The Physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes

Hardcover | December 16, 2011

byDavid White, James T. Drummond, Clay Fuqua

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The Physiology and Biochemistry Prokaryotes is a textbook adopted for use in advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate-level biology courses that focus on the physiology and biochemistry of microorganisms. The text covers the basic principles of prokaryotic physiology, biochemistry, andcell behavior. It presents microbial metabolism within the context of the chemical and physiological problems that cells must solve in order to grow. The text is adopted because of its authoritative presentation of basic principles, coverage of recent advances from the field, clear illustrations,relevant examples and real-world applications.Course Issues:Key challenges and course issues include keeping current with the latest developments from the field; presenting/learning so much information in a single semester; training students to think like scientists; revealing the relevance of the material.Message:White provides the most current, authoritative, and relevant presentation of prokaryotic physiology and biochemistry.

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The Physiology and Biochemistry Prokaryotes is a textbook adopted for use in advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate-level biology courses that focus on the physiology and biochemistry of microorganisms. The text covers the basic principles of prokaryotic physiology, biochemistry, andcell behavior. It presents microbial metabol...

David is a Professor Emeritus at Indiana University where he taught microbiology, microbial physiology, and general biology for over 30 years. His research focuses on yeast biochemistry and the biology and biochemistry myxobacteria. James T. Drummond is Associate Professor of Biology at IU, and his research focuses on the underlying b...

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Format:HardcoverDimensions:656 pages, 10 × 7 × 0.98 inPublished:December 16, 2011Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:019539304X

