This book describes and explains the remarkably large rural-urban divide in economic well-being that exists in China. How did it come about? How is it maintained, in the face of equilibrating market forces? What are the implications for future efficiency and equity in the Chinese economy? The book is divided into five parts: Part 1 introduces the context and scope of the study; Parts 2 and 3 measure and explain the rural-urban divide in income, education, health, and housing, both historically and by means of a household survey; Part 4 analyses the intersectoral movement offactors, both capital flows and the migration of labour; Part 5 ties together the arguments of the work and sets the Chinese experience in the broader context of transition and development economics. The book uses the rigorous analysis and empirical methodology of modern economics. It is primarily aimed at a broad readership of development and transition economists, but China specialists will find much that is of interest.