From the Viking invasions to the Crusades to the Hundred Years War, wars were crucial agents of change in medieval Europe. They fostered many economic and political changes. They also affected the science, technology, religion, and culture of the parties involved. This two-volume encyclopediaexamines all aspects of warfare and military technology in medieval times. Featuring the latest research from the leading experts in medieval military history, the set provides an exhaustive and accurate view of how and why wars were waged throughout Europe, the Byzantine Empire, and the CrusaderStates from circa 500 CE to circa 1500. Although many reference works have been published in medieval history, this is the first and only encyclopedia to focus exclusively on medieval warfare, offering unique insight into the subject by addressing developments in military technology across theperiod with articles on topics such as gunpowder and shields. The encyclopedia will appeal to scholars and readers of all levels interested in military history and in the medieval world.