The Profession And Practice Of Adult Education: An Introduction by Sharan B. MerriamThe Profession And Practice Of Adult Education: An Introduction by Sharan B. Merriam

The Profession And Practice Of Adult Education: An Introduction

bySharan B. Merriam, Ralph G. Brockett

Paperback | July 27, 2007

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The Profession and Practice of Adult Education is a timely book and an excellent introduction to the field. Drawing from an extensive volume of literature, it provides comprehensive coverage and a clear guide. Graduate students will benefit from it and practitioners will be kept abreast of changes that are occurring.
—Peter Jarvis, professor of continuing education and senior research professor, University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Sharan B. Merriam is professor of adult education at the University of Georgia. Ralph G. Brockett is professor of adult education at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
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Title:The Profession And Practice Of Adult Education: An IntroductionFormat:PaperbackDimensions:396 pages, 9.05 × 5.95 × 1.2 inPublished:July 27, 2007Publisher:WileyLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0470181532

ISBN - 13:9780470181539

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Maybe your background is in nursing, and you plan)]TJ T* -0.0051 Tc -0.0032 Tw [(continuing education programs for the hospital staff. Y)73.8(ou may have)]TJ T* -0.0163 Tc 0.0037 Tw (organized a group of citizens in your community to protest rent goug-)Tj T* -0.0027 Tc 0.0101 Tw [(ing or environmental pollution. Y)73.7(ou might administer a literacy or)]TJ T* -0.0077 Tc -0.0049 Tw (job-skills training program, or perhaps you work as a private consul-)Tj T* -0.0051 Tc 0 Tw (tant conducting management-training seminars for companies.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0024 Tw [(These are just a few examples of people?)55.1(s experiences with adult)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0117 Tw [(education. Y)73.9(ou, and many others like you, have probably not con-)]TJ T* -0.0025 Tc -0.0051 Tw (sidered how you might be a part of a ?eld larger than the particular)Tj T* 0.0064 Tc 0.006 Tw [(arena in which you work. Y)73.8(et the ?eld of adult education encom-)]TJ T* -0.0065 Tc -0.0011 Tw (passes all of these components. What your individual experience in)Tj T* -0.0085 Tc 0.0009 Tw (adult education has in common with others? experiences is that you)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(are working with adults in some organized, educational activity)73.9(.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 0 -2.2727 TD (The Meaning of ?Adult?)Tj /F2 1 Tf 0 -1.8182 TD -0.0063 Tc -0.0013 Tw (One key to de?ning adult education lies with the notion of ?adult.?)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD -0.0023 Tc -0.0053 Tw [(But who is an adult? In North America, adulthoo)-9.7(d as a stage of life)]TJ T* 0.0072 Tc 0.0052 Tw (is a relatively new concept. 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Darkenwald and)Tj T* 0.0003 Tc 0.0121 Tw (Merriam \(1982\) are even more speci?c with regard to the two cri-)Tj T* 0.0146 Tc -0.0022 Tw (teria cited above: ?Adult education is a process whereby persons)Tj T* -0.0047 Tc -0.0029 Tw (whose major social roles are characteristic of adult status undertake)Tj T* -0.0102 Tc 0.0026 Tw (systematic and sustained learning activities for the purpose of bring-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (ing about changes in knowledge, attitudes, values, or skills? \(p. 9\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0066 Tc -0.001 Tw [(Some de?nitions emphasize the learner)54.8(, some the planning, and)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0249 Tc 0.0612 Tw (others the process. Long \(1987\) believes that adult education)Tj T* -0.0128 Tc 0.0052 Tw (?includes all systematic and purposive efforts by the adult to become)Tj T* 0.0056 Tc 0.0068 Tw (an educated person? \(p. viii\). Although critiqued for its emphasis)Tj T* 0.0242 Tc -0.0118 Tw (on formal education that seems to exclude self-directed efforts,)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0045 Tw [(V)74(erner?)54.8(s often-cited de?nition \(1964\) focuses on planning: ?Adult)]TJ T* 0.0232 Tc -0.0108 Tw (education is a relationship between an educational agent and a)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc 0.0408 Tw (learner in which the agent selects, arranges, and continuously)Tj T* -0.0084 Tc 0.0008 Tw (directs a sequence of progressive tasks that provide systematic expe-)Tj T* 0.0017 Tc 0.0107 Tw (riences to achieve learning for people whose participation in such)Tj T* -0.0141 Tc 0.0065 Tw [(activities is subsidiary and supplemental to a primary pro)-10(ductive role)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (in society? \(p. 32\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0005 Tc 0.0119 Tw (Probably the best-known de?nition emphasizing the process of)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0249 Tc 0.0412 Tw (adult education is that of Houle \(1972\). He argues that it is a)Tj 9 0 0 9 285.5285 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(What Counts as Adult Education?)-2002(7)]TJ ET Q 41 719 171.239 13.015 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxp 5/27/07 11:36 AM Page 7)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 12 0 obj > endobj 13 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 42 690 432 -648 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 83.5 642.7961 Tm 0 g 2.2222 Tc 0 Tw (8T)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 114.0029 642.7961 Tm -0.0003 Tc (HE)Tj 9 0 0 9 125.2557 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (P)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 130.2588 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(ROFESSION)-333.5(AND)]TJ 9 0 0 9 187.2642 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (P)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 192.2673 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(RACTICE)-333.4(OF)]TJ 9 0 0 9 235.392 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (A)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 242.3925 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc [(DUL)110.6(T)]TJ 9 0 0 9 262.2722 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (E)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 267.2754 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc [(DUCA)110.6(TION)]TJ 11 0 0 11 108 609.8064 Tm -0.0203 Tc 0.0027 Tw (process involving planning by individuals or agencies by which adults)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD -0.0105 Tc -0.0071 Tw (?alone, in groups, or in institutional settings . . . improve themselves)Tj T* -0.0207 Tc 0.0031 Tw [(or their society? \(p. 32\). Finally)73.8(, Knowles \(1980b\) also identi?es adult)]TJ T* -0.0063 Tc 0.0087 Tw (education ?in its broadest sense? as ?the process of adults learning.?)Tj T* 0.0129 Tc -0.0105 Tw (In its more technical sense, adult education is ?a set of organized)Tj T* -0.0065 Tc 0.0089 Tw (activities carried on by a wide variety of institutions for the accom-)Tj T* -0.0004 Tc 0.0028 Tw (plishment of speci?c educational objectives? \(p. 25\). Knowles also)Tj T* -0.025 Tc 0.0074 Tw (proposes a third meaning that ?combines all these processes and activ-)Tj T* -0.0119 Tc -0.0056 Tw (ities in)Tj 2.6516 0 TD -0.0045 Tc -0.0031 Tw [(to)-0.2( th)-0.2(e id)-0.2(ea of a m)-0.2(o)-0.1(v)-0.2(e)-0.1(m)-0.2(ent or )]TJ 11.8211 0 TD -0.0043 Tc -0.0033 Tw (?eld of social practice? \(p. 25\).)Tj -13.1091 -1.3636 TD 0.0098 Tc 0.0026 Tw (De?ning adult education, then, depends to some extent upon)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.022 Tc -0.0096 Tw [(where one stands or)54.9(, in keeping with the theme of this chapter)55(,)]TJ T* -0.0021 Tc -0.0055 Tw [(what counts. Experiences as an adult learner)54.8(, and experiences with)]TJ T* -0.0037 Tc -0.0039 Tw (planning, organizing, and perhaps teaching in an adult educational)Tj T* -0.0109 Tc 0.0033 Tw (setting lead to varying understandings of the ?eld. What is common)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc 0.0297 Tw (to all notions of adult education is that some concept of adult)Tj T* -0.0047 Tc -0.0029 Tw (undergirds the de?nition, and that the activity is intentional. Like-)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc -0.0082 Tw (wise, the adult educator is one who has ?an educational role in)Tj T* -0.0071 Tc -0.0005 Tw (working with adults? \(Usher and Bryant, 1989, p. 2\). Therefore, we)Tj T* 0.0051 Tc 0.0073 Tw (de?ne adult education as )Tj /F4 1 Tf 10.4328 0 TD (activities intentionally designed for the pur-)Tj -10.4328 -1.3636 TD 0.005 Tc (pose of bringing about learning among those whose age, social roles, or)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (self-perception de?ne them as adults.)