This volume in the Oxford History of Modern Europe series surveys the development of the Russian empire from the reign of Alexander I to the abdication of Nicholas II. The book centres on political and social history - the history of institutions, classes, political movements, and individuals. Foreign policy is considered from the Russian rather that the general European angle. Attention is also paid to the non-Russian peoples, who formed half the population of what was essentially a multi-national empire. The author's aim has been to see the period as it was, not - as in many modernworks - in terms of what happened after it. The book draws on a large body of Russian documentary material, as well as on numerous Russian memoirs, contemporary comment by Russians and by foreign observers, and the important work of Soviet and foreign scholars. In its research, analysis, and interpretation, it is an exciting and originalcontribution to the study of pre-revolutionary Russia.