The Noninvasive Evaluation of Hemodynamics in Congenital Heart Disease: Doppler Ultrasound Applications in the Adult and Pediatric Patient with Congen by J.V. ChapmanThe Noninvasive Evaluation of Hemodynamics in Congenital Heart Disease: Doppler Ultrasound Applications in the Adult and Pediatric Patient with Congen by J.V. Chapman

The Noninvasive Evaluation of Hemodynamics in Congenital Heart Disease: Doppler Ultrasound…

byJ.V. ChapmanEditorG.R. Sutherland

Paperback | February 14, 2012

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The noninvasive evaluation of hemodynamics in congenital heart disease is an application for which Doppler ultrasound is ideally suited. The pediatric cardiac sonographer has used 2D and TM imaging for several years to study the structural abnormalities associated with various lesions. Pulsed Doppler, continuous wave Doppler, and more recently, color flow mapping techniques have been used to study the pathophysiology, and to make quantitative measurements thereof. To those already working in pediatric echocardiography, this book is intended to serve as a guide to the applications of the various Doppler modalities in specific abnormalities. The other group for which this text is intended are the adult cardiac sonographers who see the occasional patient with congenital heart disease in their echocardiography laboratories. The incidence ofcongenital heart disease is not decreasing. As more patients survive to child bearing age, the adult cardiologist sees more and more referrals from the pediatric cardiologist to follow up the parent with corrected congenital heart disease, and in many smaller institutions, to examine their offspring as well. For this group, the book is intended to serve as a reference which gives a basic description of the pathology, the relevant parameters to observe, and a guide to the Doppler applications used to make these observations. While there are a few books available on the subject of echocardiography in congenital heart disease, they do not usually go into much detail on noninvasive assessment of the pathophysiology. It is our hope that this text fills that gap.
Title:The Noninvasive Evaluation of Hemodynamics in Congenital Heart Disease: Doppler Ultrasound…Format:PaperbackDimensions:376 pagesPublished:February 14, 2012Publisher:Springer NatureLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401067767

