The Paraneuron by Tsuneo FujitaThe Paraneuron by Tsuneo Fujita

The Paraneuron

byTsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi

Paperback | December 31, 2011

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The regulation of the organism has traditionally been ascribed to two distinct systems-the nervous and the endocrine. Though coordination between the two systems has been acknowledged, researchers and authors have tended to deal with them as comprising separate categories of cells involved in different activities. With this approach, a given regulatory mechanism would be evaluated as to whether it should be accounted for by nervous or endocrine functions. The past 15 years, however, have witnessed numerous important discoveries and conceptual developments concerning the morphological, physiological, and bio­ chemical relations between the nervous and endocrine systems. Advances in im­ munocytochemical studies have revealed that there are a wide variety of messenger substances that function in both regulatory systems. As a result, researchers have been stimulated to investigate neuronlike properties of endocrine cells and, con­ versely, endocrine or secretory features of neurons. It has thus become obvious that the rigidities in the classic criteria of neurotransmitters and hormones may rather impede further advances in these research fields. The activities of neurons are no longer evaluated simply in terms of EPSP, IPSP, and the release of classic trans­ mitters such as acetylcholine, noradrenaline, and GABA. Hormonal actions are no longer analyzed solely with regard to concentrations of classic aminic and peptidic hormones in the systemic blood circulation. The concept of the paraneuron, which we proposed in 1975, has become one of the theoretical bases for the development of this trend of study.
Title:The ParaneuronFormat:PaperbackPublished:December 31, 2011Publisher:Springer JapanLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:4431680683