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0056 Tw [(Clearly)73.9(, our de?nition and several of the others included above)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0101 Tc 0.0025 Tw (re?ect a broad-based perspective on what counts as adult education:)Tj T* 0.0022 Tc 0.0102 Tw (it is virtually any activity for adults designed to bring about learn-)Tj T* -0.011 Tc 0.0034 Tw (ing. Thus, all of the examples at the beginning of this section would)Tj T* -0.0067 Tc -0.0009 Tw (be considered adult education. Furthermore, we would consider the)Tj T* 0.0039 Tc 0.0085 Tw [(aerobics instructor)54.8(, nurse, private consultant, literacy worker)54.7(, and)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (community activist all to be engaged in adult education.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0165 Tc -0.0041 Tw [(Historically)73.8(, the term )]TJ /F4 1 Tf 9.2351 0 TD (adult education )Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.2546 0 TD (was preceded by several)Tj -16.8532 -1.3636 TD -0.009 Tc 0.0014 Tw (other terms designed to capture what was seen as a new educational)Tj T* 0.0063 Tc 0.0061 Tw (phenomenon \(Stubble?eld and Rachal, 1992\). In the nineteenth)Tj T* 0.0077 Tc 0.0047 Tw [(century)73.9(, the term )]TJ /F4 1 Tf 7.3531 0 TD (university extension )Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.8349 0 TD (was imported from England,)Tj -15.188 -1.3636 TD 0.0169 Tc -0.0045 Tw (but its meaning was too narrow to capture what was evolving in)Tj T* -0.0017 Tc -0.0059 Tw (North America. ?Popular education? was promoted by some in the)Tj ET Q 41 719 171.239 13.015 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxp 5/27/07 11:36 AM Page 8)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 14 0 obj > endobj 15 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 42 690 432 -648 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 114 609.8064 Tm 0 g 0.0249 Tc 0.0187 Tw (late 1800s not only to include university extension but also to)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD -0.0034 Tc -0.0042 Tw (re?ect a concern with appealing to the masses. The term )Tj /F4 1 Tf 22.8467 0 TD -0.0033 Tc -0.0043 Tw (home edu-)Tj -22.8467 -1.3636 TD 0.0058 Tc 0 Tw (cation )Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.5742 0 TD 0.0066 Tw [(was promoted by Melvil Dewey)73.9(, inventor of the book-cata-)]TJ -2.5742 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (loguing system, to re?ect general self-improvement for adults.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0019 Tc 0.0105 Tw (Sporadic use of the term )Tj /F4 1 Tf 10.1802 0 TD (adult education )Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.0491 0 TD (began to appear in the)Tj -17.593 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0064 Tw [(last decade or two of the nineteenth century)73.9(, becoming more pop-)]TJ T* -0.002 Tc -0.0056 Tw (ular by about 1900. Stubble?eld and Rachal \(1992\) write that ?the)Tj T* -0.0022 Tc -0.0054 Tw [(perio)-9.9(d from 1891 to 1916 can be regarded as the gestational perio)-9.8(d)]TJ T* -0.0013 Tc -0.0063 Tw (in the evolution of the phrase that would both encompass and to a)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (signi?cant degree displace most of its competitors? \(p. 114\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0021 Tc -0.0055 Tw [(Three events occurred after W)54.9(orld W)54.9(ar I that served to cement)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0002 Tc -0.0074 Tw (the usage of )Tj /F4 1 Tf 5.0011 0 TD (adult education )Tj /F2 1 Tf 5.9801 0 TD (as the preferred term: a British publica-)Tj -10.9812 -1.3636 TD 0.0249 Tc -0.0038 Tw (tion reviewing the status of adult education was published, the)Tj T* 0.1286 Tw [(W)54.8(orld Association for Adult Education was formed, and the)]TJ T* -0.0062 Tc -0.0014 Tw (Carnegie Corporation became actively involved in establishing the)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (?eld of adult education \(Stubble?eld and Rachal, 1992\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0026 Tc 0.0098 Tw (The scope of activities that the term )Tj /F4 1 Tf 15.1344 0 TD (adult education )Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.0593 0 TD (covers has)Tj -22.5573 -1.3636 TD -0.0145 Tc 0.0069 Tw (evolved over the years. Knowles \(1977\), who documented the broad)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc -0.0091 Tw (history of the field, observed that adult education has typically)Tj T* -0.0023 Tc -0.0053 Tw (emerged in response to speci?c needs, and that its growth has been)Tj T* 0.0133 Tc -0.0009 Tw [(episo)-9.9(dic rather than steady)74(. In the Colonial perio)-9.8(d, for example,)]TJ T* -0.0054 Tc -0.0022 Tw (adult education had a moral and religious imperative, whereas after)Tj T* -0.0071 Tc -0.0005 Tw (the colonies became a nation, adult education was more focused on)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(developing leaders and goo)-9.9(d citizens.)]TJ 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0176 Tc -0.0052 Tw [(The mo)-9.9(dern era of adult education has been concerned with)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.007 Tw (educating and retraining adults to keep the United States compet-)Tj T* 0.0067 Tc 0.0057 Tw (itive in a global economic market. In addition, population trends)Tj T* -0.0015 Tc -0.0061 Tw (such as growing ethnic diversity and the ?graying? of North Amer-)Tj T* -0.0038 Tc -0.0038 Tw (ica; the shift from an industrial to a service- and information-based)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc 0.0683 Tw [(economy)73.9(, which is displacing workers and creating a need for)]TJ T* 0.0039 Tc 0.0085 Tw (retraining and new careers; and technological advances are forces)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(shaping adult education to)-9.9(day)73.9(.)]TJ 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.007 Tc -0.0006 Tw [(V)73.9(arious responses to these challenges have contributed to de?n-)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0174 Tc -0.005 Tw (ing the meaning and scope of adult education. For example, the)Tj 9 0 0 9 285.5285 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(What Counts as Adult Education?)-2002(9)]TJ ET Q 41 719 171.239 13.015 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxp 5/27/07 11:36 AM Page 9)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 16 0 obj > endobj 17 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 42 690 432 -648 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 83.5 642.7961 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(10)-1722.2(T)]TJ 6.75 0 0 6.75 114.0029 642.7961 Tm -0.0003 Tc (HE)Tj 9 0 0 9 125.2557 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (P)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 130.2588 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(ROFESSION)-333.5(AND)]TJ 9 0 0 9 187.2642 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (P)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 192.2673 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(RACTICE)-333.4(OF)]TJ 9 0 0 9 235.392 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (A)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 242.3925 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc [(DUL)110.6(T)]TJ 9 0 0 9 262.2722 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (E)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 267.2754 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc [(DUCA)110.6(TION)]TJ 11 0 0 11 108 609.8064 Tm -0.0199 Tc (term )Tj /F4 1 Tf 2.0407 0 TD 0.0023 Tw (human resource development)Tj /F2 1 Tf 10.606 0 TD -0.0197 Tc 0.0021 Tw (\(HRD\) has sprung into use in North)Tj -12.6467 -1.3636 TD -0.0151 Tc -0.0025 Tw (America in reference to the training, education, and development of)Tj T* -0.0204 Tc 0.0028 Tw (employees in the workplace. Likewise, )Tj /F4 1 Tf 14.9303 0 TD (distance education)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.7268 0 TD (re?ects many)Tj -21.6571 -1.3636 TD 0.0027 Tc -0.0003 Tw (of the technological advances that )Tj 14.2832 0 TD (allow instruction to )Tj 8.2495 0 TD 0.0127 Tc (take place)Tj -22.5327 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (between geographically separated teachers and adult students.