: Box 15.3 Aramaisms as a Criterion of AuthenticityAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 15.4 Judas and the Roasting ChickenAt A Glance: Box 15.5 The Sources for the Historical Jesus16. At a Glance: Box 16.1 The Problem of Miracles17. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 17.1 Prophecy and ApocalypticismAt A Glance: Box 17.2 First-Century Palestinian JudaismAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 17.3 O Little Town of NazarethAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 17.4 Jesus of Sepphoris?At a Glance: Box 17.5 Jesus as an Apocalyptic Prophet18. What Do You Think?: Box 18.1 Explaining Away the Apocalyptic Traditions: Seeking the LostWhat Do You Think?: Box 18.2 Explaining Away the Apocalyptic Traditions: Getting a DateWhat Do You Think?: Box 18.3 Was Jesus a Cynic Philosopher?What Do You Think?: Box 18.4 The Temple Incident as an Enacted ParableAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 18.5 Another Apocalyptic JesusWhat Do You Think?: Box 18.6 Was Jesus Married with Children?Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 18.7 The Cosmic Deliverer of IsraelWhat Do You Think?: Box 18.8 Jesus and "Family Values"What Do You Think?: Box 18.9 Jesus and Judas, the BetrayerAt a Glance: Box 18.10 Jesus the Apocalyptic Prophet19. What Do You Think?: Box 19.1 The Women and the Empty TombWhat Do You Think?: Box 19.2 Jesus, the Messiah, and the ResurrectionWhat Do You Think?: Box 19.3 Vicarious Suffering in Jewish Martyrologies and Other Greco-Roman LiteratureAt A Glance: Box 19.4 From Jesus to the Gospels20. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 20.1 The Pauline CorpusAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 20.2 Other Sources for the Life of PaulAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 20.3 What Did Paul Look Like?What Do You Think?: Box 20.4 Paul on the Road to DamascusAt a Glance: Box 20.5 Paul and His Mission21. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 21.1 Rules for a Private AssociationWhat Do You Think?: Box 21.2 Christians Maligned as Perverts and CriminalsWhat Do You Think?: Box 21.3 The Thessalonians' PerplexityAt a Glance: Box 21.4 1 Thessalonians22. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 22.1 Possibilities of Existence in the AfterlifeAt A Glance: Box 22.2 1 CorinthiansWhat Do You Think?: Box 22.3 The Partitioning of 2 CorinthiansAt A Glance: Box 22.4 2 CorinthiansWhat Do You Think?: Box 22.5 The Logic of the Opponents' Position in GalatiaWhat Do You Think?: Box 22.6 Why Does Paul Appeal to the Law to Deny the Importance of the Law?Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 22.7 Just Say No: Paul's Gospel of Sexual AbstinenceAt A Glance: Box 22.8 GalatiansAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 22.9 The Christ Hymn of PhilippiansWhat Do You Think?: Box 21.10 Was Paul Contemplating Suicide?At A Glance: Box 22.11 PhilippiansAt a Glance: Box 22.12 Philemon23. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 23.1 The Beginnings of the Roman ChurchWhat Do You Think?: Box 23.2 Paul's Gospel to the RomansWhat Do You Think?: Box 23.3 Two Different Ways of Salvation in Paul?Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 23.4 Judicial and Participationist Models of Salvation in PaulAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 23.5 Other Models of Salvation in PaulAt A Glance: Box 23.6 Romans24. What Do You Think?: Box 24.1 Jesus and Paul: Some of the SimilaritiesWhat Do You Think?: Box 24.2 Jesus and Paul: Some of the DifferencesAt A Glance: Box 24.3 Paul in Relation to What Came Before and After25. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 25.1 Paul's Third Letter to the CorinthiansWhat Do You Think?: Box 25.2 The Resurrection of Believers in Paul and ColossiansAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 25.3 The "Household Rules" in Colossians and EphesiansWhat Do You Think?: Box 25.4 The Vocabulary of Salvation in Paul and EphesiansAt a Glance: Box 25.5 The Deutero-Pauline EpistlesAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 25.6 Church Hierarchy in IgnatiusAt a Glance: Box 25.7 The Pastoral Epistles26. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 26.1 Mary MagdaleneWhat Do You Think?: Box 26.2 Similarities between 1 Tim 2:11-15 and 1 Cor 14:34-35What Do You Think?: Box 26.3 Women in the Manuscript Tradition of the New TestamentAt A Glance: Box 26.4 Women in Early Christianity27. What Do You Think?: Box 27.1 Early and Diverging Views of Christians and JewsWhat Do You Think?: Box 27.2 Divergent Views of Christ in HebrewsAt a Glance: Box 27.3 HebrewsWhat Do You Think?: Box 27.4 Six Thousand Years and CountingAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 27.5 Gematria in Early ChristianityAt a Glance: Box 27.6 The Epistle of BarnabasAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 27.7 Melito's Passover Sermon28. What Do You Think?: Box 28.1 The Christian Disruption of the Family: The Case of PerpetuaAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 28.2 The Spread of ChristianityAt a Glance: Box 28.3 1 PeterWhat Do You Think?: Box 28.4 An Alternative View of Christian MartyrdomAt a Glance: Box 28.5 The Letters of IgnatiusAt a Glance: Box 28.6 The Martyrdom of Polycarp29. Another Glimpse into the Past: Box 29.1 The Development of the Lord's PrayerWhat Do You Think?: Box 29.2 Polycarp and the Early Christian TraditionWhat Do You Think?: Box 29.3 Birds Raised from the Dead and Other Problems in the Corinthian ChurchAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 29.4 Peter, the Smoked Tuna, and the Flying HereticAt a Glance: Box 29.5 Christian Internal Conflicts30. What Do You Think?: Box 30.1 The Book of Revelation as Underground LiteratureAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 30.2 The Author of Revelation in the Early ChurchAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 30.3 An Ancient Copyright CurseWhat Do You Think?: Box 30.4 Futuristic Interpretations of the Book of RevelationAt a Glance: Box 30.5 The Book of RevelationAnother Glimpse into the Past: Box 30.6 The Shepherd of Hermas and the Muratorian Canon