The Pulse Of The Earth by J.m.f. UmbgroveThe Pulse Of The Earth by J.m.f. Umbgrove

The Pulse Of The Earth

byJ.m.f. Umbgrove

Paperback | January 7, 2012

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Problems of current interest relating to the earth's physical history will be discussed in this volume. Each chapter constitutes a subject in itself, but the sequence I have chosen will, I hope, show and explain the deeper correlation of several terrestrial pro­ cesses which, at first sight, appear to be heterogeneous. The geologist follows the changing face of the earth, the oscillations of the sea-level, the pulsation of folding and mountain-building, the periodicity of the ice-ages, the rhythmical cadence of Life. Just as the physician will draw his conclttsions from outward symptoms when examining his patient, so the geologist tries to discover the deeper significance of the sequence of observed phenomena by ieeling the pulse of the earth. The many additions and revisions which have had to be made in this second. edition include three new chapters, several new sections in other chapters, I09 new textfigures, I2 tables and 2 plates. A leu) fundamental geological terms have been explained in Chapter I.
Title:The Pulse Of The EarthFormat:PaperbackDimensions:380 pages, 24.4 × 17 × 0.17 inPublished:January 7, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9401030197

ISBN - 13:9789401030199

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Table of Contents

I. Space and Time.- The universe, the solar-system and the earth.- Cosmic dimensions. Spiral galaxies. The expanding universe. The origin of the solar-system..- The birth of the moon.- The earth and the moon. Lunar volcanism..- The earth's interior.- Interpretation of seismic data. Two different theories on the internal constitution of the earth..- The age of the earth and the universe.- Geological figures. Astronomical methods and the age of meteorites..- The history of the earth's crust.- Precambrian and later history. Alterations of the earth's aspect. A geological cycle. Erosion. Sedimentation. Geosynclines. Folding. Facies. Unconformity. Magma. Periodicity. Contents of the following chapters..- References.- II. Mountain-Chains.- Analysis of the earth's structural history. Mountain-chains of different ages. Epochs of compression. Classification of mountain-belts..- Epochs of compression.- The enormous extent of Pre-Cambrian areas. The foundering of older zones and a presumed accretion of the continents. Centrifugal migration. Dynamic centra of tectonic activity. Alternating increase and decrease of compression. A deep-seated cause and world-wide movements. Exceptions. The influence of the basement. Intersecting structures. Absence of centrifugal displacement..- Mountain-building.- Epochs of compression and elevation. Rejuvenation. The extent of mountains-belts of various ages..- Subsided blocks.- Appalachia and Nova Scotica, Llanoria, Cascadia, Scandia, the submerged area west of the Congo-Basin, Melanesia. Periods of foundering..- References.- III. Basins and Troughs.- Characteristics of basins and troughs. Nomenclature and systematic division..- Continental basins and troughs.- Marginal deeps. Intramontane troughs and idiogeosynclines. Nuclear basins. Discordant basins..- Deep-sea basins and troughs.- Examples in the East-Indies and a comparison with continental types. The abnormal character of the present situation. Periods of rejuvenation of the continental and submarine relief. An open question..- Chronological relations to other phenomena.- Relations to periods of mountain-building and decreasing compression. A deep internal terrestrial process of world-wide activity..- References.- IV. Crust and Substratum.- The composition of the earth's crust and its substratum. Sial and sima. Continental and oceanic sectors. Volcanic and petrographic consequences..- Magmatic clans.- Theory of the origin of igneous rocks belonging to the pacific and mediterranean clans of differentiation from a parental magma-layer of olivine basalt. Other theories..- Tectonic and magmatic cycles.- Crustal folding and the root of a mountain-chain. Belts of isostatic anomalies in the East and West Indies. The magmatic phenomena associated with a subsiding and subsequently buckling crust..- A peridotite-Layer in the substratum.- The relation of peridotite intrusions to certain epochs of down-buckling of a sialic mountain-root..