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0171 Tc -0.0047 Tw [(Currently)73.8(, there are multiple and sometimes competing con-)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0042 Tc 0.0082 Tw (ceptions of what adult education encompasses. Rubenson \(1989\),)Tj T* 0.0173 Tc -0.0049 Tw (for example, points out that North American adult education is)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0065 Tw (most often de?ned in terms of learners and learning, thus giving it)Tj T* 0.0113 Tc 0.0011 Tw (a particularly psychological orientation in which ?the context of)Tj T* -0.0072 Tc -0.0004 Tw (education is largely ignored? \(p. 59\). Others see the context mainly)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.0124 Tw (in terms of technical and economic imperatives and thus are most)Tj T* -0.0009 Tc -0.0067 Tw (comfortable with a human resource development orientation. Still)Tj T* -0.0058 Tc -0.0018 Tw (others, such as Cunningham \(1989\), want a social action and com-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (munity focus to have more prominence.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0019 Tc -0.0057 Tw (How we position ourselves to view the ?eld is crucial to what is)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0051 Tc -0.0025 Tw (included in adult education. ?If we ask different questions, seek dif-)Tj T* 0.0149 Tc (ferent information, or allow different boundaries,? Cunningham)Tj T* -0.0084 Tc 0.0008 Tw (writes, ?we might de?ne the education of adults broadly as a human)Tj T* 0.0054 Tc 0.007 Tw [(activity)73.9(, not a profession or a ?eld seeking ?scienti?c? veri?cation.)]TJ T* 0.0236 Tc -0.0112 Tw [(W)54.9(e)0( might look beyond institutions to the popular social move-)]TJ T* 0.0056 Tc 0.0068 Tw (ments, grass roots education, voluntary associations, and commu-)Tj T* -0.0069 Tc -0.0007 Tw [(nities pro)-9.9(ducing and disseminating knowledge as a human activity?)]TJ T* 0 Tc 0 Tw (\(pp. 33?34\).)Tj /F1 1 Tf 13 0 0 13 108 227.3064 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(Related T)110.7(erms and Concepts)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 108 204.8064 Tm 0.0196 Tc -0.0072 Tw (A number of terms and concepts are used by some people inter-)Tj T* -0.0133 Tc 0.0057 Tw (changeably with the term )Tj /F4 1 Tf 10.2992 0 TD (adult education.)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.1167 0 TD (Some terms are being pro-)Tj -16.4159 -1.3636 TD -0.0097 Tc 0.0021 Tw (moted as preferred substitutes for adult education, while others refer)Tj T* -0.0102 Tc 0.0026 Tw (to speci?c forms of adult education; and some are more popular out-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (side North America.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0138 Tc 0.0062 Tw (Considered an equivalent of the broadest de?nition of adult edu-)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0065 Tc 0.0059 Tw (cation, the term )Tj /F4 1 Tf 6.9038 0 TD (continuing education )Tj /F2 1 Tf 8.2029 0 TD (is growing in usage in North)Tj ET Q 41 719 176.04 13.015 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxp 5/27/07 11:36 AM Page 10)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 18 0 obj > endobj 19 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 42 690 432 -648 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 114 609.8064 Tm 0 g 0.0249 Tc 0.1122 Tw (America. Apps, in his book )Tj /F4 1 Tf 12.5945 0 TD (Problems in Continuing Education)Tj /F2 1 Tf -12.5945 -1.3636 TD -0.0043 Tc -0.0033 Tw (\(1979\), makes the case for adopting the term rather than )Tj /F4 1 Tf 22.9656 0 TD (adult edu-)Tj -22.9656 -1.3636 TD -0.003 Tc 0 Tw (cation )Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.5013 0 TD -0.0046 Tw (because ?for many people, ?adult education? connotes ?catch-)Tj -2.5013 -1.3636 TD -0.0136 Tc 0.006 Tw (ing up?? and is thus associated exclusively with adult basic education)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0017 Tw (\(p. 73\); this association is underscored by much national and state)Tj T* 0.0131 Tc -0.0007 Tw (legislation. Furthermore, the use of the term )Tj /F4 1 Tf 18.6752 0 TD (continuing education)Tj /F2 1 Tf -18.6752 -1.3636 TD -0.0043 Tc -0.0033 Tw (gets around the problem of de?ning ?adult? and the use of the term)Tj /F4 1 Tf T* -0.0128 Tc 0.0052 Tw (adult educator )Tj /F2 1 Tf 5.4271 0 TD (\(as opposed to )Tj /F4 1 Tf 5.8498 0 TD (child educator?)Tj /F2 1 Tf 5.6363 0 TD [(Apps asks\). Finally)73.9(, adult)]TJ -16.9131 -1.3636 TD -0.0046 Tc -0.003 Tw (education is seen in a restricted way by some as an extension of the)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (public school system \(Apps, 1979\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0045 Tc 0.0119 Tw [(Perhaps because institutions of higher education have also used)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0084 Tc -0.0043 Tw (the term )Tj /F4 1 Tf 3.6371 0 TD (continuing education )Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.8711 0 TD (to mean evening and weekend degree-)Tj -11.5082 -1.3636 TD -0.0056 Tc -0.007 Tw (credit offerings for adults, and because the word )Tj /F4 1 Tf 19.1325 0 TD 0 Tw (continuing )Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.1263 0 TD -0.0071 Tw (is associ-)Tj -23.2588 -1.3636 TD -0.0164 Tc 0.0038 Tw (ated with professionals staying updated and credentialed \(continuing)Tj T* 0.0111 Tc 0.0013 Tw (professional education\), the term by itself has not caught on as a)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0125 Tw (replacement for )Tj /F4 1 Tf 6.6327 0 TD (adult education.)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.3552 0 TD 0 Tw [(Rather)54.8(, )]TJ /F4 1 Tf 3.2341 0 TD 0 Tc 0.0124 Tw (adult and continuing educa-)Tj -16.2219 -1.3636 TD -0.0034 Tc 0 Tw (tion)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.6732 0 TD -0.0033 Tc -0.0043 Tw (seems to be the preferred usage. For example, an encyclopedia-)Tj -1.6732 -1.3636 TD 0.0167 Tc (type overview of the ?eld of adult education has been published)Tj T* 0.0056 Tc 0.0068 Tw (approximately every ten years since the 1930s. The titles of these)Tj T* -0.0021 Tc -0.0055 Tw (?handbooks? have all contained the term )Tj /F4 1 Tf 16.7703 0 TD (adult education,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.2845 0 TD (until one)Tj -23.0548 -1.3636 TD -0.0029 Tc -0.0047 Tw (was published in 1989 with the title )Tj /F4 1 Tf 14.6103 0 TD (Handbook of Adult and Contin-)Tj -14.6103 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (uing Education.)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0004 Tc 0.012 Tw (It was also in the 1980s that the major professional association)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0078 Tc 0.0002 Tw (for adult educators added the word )Tj /F4 1 Tf 13.9473 0 TD 0 Tw (continuing)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.1091 0 TD 0.0002 Tw [(to its name. Similarly)73.9(,)]TJ -18.0564 -1.3636 TD -0.0022 Tc -0.0054 Tw (the popular )Tj /F4 1 Tf 4.8512 0 TD (New Directions)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.1226 0 TD (monograph series, originally titled )Tj /F4 1 Tf 13.9241 0 TD 0 Tw (New)Tj -24.8979 -1.3636 TD 0.0107 Tc 0.0017 Tw (Directions for Continuing Education,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 14.7319 0 TD (underwent a name change in)Tj -14.7319 -1.3636 TD -0.0021 Tc -0.0055 Tw (1990 to become )Tj /F4 1 Tf 6.6457 0 TD (New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education;)Tj /F2 1 Tf -6.6457 -1.3636 TD 0.0155 Tc -0.0031 Tw (this was done in an effort to broaden the target audience for the)Tj T* 0.0131 Tc -0.0007 Tw [(publication. Finally)73.9(, a 1990 reference book de?ning terms in the)]TJ T* -0.0122 Tc 0.0046 Tw (?eld is titled )Tj /F4 1 Tf 5.0796 0 TD (An International Dictionary of Adult and Continuing Edu-)Tj -5.0796 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (cation)Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.5264 0 TD (\(Jarvis, 1990\).)Tj -1.1627 -1.3636 TD 0.0098 Tw (Other common terms in use in North America refer to speci?c)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.008 Tc 0.0044 Tw (forms or content areas of adult education and re?ect speci?c pur-)Tj T* -0.0123 Tc 0.0047 Tw (poses and goals. )Tj /F4 1 Tf 6.4143 0 TD (Adult basic education )Tj /F2 1 Tf 8.1019 0 TD (refers to instructional programs)Tj 9 0 0 9 285.5285 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(What Counts as Adult Education?)