ISBN - 13:9784431680680

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Table of Contents

I. General Part.- 1. Historical Background.- 1.1 Criteria for Neurons.- 1.2 Bridges Connecting the Nervous and Endocrine Systems.- 1.3 Summary.- 2. What are Paraneurons?.- 2.1 Origin of the Concept.- 2.2 Criteria for Paraneurons.- 2.3 The Paraneuron Family.- 2.4 General Structure of Paraneurons.- 2.5 Spectrum of Neurons and Paraneurons.- 2.6 Summary.- 3. Secretions and Secretory Granules.- 3.1 Secretory Granules.- 3.2 Formation of Secretory Granules.- 3.3 Maturation of Secretory Granules.- 3.4 Contents of Secretory Granules.- 3.5 Contents of Small Vesicles.- 3.6 Biosynthesis of Peptides and Messenger Substances.- 3.7 Coexistence of Secretory Substances.- 3.8 Summary.- 4. Stimulus-Secretion Coupling.- 4.1 Receptosecretory Nature of Neurons and Paraneurons.- 4.2 Receptor and Stimulus Recognition.- 4.3 Various Modes of Stimulus Transformation.- 4.4 Release of Granule Contents.- 4.5 Summary.- 5. Neurons As Secretory Cells.- 5.1 Secretory Granules and Vesicles of Neurons.- 5.2 Contents of Granules and Vesicles.- 5.3 Multiple Secretions and Dale's Law.- 5.4 Multipolar (Dendritic) Secretion.- 5.5 Summary.- 6. Transport of Messenger Substances to Targets.- 6.1 Routes and Ranges of Messenger Transport.- 6.2 Continuity of Transmitters and Hormones.- 6.3 Summary.- 7. Effects of Messenger Substances.- 7.1 Continuity Between Modes of Actions of Messenger Substances Released from Neurons and Paraneurons.- 7.2 Critical Account of Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators.- 7.3 Diverse Actions of Messenger Substances.- 7.4 Summary.- 8. Ontogeny and Kinetics of Paraneurons.- 8.1 Concepts on the Origins of Paraneurons.- 8.2 Cell Kinetics of Paraneurons.- 8.3 Aging of Paraneurons.- 8.4 Ontogeny of Some Paraneurons.- 8.5 General Considerations.- 8.6 Summary.- 9. Subsidiary Neuronlike Features of Paraneurons.- 9.1 Association with Neurons.- 9.2 Neuron-Specific Substances Detected in Paraneurons.- 9.3 Sustentacular Cells of Glial Nature.- 9.4 Summary.- 10. Neoplasms of Paraneurons: Paraneuromas.- 10.1 General Aspects.- 10.2 Cellular Origin.- 10.3 Markers of Paraneuromas.- 10.4 Electric Activities.- 10.5 Different Types of Paraneuroma.- 10.6 Summary.- 11. Phylogeny of Paraneurons.- 11.1 Deuterostomia.- 11.2 Protostomia.- 11.3 Coelenterata.- 11.4 Evolution of Neurons and Paraneurons and Their Messenger Substances.- 11.5 Unicellular Organisms.- 11.6 Ectopic Secretion of Amine/Peptide Messengers.- 11.7 Summary.- II. Special Part.- 12. Adrenal Chromaffin Cells.- 12.1 Historical and General Aspects.- 12.2 Structure and Ultrastructure.- 12.3 Types of Adrenal Cells.- 12.4 Innervations.- 12.5 Secretory Aspect of Chromaffin Cells.- 12.6 Electrophysiological Properties.- 12.7 Ontogeny.- 12.8 Phylogeny.- 12.9 Summary.- 13. Parafollicular Cells.- 13.1 General Aspects.- 13.2 Fine Structure.- 13.3 Secretory Products.- 13.4 Relations to Thyroid Follicular Cells.- 13.5 Ontogeny.- 13.6 Phylogeny.- 13.7 Summary.- 14. Parathyroid Cells.- 14.1 Historical and General Aspects.- 14.2 Cytological Features.- 14.3 Secretion Control and Innervation.- 14.4 Parathyroid Cells As Paraneurons.- 14.5 Chemical Structure, Biosynthesis, and Release of PTH.- 14.6 Electrophysiology.- 14.7 Ontogeny and Kinetics.- 14.8 Phylogeny.- 14.9 Summary.- 15. Adenohypophyseal Cells.- 15.1 General Aspects.- 15.2 Parenchymal Cells of the Adenohypophysis.- 15.3 Cytological Features.- 15.4 Innervation of the Adenohypophyseal Cells.- 15.5 Electrophysiology.- 15.6 Ontogeny and Kinetics.- 15.7 Phylogeny.- 15.8 Summary.- 16. Gastroenteropancreatic Endocrine System.- 16.1 Gastroenteric Endocrine Cells.- 16.2 Pancreatic Islet Cells.