- Zonal migration of geosynclines; continents and ocean-floors.- The pattern of continental shields. The origin of continents and ocean-floors. A primordial, world-wide sialic layer. The origin of an intermediate layer in the earth's crust..- Volcanism in basins.- The occurrence of basic rocks and the absence of acid rocks..- Fragmentation and growth of continents.- Continental rejuvenation. Periodical supply of sialic melts from the substratum..- Summary.- References.- V. Oscillations of the sea-level.- Regional transgressions and regressions.- The alternation of fresh and salt-water bodies in the Baltic Region. Other examples of local rhythms..- World-wide transgressions and regressions.- The synchronism and huge extent of the major trans- and regressions. Possible causes and coincidences with other phenomena. The amount of positive and negative shifts of the sea-level. An important problematical question..- References.- VI. The continental margin.- Problems of the continental shelves and the oceanic coasts of the continents. Classification of continental shelves..- The surface of the shelf.- Hypsometric relation between sea-level and shelf-surface. Older theories on the origin of the shelf. The problem of the shelf-edge at the isobath of 200 meters..- The influence of changing sea-level.- Amount of eustjatic changes. Their possible influence on the grading of the surface of the shelf..- Subsidence of the shelf-area.- Formations on the outer shelf-surface originally deposited in the littoral zone. Deeper surfaces of the shelf..- The marginal flexure of the continents.- Phenomena showing a widespread rejuvenation of the oceanic borders of the continents..- The theory of the marginal flexure..- Marine terraces.- The most recent movements along the marginal flexure. Possible dating of the different shelf-surfaces..- The geophysical side of the problem.- Gravity at the continental margin. The hypothesis of periodical convection currents in the marginal part of the continents. Correlation with other periodical phenomena..- Submarine valleys.- General statement. Classification. Cases to be excluded. The notched shelf-edge. Hypotheses involving a subaerial origin. Hypotheses involving submarine agencies. Gorges extending over the surface of the shelf. Submarine canyons showing a dendritic river-like pattern..- Summary and conclusions.- References.- VII. Island-Arcs.- Geographical distribution. Phenomena associated with island-arcs. Their counterpart on the continents..- The problem.- Restrictions. Short outline of problematic questions to be examined..- Physiographic features.- Genetic classifications. Angle of arc-curvature. The notion of deep-reaching thrustplanes. A simple working hypothesis based on physiographic evidence..- Earthquake zones.- Classification..- Normal-, intermediate-, and deep foci..- The Mechanism..- Distribution of dilatations and compressions. Similarity of the mechanism giving origin to normal tectonic earth shocks and deep-focus earthquakes..- Geographic distribution of deep-focus earthquakes..- Exceptional position of the western and southeastern Pacific..- Deep-reaching shear-zones..- The action of deep-reaching shear-zones and the theory of convection currents..- Terrestrial magnetism.- Agreement with the theory of thermal convection currents. Possible relation between districts of deep-focus earthquakes and anomalies of the vertical component of terrestrial magnetism..- Volcanism and plutonism.- The andesite line..- The boundary between sialic and basaltic sea-floor in the Pacific..- Petrographic provinces..- Distribution of igneous rocks belonging to the pacific and mediterranean provinces. Their mode of origin..- Igneous rocks in geanticlinal belts,.- Plutonism and volcanism in the inner arc. Their mutual relations to epochs of compression. Longitudinal faults and rift-valleys. Volcano-tectonic depressions..- Igneous rocks in geosynclinal troughs..- Their relation to epochs of compression..- Problems to be solved..- A summing up of eight problematic points regarding the origin and site of plutonic and volcanic phenomena..- Deep-sea basins and troughs.- Types of troughs associated with island-arcs. Discussion of a theory on their origin..- Isostatic anomalies.- The boundary of the Pacific Basin..- Oceanic fields of positive anomalies and the theory of convection currents. Relation to physiographic and seismic phenomena and to the petrographic character of the sea-floor..