Bayesian analysis has developed rapidly in applications in the last two decades and research in Bayesian methods remains dynamic and fast-growing. Dramatic advances in modelling concepts and computational technologies now enable routine application of Bayesian analysis using increasinglyrealistic stochastic models, and this drives the adoption of Bayesian approaches in many areas of science, technology, commerce, and industry. This Handbook explores contemporary Bayesian analysis across a variety of application areas. Chapters written by leading exponents of applied Bayesian analysis showcase the scientific ease and natural application of Bayesian modelling, and present solutions to real, engaging, societally importantand demanding problems. The chapters are grouped into five general areas: Biomedical and Health Sciences; Industry, Economics and Finance; Environment and Ecology; Policy, Political and Social Sciences; and Natural and Engineering Sciences, and Appendix material in each touches on key concepts,models, and techniques of the chapter that are also of broader pedagogic and applied interest.