- 16.3 Ontogeny of GEP Endocrine Cells.- 16.4 Phylogeny of GEP Endocrine Cells.- 16.5 Summary.- 17. Urogenital Paraneurons.- 17.1 General Aspects.- 17.2 Distribution.- 17.3 Light-Microscopic Structure.- 17.4 Cell Types and Fine Structure.- 17.5 Secretory Substances.- 17.6 Functions.- 17.7 Ontogeny and Phylogeny.- 17.8 Summary.- 18. Bronchopulmonary Paraneurons.- 18.1 Historical and General Aspects.- 18.2 Distribution, Cell Types, and Structure.- 18.3 Neuroepithelial Bodies As Chemoreceptors.- 18.4 Secretory Products.- 18.5 Electrophysiology of Neoplasms.- 18.6 Ontogeny.- 18.7 Phylogeny.- 18.8 Summary.- 19. Carotid Body Chief Cells.- 19.1 Historical and General Aspects.- 19.2 Structure and Fine Structure.- 19.3 Secretory Aspects.- 19.4 Innervation of the Chief Cell.- 19.5 Carotid Body Chief Cell As a Paraneuron.- 19.6 Electrophysiology.- 19.7 Carotid Body-Like Structures.- 19.8 Ontogeny.- 19.9 Phylogeny.- 19.10 Summary.- 20. Gustatory Cells in Taste Buds and Related Sensory Cells.- 20.1 General Aspects.- 20.2 Cytological Features.- 20.3 Sensory Innervation.- 20.4 Electrophysiology.- 20.5 Ontogeny and Kinetics.- 20.6 Phylogeny.- 20.7, Appendix: Labellar Chemoreceptor of Flies.- 20.8 Summary.- 21. Olfactory Cells.- 21.1 General Aspects.- 21.2 Fine Structure.- 21.3 Physiological Features.- 21.4 Olfactory Cell As a Paraneuron.- 21.5 Ontogeny.- 21.6 Phylogeny.- 21.7 Appendix: Vomeronasal Organ.- 21.8, Summary.- 22. Inner Ear and Lateral Line Hair Cells.- 22.1 Hair Cells of the Mammalian Inner Ear.- 22.2 Inner Ear Hair Cell As a Paraneuron.- 22.3 Electrophysiology.- 22.4 Ontogeny.- 22.5 Phylogenetic Aspects.- 22.6 Appendix: Electroreceptors.- 22.7 Summary.- 23. Merkel Cells in the Skin.- 23.1 General Aspects.- 23.2 Distribution.- 23.3 Morphological Evidence.- 23.4 Physiological Properties.- 23.5 Secretory Substance and Cytochemical Data.- 23.6 Ontogeny and Differentiation.- 23.7 Phylogeny.- 23.8 Summary.- 24. Visual Cells in the Retina.- 24.1 Historical and General Aspects.- 24.2 Fine Structure.- 24.3 Physiological Findings.- 24.4 Neurons in he Retina.- 24.5 Ontogeny.- 24.6 Phylogeny.- 24.7 Summary.- 25. Pinealocyte.- 25.1 General Aspects.- 25.2 Structure and Function in Lower Vertebrates.- 25.3 Structure and Function in Mammals.- 25.4 Secretory Substances and Histochemical Data.- 25.5 Physiology.- 25.6 Neuronlike Features.- 25.7 Phylogeny.- 25.8 Ontogeny.- 25.9 Summary.- 26. Melanocytes.- 26.1 Types of Melanin-Producting Cells.- 26.2 Melanocytes in Poikilothermic Vertebrates.- 26.3 Melanocytes in Homoiothermic Animals.- 26.4 Ontogeny.- 26.5 Phylogeny of Chromatophores in Invertebrates.- 26.6 Are Melanocytes Paraneurons?.- 26.7 Summary.- 27. Mast Cells.- 27.1 Distribution and Morphology.- 27.2 Fine Structure.- 27.3 Secretory Products.- 27.4 Other Paraneuronal Features.- 27 5 Immune and Signal Recognition.- 27.6 Stimulus-Secretion Coupling.- 27.7 Ontogeny.- 27.8 Phylogeny.- 27.9 Summary.- 28. Small Intensely Fluorescent (SIF) Cells.- 28.1 General Aspects.- 28.2 Distribution.- 28.3 Cytochemistry and Ultrastructure.- 28.4 Secretory Substances.- 28.5 Ontogeny.- 28.6 Phylogeny.- 28.7 Methodological Improvement and Conceptual Changes.- 28.8 Summary.- 29. Cerebrospinal Fluid-Contacting Neurons.- 29.1 General Aspects.- 29.2 Structure and Fine Structure.- 29.3 Secretory Products.- 29.4 Functions.- 29.5 Ontogeny and Phylogeny.- 29.6 Summary.- 30. Enteric Neurons.- 30.1 General Aspects of Enteric Nervous System.- 30.2 Shape and Structure of Enteric Neurons.- 30.3 Chemical Diversity of Enteric Neurons.- 30.4 Electrophysiological Properties of Enteric Neurons.- 30.5 Paraneuronal Features.- 30.6 Ontogeny.- 30.7 Phylogeny.- 30.8 Summary.- References.- List of Abbreviations.