-1502(11)]TJ ET Q 41 719 176.04 13.015 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxp 5/27/07 11:36 AM Page 11)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 20 0 obj > endobj 21 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 42 690 432 -648 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 83.5 642.7961 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(12)-1722.2(T)]TJ 6.75 0 0 6.75 114.0029 642.7961 Tm -0.0003 Tc (HE)Tj 9 0 0 9 125.2557 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (P)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 130.2588 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(ROFESSION)-333.5(AND)]TJ 9 0 0 9 187.2642 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (P)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 192.2673 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(RACTICE)-333.4(OF)]TJ 9 0 0 9 235.392 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (A)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 242.3925 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc [(DUL)110.6(T)]TJ 9 0 0 9 262.2722 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (E)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 267.2754 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc [(DUCA)110.6(TION)]TJ 11 0 0 11 108 609.8064 Tm -0.0086 Tc 0.001 Tw (for adults whose basic skills \(reading, writing, and computation\) are)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD -0.004 Tc -0.0036 Tw (assessed below the ninth-grade level. Adult basic education usually)Tj T* -0.0103 Tc 0 Tw (includes )Tj /F4 1 Tf 3.4934 0 TD 0.0027 Tw (adult literacy education, )Tj /F2 1 Tf 9.0434 0 TD 0.0026 Tw (which focuses on adults whose basic)Tj -12.5368 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(skills are fourth-grade level or below)73.9(.)]TJ 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0119 Tc 0.0005 Tw (For those adults whose skills are above the eighth-grade level)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0072 Tc 0.0052 Tw (but who have not graduated from high school, the term )Tj /F4 1 Tf 23.0758 0 TD (adult sec-)Tj -23.0758 -1.3636 TD 0.0131 Tc -0.0007 Tw (ondary education)Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.94 0 TD (is used. Adult secondary education includes the)Tj -6.94 -1.3636 TD 0.0089 Tc 0.0035 Tw (general education development, or GED, diploma \(a high school)Tj T* 0.0205 Tc -0.0081 Tw (diploma through examination\), high school credit programs for)Tj T* -0.0079 Tc 0.0003 Tw [(adults, and external diploma programs. Finally)74(, ?English as a second)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0018 Tw (language? \(ESL\) programs are for adults who are not native speak-)Tj T* 0 Tw (ers of English.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0249 Tc 0.1313 Tw (Postsecondary institutions, including vocational-technical)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0067 Tc 0.0057 Tw [(schools, community colleges, and four)37(-year colleges and universi-)]TJ T* -0.0043 Tc -0.0033 Tw (ties, use a variety of terms to refer to credit and noncredit activities)Tj T* 0.0059 Tc 0.0065 Tw (that extend beyond the daytime programs serving students of tra-)Tj T* -0.0026 Tc -0.005 Tw (ditional college age. )Tj /F4 1 Tf 8.2584 0 TD (Continuing education,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 8.653 0 TD (mentioned above, is one)Tj -16.9115 -1.3636 TD -0.0074 Tc -0.0002 Tw (such term; )Tj /F4 1 Tf 4.3897 0 TD -0.0003 Tw (general extension )Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.5327 0 TD 0 Tw (and )Tj /F4 1 Tf 1.7206 0 TD -0.0003 Tw (university extension )Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.5096 0 TD -0.0002 Tw (are others; while)Tj /F4 1 Tf -20.1526 -1.3636 TD -0.0062 Tc -0.0014 Tw (community services)Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.433 0 TD (\(which usually refers to noncredit leisure courses)Tj -7.433 -1.3636 TD 0.0076 Tc 0.0048 Tw (and cultural activities, particularly in the community college set-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(ting\) is yet another)54.8(.)]TJ 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0135 Tc -0.0011 Tw (The term )Tj /F4 1 Tf 4.1741 0 TD 0 Tw (extension )Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.8828 0 TD -0.0011 Tw (is also used by the Cooperative Extension)Tj -9.4206 -1.3636 TD 0.0015 Tc 0.0109 Tw (Service \(CES\), a program funded at federal, state, and local levels)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0099 Tw (with of?ces in most counties of each state. CES offers information)Tj T* 0.0031 Tc 0.0093 Tw (and educational programs to all residents on topics such as home-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0007 Tw [(making, agriculture, youth, the environment, public policy)73.9(, and so)]TJ T* 0 Tw (on \(Blackburn, 1988; Forest, 1989\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0076 Tc [(T)128.8(wo other terms, )]TJ /F4 1 Tf 6.9637 0 TD -0.0075 Tc -0.0001 Tw (nontraditional education )Tj /F2 1 Tf 9.1965 0 TD 0 Tw (\(or )Tj /F4 1 Tf 1.4419 0 TD -0.0076 Tc (nontraditional study)Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.3729 0 TD 0 Tc (\))Tj -26.3385 -1.3636 TD 0.0119 Tc (and )Tj /F4 1 Tf 1.7982 0 TD 0.0005 Tw (community education, )Tj /F2 1 Tf 8.9146 0 TD (are commonly used in North America.)Tj -10.7127 -1.3636 TD -0.0087 Tc 0.0011 Tw (Invented in North America and popularized by the Commission on)Tj T* -0.0023 Tc -0.0053 Tw [(Non-T)110.7(raditional Study)73.8(, )]TJ /F4 1 Tf 9.6138 0 TD -0.0022 Tc -0.0054 Tw (nontraditional education )Tj /F2 1 Tf 9.3182 0 TD -0.0023 Tc -0.0053 Tw (refers to the variety)Tj -18.932 -1.3636 TD -0.0092 Tc 0.0016 Tw (of ways in which adults can receive credit toward a degree in higher)Tj T* 0.0023 Tc 0.0101 Tw (education. These ways include transfer credit, credit for experien-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0045 Tw (tial learning, and credit by examination. External degree programs)Tj ET Q 41 719 176.04 13.015 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxp 5/27/07 11:36 AM Page 12)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 22 0 obj > endobj 23 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 42 690 432 -648 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 114 609.8064 Tm 0 g 0.0038 Tc 0.0086 Tw [(and completion programs for bachelor?)54.8(s degrees make use of these)]TJ 0 -1.3636 TD -0.0107 Tc 0.0031 Tw (nontraditional credit options. )Tj /F4 1 Tf 11.8979 0 TD (Community education)Tj /F2 1 Tf 8.4563 0 TD (may refer to any)Tj -20.3542 -1.3636 TD 0.0107 Tc 0.0017 Tw (formal or informal action-oriented or problem-solving education)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc 0.0131 Tw [(that takes place in the community)73.8(, or it may refer to a specific)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0013 Tw (movement ?supported for many years by the Mott Foundation and)Tj T* 0.0002 Tc 0.0122 Tw [(dedicated to making neighborhoo)-9.9(d public schools centers for edu-)]TJ T* 0.0082 Tc 0.0042 Tw (cational, cultural, and recreational activity for people of all ages?)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (\(Darkenwald and Merriam, 1982, p. 13\).)Tj /F1 1 Tf 0 -2.2727 TD [(International T)110.7(erms)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 0 -1.8182 TD -0.0088 Tc 0.0012 Tw (A number of terms referring to adult education are more commonly)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD 0.0001 Tc 0.0123 Tw (used outside of North America. )Tj /F4 1 Tf 13.008 0 TD 0.0002 Tc (Lifelong learning )Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.5267 0 TD 0 Tw (and )Tj /F4 1 Tf 1.763 0 TD 0.0122 Tw (lifelong educa-)Tj -21.2977 -1.3636 TD -0.0075 Tc 0 Tw (tion )Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.6563 0 TD -0.0001 Tw (actually refer to a concept of education broader than adult edu-)Tj -1.6563 -1.3636 TD 0.0072 Tc 0.0052 Tw (cation; both terms cast learning or education as a cradle-to-grave)Tj T* 0.0019 Tc 0.0105 Tw (activity in which public schooling as well as adult and continuing)Tj T* 0.0154 Tc -0.003 Tw (education are important but not exclusive players. This concept)Tj T* -0.0061 Tc -0.0015 Tw [(requires a rethinking of a society?)54.8(s educational structure, the timing)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (of compulsory education, and so on.