The Porphyrin Handbook, Volume 20: Phthalocyanines: Structural Characterization provides information pertinent to every aspect of the chemistry, synthesis, spectroscopy, and structure of phthalocyanines. This book examines the biology and medical implications of porphyrin systems.Organized into one chapter, this volume begins with an overview of the molecular and crystal structures of phthalocyanine and related complexes followed by a database section. This text then examines the crystallographic data that provided many researchers with the foundation to conduct their own research on phthalocyanine crystal structures. This book considers the structural basis for the prediction or calculation of the phthalocyanine physical properties. This book discusses as well the fundamental structure of a phthalocyanine molecule that consists of four isoindole units, circularly linked via azamethine bridges. This book is a valuable resource for research scientists, engineers, and clinicians.