Substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) have been documented in a number of cultures since the beginnings of recorded time and represent major societal concerns in the present day. The Oxford Handbook of Substance Use and Substance Use Disorders provides comprehensive reviews of keyareas of inquiry into the fundamental nature of substance use and SUDs, their features, causes, consequences, course, treatment, and prevention. It is clear that understanding these various aspects of substance use and SUDs requires a multidisciplinary perspective that considers the pharmacology ofdrugs of abuse, genetic variation in these acute and chronic effects, and psychological processes in the context of the interpersonal and cultural contexts.Comprising two volumes, this Handbook also highlights a range of opportunities and challenges facing those interested in the basic understanding of the nature of these phenomena and novel approaches to assess, prevent, and treat these conditions with the goal of reducing the enormous burden theseproblems place on our global society. Chapters in Volume 1 cover the historical and cultural contexts of substance use and its consequences, its epidemiology and course, etiological processes from the perspective of neuropharmacology, genetics, personality, development, motivation, and theinterpersonal and larger social environment. Chapters in Volume 2 cover major health and social consequences of substance involvement, psychiatric comorbidity, assessment, and interventions. Each chapter highlights key issues in the respective topic area and raises unanswered questions for futureresearch. All chapters are authored by leading scholars in each topic. The level of coverage is sufficiently deep to be of value to both trainees and established scientists and clinicians interested in an evidenced-based approach.