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0052 Tc 0.0026 Tw (The United Nations Educational, Scienti?c and Cultural Orga-)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0299 Tc 0.0098 Tw (nization \(UNESCO\) has taken the lead in promoting lifelong)Tj T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0091 Tw (learning as a kind of master concept ?denoting an overall scheme)Tj T* 0.0112 Tc 0.0062 Tw (aimed both at restructuring the existing education system and at)Tj T* 0.0039 Tc -0.0065 Tw (developing the entire educational potential outside the education)Tj T* 0.0216 Tc -0.0042 Tw (system; [it] should extend throughout life, include all skills and)Tj T* -0.0024 Tc -0.0002 Tw (branches of knowledge, use all possible means, and give the oppor-)Tj T* 0.0299 Tc 0.1195 Tw (tunity to all people for full development of the personality?)Tj T* 0.005 Tc -0.0001 Tw (\(UNESCO, 1977, p. 2\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.018 Tc 0.0054 Tw (In the United States, the terms can be found in the literature and)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0199 Tc -0.0125 Tw (rhetoric of both general education and adult education, but not)Tj T* 0.0051 Tc 0.0023 Tw (much in practice. The U.S. Congress actually passed the Lifelong)Tj T* -0.0112 Tc -0.0014 Tw (Learning Act in 1976 but never appropriated funds to implement it.)Tj T* -0.0101 Tc -0.0025 Tw [(W)54.8(orldwide, ?lifelong learning? is beginning to take precedence over)]TJ T* 0.0025 Tc 0.0049 Tw (?lifelong education.? This probably represents a general shift from)Tj T* -0.0023 Tc 0.0097 Tw (thinking in terms of education to thinking in terms of learning?a)Tj 9 0 0 9 285.5285 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(What Counts as Adult Education?)-1502(13)]TJ ET Q 41 719 176.04 13.015 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxp 5/27/07 11:36 AM Page 13)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 24 0 obj > endobj 25 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 42 690 432 -648 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 83.5 642.7961 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(14)-1722.2(T)]TJ 6.75 0 0 6.75 114.0029 642.7961 Tm -0.0003 Tc (HE)Tj 9 0 0 9 125.2557 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (P)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 130.2588 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(ROFESSION)-333.5(AND)]TJ 9 0 0 9 187.2642 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (P)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 192.2673 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(RACTICE)-333.4(OF)]TJ 9 0 0 9 235.392 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (A)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 242.3925 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc [(DUL)110.6(T)]TJ 9 0 0 9 262.2722 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (E)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 267.2754 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc [(DUCA)110.6(TION)]TJ 11 0 0 11 108 609.8064 Tm 0.0011 Tc 0.0062 Tw [(shift re?ected in 1985 in UNESCO?)54.9(s focusing ?not on the right to)]TJ 0 -1.3636 TD -0.0051 Tc 0 Tw (be educated but on the right to learn? \(Thomas, 1991a, p. 18\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0035 Tw (In a recent analysis of the terms )Tj /F4 1 Tf 13.0503 0 TD -0.0034 Tw (lifelong education )Tj /F2 1 Tf 6.7675 0 TD 0 Tw (and )Tj /F4 1 Tf 1.7463 0 TD -0.0035 Tw (adult edu-)Tj -22.9277 -1.3636 TD -0.0012 Tc 0 Tw (cation, )Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.8441 0 TD -0.0064 Tw [(W)54.8(ain \(1993\) points out that ?the common identi?cation of)]TJ -2.8441 -1.3636 TD -0.0056 Tc -0.002 Tw (lifelong education with adult education? has had ?detrimental con-)Tj T* 0.0135 Tc -0.0011 Tw [(sequences . . . for both? \(p. 85\). According to W)54.8(ain, UNESCO?)54.8(s)]TJ T* 0.0091 Tc 0.0033 Tw (withdrawal of support for the lifelong education movement, cou-)Tj T* -0.0017 Tc -0.0059 Tw [(pled with the movement?)54.8(s lack of substantive theoretical contribu-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.008 Tw (tions since 1979, have resulted in the movement apparently being)Tj T* 0 Tw (?on its way out? \(p. 93\).)Tj /F4 1 Tf 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.004 Tc 0.0084 Tw (Education permanente )Tj /F2 1 Tf 8.8217 0 TD (is the French term for lifelong education)Tj -10.1854 -1.3636 TD 0.0148 Tc -0.0024 Tw (and is sometimes used in Europe, as is )Tj /F4 1 Tf 15.9733 0 TD (recurrent education, )Tj /F2 1 Tf 8.1938 0 TD 0 Tw (which)Tj -24.167 -1.3636 TD 0.0108 Tc 0.0016 Tw (again refers to lifelong learning and education. 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The concept is continually debated in the literature \(see,)Tj T* 0.0087 Tc 0.0037 Tw [(for)-262.6(example, Pratt, 1993\); nevertheless, it underpins much of the)]TJ T* -0.0004 Tc -0.0072 Tw (writing about the practice of adult education. 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This bo)-10(dy of work refers to)]TJ 0 -1.3636 TD 0.0247 Tc -0.0123 Tw (that learning in which )Tj /F4 1 Tf 9.8524 0 TD (?the learner chooses to assume the primary)Tj -9.8524 -1.3636 TD 0.0075 Tc 0.0049 Tw (responsibility for planning, carrying out, and evaluating those learning)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (experiences?)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.9121 0 TD -0.0015 Tw (\(Caffarella, 1993, p. 28, emphasis in original\). 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This contin-)Tj T* -0.0029 Tc -0.0047 Tw (uum ranges from ?the full-time ?professional? educator of adults [to])Tj T* -0.009 Tc 0.0014 Tw (the individual whose vocational and non-vocational activities have)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (repercussions for adult learning? \(p. 2\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0125 Tw (Therefore, the answer to the question ?Who is an adult educa-)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0043 Tc 0.0081 Tw (tor?? is quite broad and again re?ects what ?counts? to the person)Tj T* -0.0072 Tc -0.0004 Tw (doing the de?ning. Whether or not one )Tj /F4 1 Tf 16.0022 0 TD 0 Tw (identi?es)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.455 0 TD -0.0004 Tw (oneself as an adult)Tj ET Q 41 719 176.04 13.015 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxp 5/27/07 11:36 AM Page 16)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 30 0 obj > endobj 31 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 42 690 432 -648 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 114 609.8064 Tm 0 g -0.0056 Tc -0.002 Tw (educator?or is even aware of the role?varies with the setting and)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD 0.0211 Tc -0.0087 Tw (level of professional preparation. \(See Chapter Nine for a more)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (thorough discussion of professional roles.\))Tj /F1 1 Tf 13 0 0 13 114 542.3064 Tm (Goals and Purposes)Tj /F2 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 114 519.8064 Tm -0.0077 Tc 0.0001 Tw (Most practitioners in adult education are so caught up in the every-)Tj T* -0.0048 Tc -0.0028 Tw (day concerns of getting the job done that they rarely consider what)Tj T* -0.0037 Tc -0.0039 Tw (they ultimately hope to accomplish. And many have not identi?ed)Tj T* 0.0098 Tc 0.0026 Tw (themselves as adult educators, even though they may be working)Tj T* -0.002 Tc -0.0056 Tw [(with adults in an educative capacity)74(. The goals and purposes of the)]TJ T* -0.0106 Tc 0.003 Tw (activity thus tend to become aligned with speci?c content. The aer-)Tj T* 0.0007 Tc 0.0116 Tw [(obics instructor)54.8(, for example, probably thinks of physical ?tness as)]TJ T* 0.0022 Tc 0.0102 Tw [(the goal; the nurse educator)54.7(, of increased medical knowledge; and)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (the consultant, of training employees to be better managers.