ISBN - 13:9789401067768

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Table of Contents

I The Technical Aspects of Doppler Ultrasound.- Review of the Physical Principles of Ultrasound.- Principles of Doppler Ultrasound.- Pulsed Doppler.- The Sample Volume.- Aliasing.- Range Ambiguity.- Continuous Wave Doppler.- The Color TM Mode.- Bidimensional Color Flow Mapping (CFM) Mode.- Low Velocity Reject in the Color Flow Mapping Mode.- Methods of Implementing a Color Flow Mapping System.- Frame Rate in a Color Flow Mapping System.- Summary.- II Clinically Relevant Topics in Signal Analysis.- Frequency Analysis.- Quadrature Demodulation.- The Fourier Transform.- The Spectral Display.- Filtering.- Spectral Broadening.- Signal Analysis in Color Flow Imaging.- The Mean Frequency and Variance.- Color Flow Mapping Display Algorithms.- Methods of Quantifying Color Flow Signals.- III Blood Flow Measurement by Doppler Ultrasound.- Laminar Blood Flow.- The Flow Profile.- Turbulent Flow.- Volumetric Flow Measurements.- The Clinical Measurement of Blood Flow.- The Aortic Site.- The Pulmonic Site.- The Mitral Site.- Measurement of the Qp/Qs Ratio.- IV The Normal Examination Technique.- The Characterization of Blood Flow by Doppler Ultrasound.- The Normal Doppler Examination.- The Acoustic Windows and Transducer Positions.- Evaluation of Left Ventricular Outflow and Transaortic Blood Flow.- Evaluation of Pulmonary Artery Blood Flow.- Evaluation of Mitral Blood Flow.- Evaluation of Tricuspid Blood Flow.- Evaluation of Pulmonary Veinous Flow.- Evaluation of the Superior and Inferior Vena Caval Flow.- Evaluation of Blood Flow in the Hepatic Veins.- Measurement of Normal Blood Flows.- Regurgitation in Normal Valves.- V Obstructive Lesions in Congenital Heart Disease.- Determination of the Pressure Gradient.- Limitations of the Modified Bernoulli Equation.- Estimation of the Valve Area.- Valvular Aortic Stenosis.- Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis.- Coarctation of the Aorta.- Obstructive Cardiomyopathy.- Pulmonic Stenosis.- Infundibular Pulmonic Stenosis.- Pulmonary Branch Narrowing.- Mitral Stenosis.- Valvuloplasty.- Summary.- VI Regurgitant Lesions in Congenital Heart Disease.- Aortic Insufficiency.- Bidimensional and TM Imaging in Aortic Regurgitation.- Pulsed Doppler Techniques in Aortic Insufficiency.- Continuous Wave Applications in Aortic Insufficiency.- Color Flow Mapping in Aortic Insufficiency.- The Multi-modality Approach.- Mitral Insufficiency.- Pulsed Doppler in Mitral Insufficiency.- Continuous Wave Applications in Mitral Regurgitation.- Color Flow Mapping in Mitral Regurgitation.- Pulmonary Regurgitation.- Pulsed Doppler Applications in Pulmonic Valve Regurgitation.- Color Flow Mapping in Pulmonic Valve Regurgitation.- Tricuspid Regurgitation.- Pulsed Doppler Applications.- Color Flow Mapping Applications.- VII Estimation of Pulmonary Artery Pressure.- The Measurement of Pulmonary Artery Pressure.- The Pulmonary Artery Acceleration Time.- The Bernoulli Equation in Determination of Right Ventricular Pressure.- Tricuspid Regurgitation.- Pulmonary Regurgitation.- Ventricular Septal Defect.- Patent Ductus Arteriosus.- Conclusion.- VIII Atrial Septal Defects.- Normal Development of the Atrial Septum.- Patent Foramen Ovale.- Types of Atrial Septal Defects.- Secundum Defects.- Sinus Venosus Defects.- Coronary Sinus Defects.- Assessment of Pulmonary and Systemic Blood Flow.- Cross-sectional Imaging and M-mode Echocardiography.- Doppler Analysis of Complications of Atrial Septal Defects.- Eisenmenger Syndrome.- Atrial Septal Aneurysm.- Monitoring of Therapeutic Interventions.- IX Doppler Echocardiography in Ventricular Septal Defects.- Morphology and Classification of Ventricular Septal Defects.- The Use of Cross Sectional Imaging to Define Ventricular Septal Defect Morphology.- Pulsed Doppler Echocardiography.- Volume Flow Considerations.- Continuous Wave Doppler.- Doppler Color Flow Mapping.- Intraoperative Color Flow Mapping.- Post Operative Follow-up.- X Combined Cross-Sectional Imaging and Doppler Echocardiography in Atrioventricular Septal Defects.- Morphological Considerations - What We Need to Know.- Hemodynamic Considerations.- Cross-Sectional Imaging.- Doppler Echocardiography.- Pulsed Wave Doppler.- Continuous Wave Doppler.- Doppler Color Flow Mapping.- Intraoperative Echocardiography.- Post Operative Follow-up.- Summary.- XI The Doppler Evaluation of Patent Ductus Arteriosus.- Patent Ductus Arteriosus.- Imaging in Patent Ductus Arteriosus.- Pulsed Doppler Applications.- Continuous Wave Applications.- Color Flow Mapping.- Post-operative Follow-up.- Conclusion.- XII Doppler Findings in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome.- Pulsed Doppler Echocardiography.- Mitral Valve, Aortic Valve and Atrial Septum.- Tricuspid and Pulmonary Valves.- Ascending Aorta, Aortic Arch and Duct.- Continuous Wave Doppler.- Color Flow Mapping Left Ventricle, Mitral Valve and Aortic Valve.- Tricuspid Valve and Pulmonary Valve.- Ascending Aorta, Aortic Arch and Duct.- Conclusion.- XIII Doppler Echocardiography Evaluation of Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage.- Pulsed Doppler Echocardiography.- Supracardiac TAPVD.- TAPVD with Drainage to the Coronary Sinus or Right Atrium.- Infradiaphragmatic TAPVD.- Flow Characteristics within Individual Pulmonary Veins.- Doppler Color Flow Mapping.- Distinction of TAPVD from Cor Triatriatum.- Infradiaphragmatic TAPVD.- Conclusion.- XIV The Evaluation of Complex Shunt Lesions.- Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva.- Coronary Artery Lesions.- Connections Between the Aorta and Pulmonary Artery.- Endocarditis Related Shunts.- Conclusion.- XV Tetralogy Of Fallot, Pulmonary Atresia and Truncus Arteriosus.- Tetralogy of Fallot.- Cross-sectional Imaging.- The Role of Doppler in the Evaluation of Tetralogy of Fallot.- The Ventricular Septal Defect.- The Definition of the Pulmonary Arteries.- Ultrasound in the Evaluation of the Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot.- Ultrasound Evaluation of Pulmonary Atresia with VSD.- Truncus Arteriosus.- XVI The Use of Intraoperative Ultrasound in Congenital Heart Disease.- Clinical Practice of Intraoperative Ultrasound.- Epicardial Studies.- Transesophageal Studies.- Post-Operative Studies.- Assessment of Cardiac Surgery by Epicardial Doppler Ultrasound.- Atrial Level.- Atrioventricular Valves.- Ventricular Level.- Interventricular Septum.- Ventricular Outflow Tracts.- Arterial Valves and Great Arteries.- Doppler Ultrasound During Special Surgical Procedures and Fontan Procedures.- Senning, Mustard Procedure.- Rastelli Procedure.- Arterial Switch Procedure.- XVII Transesophageal Echocardiography in Congenital Heart Disease.- Technique.- Scanning Equipment.- Advantages and Limitations.- Assessment of Congenital Heart Disease.- Cardiac Position.- Atrial Appendage Anatomy - Atria.- Systemic Venous Drainage.- Pulmonary Venous Drainage.- The Atrial Septum.- Atrioventricular Valves and Connections.- The Interventricular Septum.- Ventricular Outflow Tracts.- Arterial Valves and Great Vessels.- Where To Use It.- Summary.