ISBN - 13:9780195393040


Extra Content

Table of Contents

1. Structure and Function1.1 Phylogeny1.2 Cell Structure1.3 SummarySummary QuestionsReferences and Notes2. Growth and Cell Division2.1 Measurement of Growth2.2 Growth Physiology2.3 Growth Yields2.4 Growth Kinetics2.5 Steady State Growth and Continuous Growth2.6 Cell Division2.7 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes3. Chromosome Replication and Partitioning of Chromosomes3.1 DNA Replication, Chromosome Separation, and Chromosome Partitioning3.2 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes4. Membrane Bioenergetics: The Proton Potential4.1 The Chemiosmotic Theory4.2 Electrochemical Energy4.3 The Contributions of the ?? and the ?pH to the Overall ?p in Neutrophiles, Acidophiles, and Alkaliphiles4.4 Ionophores4.5 Measurement of the ?p4.6 Use of the ?p To Do Work4.7 Exergonic Reactions That Generate a ?p4.8 Other Mechanisms For Creating a ?? or a ?p4.9 Halorhodopsin, a Light-Driven Chloride Pump4.10 The ?p and ATP Synthesis in Alkaliphiles4.11 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes5. Electron Transport5.1 Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration5.2 The Electron Carriers5.3 Organization of the Electron Carriers in Mitochondria5.4 Organization of The Electron Carriers in Bacteria5.6 How a Proton Potential Might Be Created at the Coupling Sites: Q Loops, Q Cycles, and Proton Pumps5.7 Patterns of Electron Flow in Individual Bacterial Species5.8 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes6. Photosynthesis6.1 The Phototrophic Prokaryotes6.2 The Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria6.3 The Green Sulfur Bacteria (Chlorobiaceae)6.4 Cyanobacteria and Chloroplasts6.5 Efficiency of Photosynthesis6.6 Photosynthetic Pigments6.7 The Transfer of Energy from the Light Harvesting Pigments to the Reaction Center6.8 The Structure of Photosynthetic Membranes in Bacteria6.9 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes7. The Regulation of Metabolic Pathways7.1 Patterns of Regulation of Metabolic Pathways7.2 Kinetics of Regulatory and Nonregulatory Enzymes7.3 Conformational Changes in Regulatory Enzymes7.4 Regulation by Covalent Modification7.5 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes8. Bioenergetics in the Cytosol8.1 High-Energy Molecules and Group Transfer Potential8.2 The Central Role of Group Transfer Reactions in Biosynthesis8.3 ATP Synthesis by Substrate Level Phosphorylation8.4 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes9. Central Metabolic Pathways9.1 Glycolysis9.2 The Fate of NADH9.3 Why Write NAD+ Instead of NAD, and NADH Instead of NADH2?9.4 A Modified EMP Pathway in the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus9.5 The Pentose Phosphate Pathway9.6 The Entner-Doudoroff Pathway9.7 The Oxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA: The Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Reaction9.8 The Citric Acid Cycle9.9 Carboxylations that Replenish Oxaloacetate: The Pyruvate and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylases9.10 Modification of the Citric Acid Cycle Into a Reductive (Incomplete) Cycle During Fermentative Growth9.11 Chemistry of Some of the Reactions in the Citric Acid Cycle9.12 The Glyoxylate Cycle9.13 Formation of Phosphoenolpyruvate9.14 Formation of Pyruvate from Malate9.15. Summary of the Relationships Between the Pathways9.16 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes10. Metabolism of Lipids, Nucleotides, Amino Acids, and Hydrocarbons10.1 Lipids10.2 Nucleotides10.3 Amino Acids10.4 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons10.5 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes11. RNA and Protein Synthesis11.1 RNA Synthesis11.2 Protein Synthesis12. Cell Wall and Capsule Biosynthesis12.1 Peptidoglycan12.2 Lipopolysaccharide12.3 Extracellular Polysaccharide Synthesis and Export in Gram Negative Bacteria12.4 Levan and Dextran Synthesis12.5 Glycogen Synthesis12.6 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes13. Inorganic Metabolism13.1 Assimilation of Nitrate and Sulfate13.2 Dissimilation of Nitraate and Sulfate13.3 Nitrogen Fixation13.4 Lithotrophy13.5 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes14. C1 Metabolism14.1 Carbon Dioxide Fixation Systems14.2 Growth on C1 Compounds Other than CO2: The Methylotrophs14.3 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes15. Fermentations15.1 Oxygen Toxicity15.2 Energy Conservation by Anaerobic Bacteria15.3 Electron Sinks15.4 The Anaerobic Food Chain15.5 How to Balance a Fermentation15.6 Propionate Fermentation via the Acrylate Pathway15.7 Propionate Fermentation via the Succinate-Propionate Pathway15.8 Acetate Fermentation ( Acetogenesis)15.9 Lactate Fermentation15.10 Mixed-Acid and Butanediol Fermentation15.11 Butyrate Fermentation15.12 Ruminococcus albus15.13 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes16. Responses to Environmental Stress16.1 Maintaining a ?pH16.2 Osmotic Pressure and Osmotic Potential16.3 Heat-Shock Response (HSR)16.4 Repairing Damaged DNA16.5 The SOS Response16.6 Oxidative Stress16.7 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes17. Solute Transport17.1 The Use of Proteoliposomes to Study Solute Transport17.2 Kinetics of Solute Uptake17.3 Energy-Dependent Transport17.4 How to Determine the Source of Energy for Transport17.5 Drug-Export Systems17.6 Bacterial Transport Systems in Summary17.7 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes18. Protein Transport and Secretion18.1 The Sec System18.2 The Translocation of Membrane-Bound Proteins18.3 The E. coli SRP18.4 Protein Translocation of Folded Proteins: The TAT System18.5 Extracellular Protein Secretion18.6 Folding of Periplasmic Proteins18.7 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes19. Responses to Environmental Cues19.1 Introduction to Two-Component Signaling Systems19.2 Responses by Facultative Anaerobes to Anaerobiosis19.3 Response to Nitrate and Nitrite: The Nar Regulatory System19.4 Response to Nitrogen Supply: The Ntr Regulon19.5 Response to Inorganic Phosphate Supply: The Pho Regulon19.6 Effect of Oxygen and Light on the Expression of Photosynthetic Genes in the Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus19.7 Response to Osmotic Pressure and Temperature: Regulation of Porin Synthesis19.8 Response to Potassium Ion and External Osmolarity: Stimulation of Transcription of the kdpABC Operson by a Two-Component Regulatory System19.9 Acetyl Phosphate Is a Possible Global Signal in Certain Two-Component Systems19.10. Response to Carbon Sources: Catabolite Repression, Inducer Expulsion, Permease Synthesis19.11. Virulence Factors: Synthesis in Response to Temperature, pH, Nutrient Osmolarity, and Quorum Sensors19.12. SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes20. Chemotaxis, Photoresponses, Aerotaxis20.1 Bacteria Measure Changes in Concentration Over Time20.2 Tumbling20.3 Adaptation20.4 Proteins Required for Chemotaxis20.5 A Model for Chemotaxis20.6 Mechanism of Repellent Action20.7 Chemotaxis That Does Not Use MCPs: The Phosphotransferase System Is Involved In Chemotaxis Toward PTS Sugars20.8 Chemotaxis That Is Not Identical With The Model Proposed For The Enteric Bacteria20.9 Photoresponses20.10 Halobacteria20.11 Photosynthetic Bacteria20.12 Aerotaxis20.13 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes21. Microbial Biofilms - Structured Multicellular Assembl21.1 Bacterial Multicellular Structures21.2 Prevalence and Importance of Biofilms21.3 Properties of Biofilms21.4 Progression of Biofilm Formation and Dissolution21.5 Regulation of Biofilm Formation21.6 Inhibition of Biofilm Formation21.7 Evolutionary Processes in Biofilms21.8 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes22. Cell-Cell Communication Mechanisms22.1 Diversity of Diffusible Signal Molecules Produced by Bacteria22.2 Specific Signaling Systems22.3 Cell-Cell Signaling that Requires Contact22.4 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes23. Bacterial Development23.1 Myxobacteria23.2 Caulobacter23.3 Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis23.4 SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences and Notes