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0129 Tc -0.0005 Tw [(However)54.8(, if we consider the purpose or goal of our work from)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0093 Tc 0.0031 Tw (the broader perspective of adult education, we get some different)Tj T* -0.0038 Tc -0.0038 Tw [(answers. Looking at the overall goals and purposes of one?)54.8(s practice)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0031 Tw (is one way of situating oneself in the ?eld; it is also another way of)Tj T* 0.0143 Tc -0.0019 Tw (asking what counts as adult education. In Colonial America, for)Tj T* 0.0235 Tc -0.0111 Tw (example, the primary purpose of adult education was salvation;)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0046 Tw (learning to read the Bible was the means. After the Revolutionary)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.0066 Tw [(W)54.8(a)0.3(r)54.8(,)0( the need for an informed and enlightened citizenry to sustain)]TJ T* 0.0146 Tc -0.0022 Tw (and lead the new democratic republic became crucial. 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W)54.9(e?ll revisit this issue in)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (subsequent chapters of this book.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0069 Tc -0.0007 Tw (From a slightly different perspective, Knowles \(1980b\) speaks of)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0125 Tw (the ?mission? of adult education as satisfying the needs of individ-)Tj T* 0.0041 Tc 0.0083 Tw [(uals, institutions, and society)73.7(. It is an adult educator?)54.7(s responsibil-)]TJ T* -0.0009 Tc -0.0067 Tw (ity to ?help individuals satisfy their needs and achieve their goals,?)Tj T* -0.0134 Tc 0.0058 Tw [(the ultimate goal being ?human ful?llment? \(p. 27\). An institution?)54.7(s)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0008 Tw [(needs, on the other hand, are to develop its constituency)73.9(, improve)]TJ T* 0.0097 Tc 0.0027 Tw (its operational effectiveness, and establish ?public understanding)Tj T* -0.0063 Tc -0.0013 Tw [(and involvement? \(p. 35\). 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Universities and professional associa-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (tions are the primary providers of programs in this area.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0017 Tc 0.0057 Tw (Several interesting observations can be made by standing back)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0031 Tc 0.0105 Tw (from these typologies and considering the changing sociohistorical)Tj T* -0.0082 Tc (context. First, there is the absence of any explicit moral or religious)Tj T* 0.0116 Tc -0.0092 Tw (purpose, although Apps \(1985\) does note that this was an aim of)Tj T* -0.0244 Tc 0.0068 Tw (adult education in early America. Second, personal growth and devel-)Tj T* -0.0098 Tc 0 Tw (opment )Tj 3.3045 0 TD -0.0048 Tc 0.0122 Tw [(\(including liberal education\) and occupational and career)37(-)]TJ -3.3045 -1.3636 TD 0.0199 Tc 0.1848 Tw [(related education have been constant goals of mo)-10.1(dern adult)]TJ T* 0.0069 Tc 0.0005 Tw (education. Third, the stability of personal and occupational goals)Tj T* -0.008 Tc -0.0046 Tw (contrasts somewhat with the political and civic-related purposes. In)Tj T* -0.0026 Tc 0.01 Tw (other words, while preserving the democratic society is still a pow-)Tj T* (erful rationale for much of adult education, a more recent perspec-)Tj T* -0.004 Tc 0.0114 Tw (tive \(as in the goal of ?social transformation?\) sees adult education)Tj T* -0.0147 Tc 0.0021 Tw (as a force for challenging and changing the social structure. A fourth)Tj T* -0.0021 Tc 0.0095 Tw (observation is the recognition in the more recent typologies of the)Tj T* 0.0012 Tc 0.0062 Tw (growing prominence of institutions, especially business and indus-)Tj T* -0.0051 Tc 0 Tw [(try)73.9(, and their focus on training and human resource development.)]TJ 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0026 Tc -0.005 Tw (Circling back to the beginning of this section on goals and pur-)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0184 Tc -0.006 Tw [(poses, readers might now consider what they are trying to effect)]TJ T* -0.0134 Tc 0.0058 Tw (through the practice they are engaged in. What is your best ?match?)Tj T* 0.0235 Tc -0.0111 Tw [(with the purposes listed in T)110.7(able 1.1? Is there a purpose to your)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0032 Tw (activity that is not represented in these typologies? Is your purpose)Tj T* -0.0094 Tc 0.0018 Tw [(congruent with your immediate employer?)54.7(s or with the type of insti-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0064 Tw (tution for which you work? Such inquiry is part of developing your)Tj T* 0 Tw [(philosophy of adult education \(see Chapter T)128.8(wo\).)]TJ ET Q 41 719 176.04 13.015 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxp 5/27/07 11:36 AM Page 22)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 43 0 obj > endobj 44 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 42 690 432 -648 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n BT /F1 1 Tf 13 0 0 13 114 602.3167 Tm 0 g -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(Adult Education?)73.9(s Relationship to Education)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 114 579.8167 Tm -0.0111 Tc 0.0035 Tw (The effort to describe what counts as adult education is tied up with)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD 0.0214 Tc -0.009 Tw [(the desire to establish a separate identity from other education.)]TJ T* 0.0041 Tc 0.0083 Tw (Adult education has thus tended to distance itself from K?12 and)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0085 Tw (higher education and historically has had to struggle for resources,)Tj T* -0.0079 Tc 0.0003 Tw [(recognition, and legitimacy)73.8(. It has been viewed as a marginal enter-)]TJ T* 0.0019 Tc 0.0105 Tw [(prise, expendable in times of ?nancial exigency)73.9(, something that is)]TJ T* -0.0028 Tc -0.0048 Tw [(nice but not necessary to society?)54.8(s well-being. The struggle to ?pro-)]TJ T* -0.0149 Tc 0.0073 Tw (fessionalize? adult education has been one of establishing an identity)Tj T* -0.0032 Tc -0.0044 Tw (separate from that of K?12 and higher education?an identity that)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0017 Tw (is distinct and powerful enough to command attention in national)Tj T* -0.0081 Tc 0.0005 Tw (educational policy formation, as well as ?nd professional space both)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (in academia and the workplace.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0069 Tc 0.0055 Tw (While these issues are still very much present in the discourse)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0026 Tc 0.0098 Tw [(of the ?eld \(see Chapters Four)54.9(, Nine, and Eleven\), some common)]TJ T* 0.0042 Tc 0.0082 Tw (ground has emerged within the last decade where the formal edu-)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc -0.0038 Tw (cational system and the formal sector of adult education might)Tj T* 0.0133 Tc -0.0009 Tw (meet. Certainly all educators are concerned about responding in)Tj T* -0.0058 Tc -0.0018 Tw [(meaningful ways to the challenges posed by the global economy)73.7(, by)]TJ T* 0.0068 Tc 0.0056 Tw [(the shift to an information- and service-based society)73.9(, and by fast)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(developments in technology)73.9(.)]TJ 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.003 Tc (In )Tj /F4 1 Tf 1.1406 0 TD -0.0029 Tc 0.0103 Tw (Beyond Education,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 7.4653 0 TD (Thomas \(1991a\) discusses four challenges)Tj -9.9695 -1.3636 TD -0.0077 Tc -0.0049 Tw (that require the concerted efforts of all levels of education. The ?rst)Tj T* -0.0176 Tc 0 Tw (is )Tj /F4 1 Tf 0.8133 0 TD [(entry)36.6(,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 2.3724 0 TD 0.0049 Tw [(by which he means ?strangers? entering the society)73.7(, the most)]TJ -3.1858 -1.3636 TD -0.0189 Tc 0.0063 Tw [(obvious group being children born into the society)74(. Other entry chal-)]TJ T* -0.0197 Tc 0.0071 Tw [(lenges are newcomers to the host society)73.8(, including immigrants, guest)]TJ T* 0.0036 Tc 0.0038 Tw (workers, and refugees. The second challenge is presented in terms)Tj T* 0.0062 Tc 0.0012 Tw [(of)-257.7(the life cycle )]TJ /F4 1 Tf 6.5599 0 TD 0 Tw (passages)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.416 0 TD 0.0012 Tw [(of society?)54.8(s members. A major passage, of)]TJ -9.9759 -1.3636 TD -0.0174 Tc 0.0048 Tw (course, is becoming an adult, but there are other family-related \(mar-)Tj T* -0.0088 Tc -0.0038 Tw [(riage, parenthoo)-9.9(d\) and work-related \(?rst job, career change, retire-)]TJ T* -0.0063 Tc -0.0063 Tw (ment\) passages as well. Third, Thomas identi?es )Tj /F4 1 Tf 19.3995 0 TD [(societywide c)-14.9(h)-14.9(a)-15(n)-15(g)-14.9(e)-15(s)]TJ /F2 1 Tf -19.3995 -1.3636 TD 0.0066 Tc -0.0042 Tw (such as wars, epidemics, social movements, and so on that ?touch)Tj T* 0.0324 Tc -0.01 Tw (everyone in a society . to varying degrees? \(p. 81\). The fourth)Tj 9 0 0 9 285.5285 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(What Counts as Adult Education?)