The Science of Personality

Paperback | July 15, 2002

byLawrence A. Pervin

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The Science of Personality, 2/e, focuses on the field of personality psychology as it is studied by researchers today. Offering students an up-to-date picture of the field and of the challenges faced by personality psychologists, it also explores how current research is put to use in the realworld. The book examines the structure of personality--including traits, motives, and cognition--and the determinants of the unfolding of personality over time. In addition, it provides in-depth consideration of contemporary areas of such research as the self, unconscious processes, mind-bodyconnections, and reasons why people do and do not change. The Science of Personality, 2/e, addresses questions and issues relating to the field of personality psychology today, including: DT Which trait, motive, and cognitive units are fundamental to the study of personality? DT How do genes and environments interact to produce an individual's personality? DT To what extent is personality stable over time and across situations? DT What is the nature of the self and to what extent doesthe concept of the self differ across cultures? DT What is the relationship of thoughts and feelings to physical health? Paying particular attention to recent developments in cross-cultural research, positive psychology, and biological foundations of personality, The Science of Personality, 2/e, is an ideal text or supplement for undergraduate courses in personality psychology and advanced personality.

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The Science of Personality, 2/e, focuses on the field of personality psychology as it is studied by researchers today. Offering students an up-to-date picture of the field and of the challenges faced by personality psychologists, it also explores how current research is put to use in the realworld. The book examines the structure of pe...

Lawrence A. Pervin is at Rutgers University.

other books by Lawrence A. Pervin

The College Dropout and the Utilization of Talent
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Format:PaperbackDimensions:528 pages, 7.4 × 9.09 × 0.79 inPublished:July 15, 2002Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195159713