- Single Arcs..- Gravimetric profiles across the islands Guam and Yap. Geological interpretation..- Double Arcs..- Isostatic anomalies in the East- and West Indies. Relations to the topography of the sea-floor. Factors controlling the formation of a single or a double island-arc..- Synthesis.- General statement..- Site of the outer arc..- Crustal waves due to increasing compression. Crustal down-buckle in the zone of strong seismic activity..- Time of origin and epochs of rejuvenation..- Time of origin of the crustal root and epochs of rejuvenation. Origin of a belt of serpentines and other ultrabasic rocks. Respectable antiquity of the zone..- Origin of the double arc..- Crustal waves accompanying the zone of strongly negative anomalies. Origin of deep-sea furrows due to isostatic rise of the negative zone. Origin of the double arc. Central depression on the outer arc. The volcanic inner arc and the geosynclinal troughs on their continentward side. Different types of deep-sea basins. Raised reef-limestones..- Deep-sea furrows..- Remarkable situation of the island Sumba. Relation of its site to the belt of negative anomalies and the submarine topography..- The volcanic inner arc..- Restriction of volcanism to the concave side of an island festoon. Periodical manifestation of volcanism on the inner arc. Absence of volcanism on the outer arc. Interpretation of Upper Tertiary volcanic rocks on islands of the outer arc and on Sumba. The double row of volcanoes in the northern Moluccas. The distribution of active and extinct volcanoes in the Southern Moluccas..- Basins and Troughs behind the inner arc..- Idiogeosynclines. The site of igneous rocks of the mediterranean clan. Deep-sea basins..- Positive anomalies of Isostasy..- Possible cause of their origin. Relation to the belt of negative anomalies and to periodical epochs of compression in the earth's crust..- The inverted arc of Celebes..- Absence of a volcanic "inner" arc. Plutonism and volcanism at the convex side of the negative zone. Tentative interpretation of the major structural features of Celebes..- Evolution.- The question of evolutionary stages represented by different types of island-arcs. Island-arcs and mountain-belts on the continent..- Unsolved problems.- Absence of island-arcs along the southwestern and eastern borders of the Pacific. Japan and the Philippine archipelago..- Summary.- References.- VIII. The Floor of the Oceans.- The antipodal arrangement of continental blocks and oceanic depressions. The tetrahedral theory. Different hypotheses on the origin of the oceanic receptacles..- The major characteristics of the bottom-relief.- A division into four areas and a comparison with geological and geophysical data. Antarctic basins. North-Polar basin..- The Atlantic Ocean and the western part of the Inpian Ocean.- Characteristics of the relief and their geological significance. Symmetrical features. Rejuvenation of the relief. Sunken blocks. Conclusions..- The Pacific Ocean.- Characteristics of the relief and their geological significance. Sunken blocks..- The distribution of isobathic areas.- The occurrence of three favored levels on the earth's surface..- The problem.- The six main points of the problem..- Continental drift.- Drifting apart of continental blocks. The origin of the floor of the Atlantic by stretching of a sialic block. Biological evidence..- Submerged continents.- The relation of foundering blocks to the oceanic water-economy. The foundering of a continental block and its thinning..- The hypothesis of permanence.- Permanence cum grano salis. Changeable factors. Isthmian links..- Trans-Oceanic mountain-chains.- The abrupt ending of folded belts on either side of the Atlantic. A new theory on their possible connections across the oceanic area..- The origin of continents and oceanic receptacles.- Recapitulation of problematic points..- Theories on a primeval earth surface of basalt..- The origin of continents and oceans and the resonance theory of the moon..- The folding and drifting of a world-encircling sialic layer during early Pre-Cambrian time and the origin of primordial continents and sial-free ocean-floors. A possible process of early Pre-Cambrian stretching of a sial-layer..- The possible influence of primeval convection-cnrrents..- Summary.- References.- IX. Ice-Ages.- The periodicity of climates.