-1502(23)]TJ ET Q 41 719 176.04 13.015 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxp 5/27/07 11:36 AM Page 23)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 45 0 obj > endobj 46 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 42 690 432 -648 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 83.5 642.7961 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(24)-1722.2(T)]TJ 6.75 0 0 6.75 114.0029 642.7961 Tm -0.0003 Tc (HE)Tj 9 0 0 9 125.2557 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (P)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 130.2588 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(ROFESSION)-333.5(AND)]TJ 9 0 0 9 187.2642 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (P)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 192.2673 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(RACTICE)-333.4(OF)]TJ 9 0 0 9 235.392 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (A)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 242.3925 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc [(DUL)110.6(T)]TJ 9 0 0 9 262.2722 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (E)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 267.2754 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc [(DUCA)110.6(TION)]TJ 11 0 0 11 108 609.8064 Tm 0.0089 Tc 0.0035 Tw (challenge is what Thomas calls )Tj /F4 1 Tf 13.0979 0 TD 0 Tw (exceptions.)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.5255 0 TD 0.0035 Tw (These are people with)Tj -17.6234 -1.3636 TD -0.004 Tc -0.0036 Tw (physical, mental, and emotional disabilities who are found in every)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0016 Tw (society and whose behavior ?differs from the societal norm and for)Tj T* 0 Tw (whom special provision therefore must be made? \(p. 85\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0151 Tc 0.0083 Tw (Another area of common ground is the current critique of formal)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0251 Tc 0.0025 Tw (education in both the schooling and adult education literatures. Ques-)Tj T* -0.0151 Tc 0.0074 Tw (tions are being raised in both ?elds as to the role of formal education)Tj T* -0.011 Tc 0.0084 Tw [(in maintaining the status quo, in perpetuating a class society)73.9(, and in)]TJ T* -0.0068 Tc 0.0042 Tw (reinforcing the present power structure that mitigates against social)Tj T* -0.0151 Tc 0 Tw (change \(Apple, 1993; Hayes and Colin, 1994; Rubenson, 1989\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0109 Tc 0.0083 Tw [(At the same time, society?)54.8(s )]TJ /F4 1 Tf 10.7893 0 TD 0 Tw (informal)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.3258 0 TD (and )Tj /F4 1 Tf 1.7151 0 TD (nonformal)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.037 0 TD 0.0082 Tw (means of edu-)Tj -21.2309 -1.3636 TD 0.0099 Tc (cating its youth and adults are being examined from a number of)Tj T* -0.004 Tc 0.0014 Tw (angles. Rubenson \(1989\) observes that nonformal education, often)Tj T* -0.0099 Tc 0.0073 Tw [(touted as liberatory)73.9(, can also reinforce society?)54.9(s divisions, depending)]TJ T* -0.0118 Tc 0.0092 Tw [(on its goals. The educative power of the family)73.7(, the community)73.8(, and)]TJ T* -0.0166 Tc -0.006 Tw (the mass media has been critically considered by school-based writers)Tj T* -0.0076 Tc 0.005 Tw (and those with an adult perspective. Reed and Loughran \(1984\), in)Tj T* -0.0175 Tc -0.0051 Tw (their study of learning ?beyond schools,? point out that ?many groups)Tj T* -0.0081 Tc 0.0055 Tw (of youth, as well as adults . learn more effectively in nonformal out-)Tj T* -0.0151 Tc 0.0048 Tw (of-school settings? \(p. 5\). They identify vocational training, learning)Tj T* -0.0094 Tc 0.0118 Tw (from experience, internships, and apprenticeships as common vehi-)Tj T* 0.0027 Tc -0.0003 Tw (cles for such learning. In addition, and ?perhaps more important,?)Tj T* -0.025 Tc 0.0074 Tw [(they write, ?is the collective learning of entire groups of people as)-232.5(they)]TJ T* -0.0129 Tc 0.0029 Tw (become involved )Tj 6.9595 0 TD -0.0151 Tc 0 Tw (in the power structures of society? \(p. 5\).)Tj -5.5959 -1.3636 TD 0.0069 Tc 0.0005 Tw (The common ground that all of education shares is in ?guring)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0172 Tc 0.0046 Tw (out the most effective way to prepare members of a society to accom-)Tj T* 0.0053 Tc 0.0021 Tw [(mo)-9.9(date change, and how best to realize the society?)54.8(s stated values)]TJ T* -0.0108 Tc -0.0018 Tw (and goals. That may mean learning to ??t in,? or it may mean learn-)Tj T* -0.0096 Tc -0.003 Tw (ing to challenge a social structure that does not re?ect desired goals.)Tj T* -0.0172 Tc 0.0047 Tw [(These stances are discussed in more depth in the next chapter)54.8(. V)54.8(iew-)]TJ T* 0.0081 Tc -0.0007 Tw (ing learning?and indeed education?as a lifelong endeavor pro-)Tj T* 0.0001 Tc 0.0073 Tw [(vides a basis for educators from all arenas to work together)55(. At the)]TJ T* 0.0049 Tc 0.0025 Tw (same time, adult education need not forfeit its distinctive charac-)Tj T* -0.0051 Tc 0 Tw [(teristics, many of which we have examined in this chapter)54.7(.)]TJ ET Q 41 719 176.04 13.015 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxp 5/27/07 11:36 AM Page 24)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 47 0 obj > endobj 48 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 42 690 432 -648 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.015 516 -732 re W n BT /F1 1 Tf 13 0 0 13 114 602.3167 Tm 0 g -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (Summary)Tj /F2 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 114 579.8167 Tm -0.0021 Tc 0.0095 Tw (Perhaps more than anything else, adult education in North Amer-)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD -0.0038 Tc 0.0112 Tw [(ica is characterized by its diversity of programs, clienteles, and pur-)]TJ T* 0.0097 Tc -0.0023 Tw (poses. Delineating the scope of the adult education ?eld is thus a)Tj T* 0.004 Tc 0.0034 Tw (formidable undertaking of which this chapter is only a beginning.)Tj T* 0.0004 Tc 0.007 Tw (Here we concentrated on \(1\) de?ning adult education and related)Tj T* -0.0185 Tc 0.0059 Tw (concepts, \(2\) identifying some of the goals and purposes of adult edu-)Tj T* -0.0082 Tc 0 Tw [(cation)-0.1(, )]TJ 2.9855 0 TD -0.0181 Tc -0.0045 Tw [(and \(3\) sketching out adult education?)54.9(s relationship to educa-)]TJ -2.9855 -1.3636 TD -0.017 Tc -0.0055 Tw (tion in )Tj 2.8615 0 TD -0.0107 Tc -0.0019 Tw [(general. W)54.8(e)0( hope that you the reader have considered where)]TJ -2.8615 -1.3636 TD -0.0063 Tc -0.0062 Tw [(you ?t in, what you think adult education is, and what the purposes)]TJ T* -0.0051 Tc 0 Tw (of your practice are.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0007 Tc 0.0117 Tw (Implicit in the many de?nitions of adult education as a ?eld of)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0243 Tc -0.0119 Tw (practice is a distinction between education and learning, and a)Tj T* 0.018 Tc -0.0056 Tw (recognition of what it means to be an adult. For our de?nitions,)Tj T* -0.0109 Tc 0.0033 Tw [(a)-242.5(focus on the )]TJ /F4 1 Tf 5.7383 0 TD 0 Tw (adult)Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.0761 0 TD 0.0033 Tw (learner is crucial, as is the notion that the activ-)Tj -7.8144 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.001 Tw (ity is being )Tj /F4 1 Tf 4.6336 0 TD 0 Tw (purposefully)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.8006 0 TD -0.0009 Tw [(educative. 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Table of Contents

