The Oxford History of Classical Reception (OHCREL) is designed to offer a comprehensive investigation of the numerous and diverse ways in which literary texts of the classical world have stimulated responses and refashioning by English writers. Covering the full range of English literaturefrom the early Middle Ages to the present day, OHCREL both synthesizes existing scholarship and presents cutting-edge new research, employing an international team of expert contributors for each of the five volumes. OHCREL endeavours to interrogate, rather than inertly reiterate, conventional assumptions about literary "periods", the processes of canon-formation, and the relations between literary and non-literary discourse. It conceives of "reception" as a complex process of dialogic exchange and, rather thanoffering large cultural generalizations, it engages in close critical analysis of literary texts. It explores in detail the ways in which English writers' engagement with classical literature casts as much light on the classical originals as it does on the English writers' own cultural context. This fourth volume, and second to appear in the series, covers the years 1790-1880 and explores romantic and Victorian receptions of the classics. Noting the changing fortunes of particular classical authors and the influence of developments in archaeology, aesthetics and education, it traces theinterplay between classical and nineteenth-century perceptions of gender, class, religion, and the politics of republic and empire in chapters engaging with many of the major writers of this period.