- Major periodicity of 250 million years. The duration of a glaciation. Visions of the future. Intervening periods of temperate climate. Periods of a minor differentiation of the climate..- The earth's normal climate.- The uniformity of the landflora. The migration of land animals. Fau-nistic provinces in the sea. The desert belts..- The abnormal character of present conditions.- Climatic zones. The differentiation of the flora and fauna. Present conditions and the interpretation of the past..- The problem.- The four aspects of the problem..- The relation between periodicity and physico-geographical factors.- The major epochs of mountain-building. The amount of carbon-dioxyde in the atmosphere. The distribution of land and sea. The influence of volcanic dust. The minor epochs of mountain-building..- The deeper causes of periodicity.- Correlated phenomena and subcrustal processes. Thermal cycles..- The rapid growth and subsequent retreat of an ice-cap.- The cooling-power of an ice-cap. The retreat of the last Scandinavian icecap. The effect of thinning of the ice-sheet and of the elevation of the land. The influence of a lowering of the sea-level..- Interglacial periods.- The influence of three cosmic variables. Tentative curves of solar radiation..- The Geographical location of an ice-cap.- A theoretical diagram of the atmospheric circulation. Actual deviations from the scheme..- The sites of Pleistocene ice-caps. Isotherms and isoflors of the Eocene compared to the present site of the continents. Botanical evidence from earlier periods..- The Upper Paleozoic glaciation. Objections against the hypothesis of continental drift and the supposed shifting of the poles. Sunken land-bridges. A "not impossible" reconstruction of geographic conditions during the Upper Paleozoic glaciation..- The restricted influence of cosmic factors.- The "solar-cyclonic" hypothesis. The rotation of the galactic system.- Summary.- References.- X. The Rhythm of Life.- The influence of changing environmental factors on the evolution of the fauna..- The periodic differentiation of the flora.- Periodical differentiation of the flora and its coincidence with the major periods of mountain-building and glaciation..- References.- XI. Linear Patterns.- Joints, fractures and other repeatative linear patterns. Lineaments. Morphological features..- Planetary systems.- Geological and seismological evidence. Two bisecting sets of lineaments of world-wide importance. Time of origin of the planetary lineament-sets. Rejuvenation..- The problem.- Primeval origin of the planetary pattern. Two aspects to be considered (1) The cause of the prevailing directions of the lineament-sets, (2) the repeated rejuvenation of the old plan..- Origin of the lineaments.- Older Theories..- The system Moon-Earth. Other "pre-geological" theories. Contraction. The consolidation of the earth's crust. The influence of anisotropics in the distribution of continents. Meridional lineaments and ocean-floors..- Wandering of the Poles..- Two modes of polar shift. Several geological hypotheses. A recent theory ascribing the origin of the planetary lineament-systems to a large displacement of the poles in early Pre-Cumbrian times. Reasons to abandon this theory of a polar displacement as well as its predecessors..- Periodical rejuvenation.- Dome-shaped elevations and rift-zones..- The North Sea Basin..- Rejuvenation and periodicity in the North Sea Basin as shown by (1) the rate of sedimentation, (2) the paleogeographic development, and (3) the structural history of the basin, especially of its linear structures..- General conclusions..- Summary.- References.- XII. The pulse of the Earth.- Chronological relation of periodic events.- A concise synopsis and diagrammatic analysis of the periodic phenomena and their respective relations..- A fundamental problem.- The problematic nature of the subcrustal processes..- References.- Appendix. Descriptions of Plates 1-8, and Tables I and II.- Plate 1. Caledonian epochs of compression.- Plate 2. Variscian epochs of compression.- Plate 3. Mesozoic epochs of compression.- Plate 4. Cenozoic epochs of compression.- Plate 5. Chronological analysis of the continents.- Plate 6 and Table I. Basins of the second group.- Plate 7. Distribution of Rock Clans.- Plate 8. Geology and gravity field in the East Indies.- Table I. see under plate 6.- Table II. Synopsis of the Pulse of the Earth.