Preface.

Preface to the Updated Edition.

The Authors.

Part One: Foundations of Adult Education.

1. What Counts as Adult Education?

2. Philosophical Perspectives.

3. Perspectives on the Past.

4. Adult Education in Contemporary Society.

Part Two: The Organization and Delivery of Adult Education

5. Providers of Formal Adult Education.

6. The Adult Learner and Concepts of Learning.

7. The Global Context of Adult Education.

8. Examining Access and Opportunity.

Part Three: Developing a Professional Field of Practice.

9. Adult Education as a Developing Profession.

10. The Unacknowledged Side of Practice.

11. Reframing Practice: The Future of Adult Education.

Epilogue: A Decade in Review and Trends for the Future.

References.

Name Index.

Subject Index.

Editorial Reviews

“A comprehensive and readable overview of the field of adult education that will be useful to neophyte and seasoned adult educators, scholars, and reflective practitioners.”--Dr. Jovita M. Ross-Gordon, professor and program director, Adult, Professional and Community Education, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas   “Drs. Merriam and Brockett combine their wealth of knowledge and experience in the field to deliver this clever, accurate, highly readable and practical text.”--Dr. Lorraine A. Cavaliere, dean of education and  associate professor, Gwynedd-Mercy College, Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania   “For those wanting to see where adult education has been, where it has gotten to, and where it might be going, Merriam and Brockett’s survey offers a great place to begin a critical reading of a complex field of theory and practice.”--Arthur L. Wilson  , professor of adult education in the Department of Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York