ISBN - 13:9780195159714

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Table of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION: THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF PERSONALITY. THREE RESEARCH TRADITIONSThe Clinical Approach to PersonalityJean Charcot and His StudentsSigmund FreudHenry MurrayCarl Rogers and George KellyThe Clinical Approach: An IllustrationStrenghts and Limitations of the Clinical ApproachThe Correlational Approach to PersonalitySir Francis Galton and His FollowersRaymond B. Cattell and Hans J. EysenckThe Five-Factor Model of PersonalityTwo Illustrations of the Correlational Approach: The Development of Measures of Satisfaction with Life and of OptimismStrengths and Limitations of the Correlational ApproachThe Experimental Approach to PersonalityWilhelm Wundt, Hermann Ebbinghaus, and Ivan PavlovJ. B. Watson, Clark Hull, and B. F. SkinnerCognitive ApproachesThe Experimental Approach: An IllustrationStrengths and Limitations of the Experimental ApproachStrengths and Limitations of the Three ApproachesShared Goals, Divergent Paths, and Agreement among Data SourcesMAJOR CONCEPTSSUMMARYPART 1: UNITS OF PERSONALITY2 TRAIT UNITS OF PERSONALITY. THE TRAIT PSYCHOLOGY OF GORDON W. ALLPORTTHE TRAIT PSYCHOLOGY OF RAYMOND B. CATTELLTHE TRAIT PSYCHOLOGY OF HANS J. EYSENCKTHE FIVE-FACTOR MODEL (FFM)Validating EvidenceCross-Cultural Agreement on FactorsSelf-Ratings and Ratings by OthersConnections to Biology: Genetics, Evolution, NeuroscienceDiagnosis of Personality DisordersPredictive UtilityEARLY TEMPERAMENT AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCONSISTENCY OF PERSONALITY AND THE PERSON-SITUATION CONTROVERSYImplications for the Prediction of BehaviorA CRITICAL OVERVIEW OF TRAITS AND FACTOR ANALYSISWhat Is a Trait?How Many Traits? Which Ones? Is That All There Is?The Method--Factor AnalysisDescription or Explanation?CONCLUSIONMAJOR CONCEPTSSUMMARY3 COGNITIVE UNITS OF PERSONALITY. THE CONCEPT OF COGNITIVE STYLETWO PRECOGNITIVE REVOLUTION THEORISTS: KELLY AND ROTTERKelly's Personal Construct TheoryRotter's Social Learning TheoryTWO POSTCOGNITIVE REVOLUTION THEORISTS: MISCHEL AND BANDURAMischel's Cognitive Social Learning TheoryResearch Illustrating Situational SpecificityBandura's Social Cognitive TheoryIs a Trait-Social Cognitive Rapprochement Possible?ADDITIONAL COGNITIVE UNITS: SCHEMA, ATTRIBUTIONS, AND BELIEFSSchemaAttributions-ExplanationsBeliefsCOGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCECOGNITION AND CULTUREANALYSIS OF COGNITIVE UNITSMAJOR CONCEPTSSUMMARY4 MOTIVATIONAL UNITS OF PERSONALITY. PITCHFORK-DRIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATIONFreud's Drive TheoryStimulus-Response TheoryMurray's Need-Press ModelFestinger's Theory of Cognitive DissonanceCARROT-INCENTIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATIONHistorical NoteCurrent Work in Goal TheoryCOGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION: KELLY'S JACKASSKelly's Emphasis on Anticipating EventsAttributional ModelsWeiner's Attributional ModelDweck's Model of Implicit Beliefs about the Self and the WorldGROWTH, SELF-ACTUALIZATION THEORIES OF MOTIVATIONARE THERE UNIVERSAL HUMAN NEEDS OR MOTIVES?COMMENTS ON MOTIVATIONAL UNITSRELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE UNITS OF PERSONALITY: TRAITS, COGNITIONS, AND MOTIVESMAJOR CONCEPTSSUMMARYPART 2: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT5 THE NATURE AND NURTURE OF PERSONALITY. THE NATURE OF PERSONALITY: EVOLUTION AND GENETICSThree Founders: Darwin, Mendel, and GaltonEvolutionary, Ultimate ExplanationsMale-Female Mate PreferencesMale-Female Differences in Causes of JealousyEvolutionary ExplanationsGenetic, Proximate ExplanationsBehavioral GeneticsThe Nature of Nurture: The Effects of Genes on EnvironmentsTHE NURTURE OF PERSONALITYShared and Nonshared EnvironmentsDoes Parenting Matter? The Case for Familial InfluenceTHE NATURE AND NURTURE OF PERSONALITY: UPDATE AND CONCLUSIONMAJOR CONCEPTSSUMMARY6 CHARTING PEOPLE'S LIVES OVER TIME. STAGE THEORIES OF PERSONALITYFreud's Psychosexual Stages of DevelopmentErikson's Psychosocial Stages of DevelopmentCritique of Stage Theories of DevelopmentLONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF DEVELOPMENTStability and Change in Personality DevelopmentIllustrative Longitudinal StudiesMagnusson's Swedish Study of Individual Development and Adjustment (IDA)The Longitudinal Research of Jack and Jeanne BlockThe Minnesota Parent-Child ProjectAdditional Longitudinal Evidence of Relative Stability and Relative ChangeSTABILITY-CONTINUITY OF PERSONALITY: TWO OPPOSING POINTS OF VIEWSOME THOUGHTS ON STABILITY AND CHANGE IN PERSONALITY AND THE QUESTION OF PROCESSMAJOR CONCEPTSSUMMARYPART 3: TOPICS IN PERSONALITY RESEARCH7 THE UNCONSCIOUS. ILLUSTRATIVE PHENOMENABRIEF HISTORICAL OVERVIEWTHE DYNAMIC UNCONSCIOUS OF PSYCHOANALYSISEvidence for the Mechanisms of DefenseExplaining the Dynamic UnconsciousTHE COGNITIVE UNCONSCIOUSUnconscious Influences on Memory and PerceptionUnconscious Influences on Feelings, Attitudes, and Behaviors toward OthersChronically Accessible ConstructsSummaryCOMPARISON OF THE DYNAMIC AND COGNITIVE VIEWS OF THE UNCONSCIOUSIMPLICATIONS FOR THE USE OF SELF-REPORT MEASURESCONCLUSIONSMAJOR CONCEPTSSUMMARY8 THE CONCEPT OF THE SELF. WHY STUDY THE CONCEPT OF THE SELF?THE WAXING AND WANING OF INTEREST IN THE SELF: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVEDEVELOPMENT OF THE SELFThe Self as Separate from Other People and Objects: Self-PerceptionThe Development of Self-ConsciousnessSummary of the Developmental PerspectiveTHREE VIEWS OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE SELFThe Phenomenological Theory of Carl RogersThe Psychoanalytic Concept of the SelfSullivan's Interpersonal School of PsychiatryObject Relations TheorySocial Cognitive View of the SelfMotivational Processes Relevant to the Self: Self-Verification and Self-EnhancementComparison of the Social Cognitive and Psychoanalytic Views of the SelfINDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE SELF AND SELF-PROCESSESBandura's Self-Efficacy ConceptCarver and Scheier's Control Theory and Private versus Public Self-ConsciousnessHiggin's Theory of Self-GuidesSelf-EsteemNEUROSCIENCE AND THE SELFCULTURE AND THE SELFFINAL REFLECTIONS ON THE SELFMAJOR CONCEPTSSUMMARY9 THE PATH FROM THINKING TO ACTION. RATIONAL CHOICE BEHAVIOR: EXPECTANCY X VALUE THEORYTolman's Model of Purposive BehaviorLewin's Level of Aspiration ResearchRotter's Expectancy-Value ModelTHE STASIS AND FLOW OF BEHAVIOR: TOWARD A THEORY OF GOALSGOALS, SELF-REGULATION, AND ACTION: PROGRAMS OF RESEARCHBandura's Model of Goals-Standards and Self-RegulationPersonal Projects, Personal Strivings, and Life TasksLittle's Research on Personal ProjectsEmmons's Research on Personal StrivingsCantor's Research on Life TasksApproach-Avoidance Goals and Promotion-Prevention FocusCommon Elements, Differences, and Unanswered QuestionsBREAKDOWNS IN SELF-REGULATION AND THE PROBLEM OF VOLITIONMAJOR CONCEPTSSUMMARY10 EMOTION, ADAPTATION, AND HEALTH. AFFECT WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF TRADITIONAL PERSONALITY THEORYPsychoanalytic TheoryPhenomenological Theory: Carl RogersTrait TheorySocial Cognitive, Information-Processing TheoryA Central Role for Affect in PersonalityBASIC EMOTIONS THEORYTWO EMOTION-MOTIVATION SYSTEMSTHE BIOLOGY OF EMOTIONCULTURE AND EMOTIONEMOTION REGULATION, COPING WITH STRESS, AND ADAPTATIONEmotion RegulationStress and CopingCoping and the Mechanisms of DefenseEMOTION, ADAPTATION, AND HEALTHOptimism and Health: The Power of Positive ThinkingNeuroticism and Negative AffectivitySuppression versus Expression of thoughts and EmotionsWegner's Research on the Effects of Thought SuppressionPennebaker's Research on the Effects of the Inhibition and Disclosure of EmotionSummaryCONCLUSIONMAJOR CONCEPTSSUMMARY11 MALADAPTIVE PERSONALITY FUNCTIONING AND PROCESSES OF CHANGE. DESCROPTION, EXPLANATION, AND PRESCROPTIONTRAIT THEORYEysenck's Trait TheoryThe Five-Factor Model (FFM) and Personality DisordersTwo Illustrative ApplicationsApplications to Problematic Interpersonal BehaviorDescription, Explanation, and Prescription and the Five-Factor ModelThe Trait Model of Personality Disorders: SummaryPSYCHOANALYTIC THEORYPsychopathologyObject Relations TheoryNarcissistic Personality Disorder: Comparison with Trait TheoryObject Relations, Attachment, and DepressionTherapeutic ChangeDescription, Explanation, and Prescription and the Psychoanalytic ModelSOCIAL COGNITIVE/INFORMATION-PROCESSING APPROACHESKelly's Personal Construct TheoryBandura's Social Cognitive TheoryBeck's Cognitive Theory and TherapyOutcome ResearchCognitive Therapy: Past, Present, and FutureSocial Cognitive Mechanisms in PsychopathologyDescription, Explanation, and Prescription and the Cognitive ModelISSUES RELEVANT TO THE ANALYSIS OF MALADAPTIVE FUNCTIONING AND THERAPEUTIC CHANGESituation, Domain SpecificitySystem FunctioningEmphasis on Unconscious InfluencesCognition, Affect, and BehaviorChanges Produced and Processes of ChangeCOMPARISON OF THE ALTERNATIVE MODELSBIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS OF MALADAPTIVE PERSONALITY FUNCTIONING AND PERSONALITY CHANGEMAJOR CONCEPTSSUMMARY12 PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT. THE ASSESSMENT OF MEN BY THE STAFF OF THE OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICESTYPES OF PERSONALITY DATAA RETURN TO CONSIDERATION OF RELIABILITY AND VALIDITYSOME QUESTIONS RELEVANT TO PERSONALITY ASSESSMENTRelations between Self and Observer RatingsThe Potential for DeceptionThe Relation of Fantasy to Behavior, of Explicit Measures to Implicit MeasuresUtility for PredictionDiversity and Personality AssessmentTHE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY THEORY AND PERSONALITY ASSESSMENTCONCLUSIONMAJOR CONCEPTSSUMMARY13 CONCLUSION: CURRENT ISSUES AND THE PROSPECTS FOR THE SCIENCE OF PERSONALITY. A DEFINITION OF PERSONALITYRESEARCH STRATEGIESSPECIFICITY VERSUS GENERALITYNATURE AND NURTURE, GENES AND CULTUREMALLEABILITY-FIXITY, STABILITY-CHANGERANGE OF CONVENIENCE AND FOCUS OF CONVENIENCE; BANDWIDTH AND FIDELITYSOCIAL AND POLITICAL ASPECTS OF PERSONALITY THEORY AND RESEARCHCURRENT AREAS OF INTERESTPROSPECTS FOR THE FUTURESUMMARY