The Scientific Basis of Child Custody Decisions by Robert M. Galatzer-levyThe Scientific Basis of Child Custody Decisions by Robert M. Galatzer-levy

The Scientific Basis of Child Custody Decisions

EditorRobert M. Galatzer-levy, Louis Kraus, Jeanne Galatzer-Levy

Hardcover | April 6, 2009

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The legal system requires mental health professionals to provide research summaries to support their evaluations in child custody cases. Contributions from leading developmental researchers, legal professionals, and clinicians describe how scientific evidence is properly used in court. Timely and current, this book helps evaluators access the best information to fulfill their obligations to their clients and the court. The Second Edition adds chapters on family observation, parental alienation, and sexual abuse. Forensic psychologists, family lawyers, and judges will be equipped with the most current information to aid in custody decisions.
ROBERT M. GALATZER-LEVY, MS, MD, is a child, adolescent, and adult psychiatrist in private practice. He serves on the faculties of The University of Chicago and The Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis. The coauthor of four books and more than a hundred professional publications, he has wide experience as a forensic evaluator and witne...
Title:The Scientific Basis of Child Custody DecisionsFormat:HardcoverDimensions:499 pages, 10.3 × 7.3 × 1.6 inPublished:April 6, 2009Publisher:WileyLanguage:English

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ISBN - 10:0470038586

ISBN - 13:9780470038581

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re f q 1 i 0 794.834 578.82 -794.819 re W n 553.323 757.474 25.497 .28345 re f 553.323 37.134 25.497 .28348 re f 541.417 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f 37.077 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f Q 0 37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(5)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.959 0 0 10.959 109.4173 676.7432 Tm [(usually)-476.4(carefully)-474.2(worded)-471.2(to)-476.9(indicate)-477.1(that)-476.8(the)-478.4(subject)-473.3(shows)-474(a)-477.7(pattern)-473.2(of)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD (responses)Tj /F3 1 Tf 4.7024 0 TD (consistent)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.3972 0 TD [(with)-345.5(some)-342.6(condition)-339.4(or)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 10.8844 0 TD [(commonly)-336.8(observed)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.3185 0 TD [(among)-343(indi-)]TJ -28.3024 -1.2726 TD [(viduals)-197.8(with)-195.5(a)-198.4(particular)-198.3(condition,)-198.1(the)-199(inexperienced)-196.7(reader)-195.4(is)-197.7(likely)-197.9(to)-202.7(nish)]TJ T* 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0 Tc [(substantially)-504.5(inuence)-508.3(the)-509.4(data)-510.9(collection)-510.8(and)-506.8(those)-508.8(that)-507.8(do)-510.8(not)-509.5(can)-508.2(be)]TJ T* [(difcult.)-486.1(This)-480.2(is)-487.4(partly)-481.3(because)-479.9(the)-483.5(subjects)-484.4(response)-482.9(to)-482(the)-483.5(interviewer)]TJ T* [(may)-530.6(be)-526.1(so)-532.2(idiosyncratic)-532.7(that)-528.5(the)-530.1(interviewer)-535(is)-528.7(unaware)-529.1(of)-527.9(it)-535.5(\(e.g.,)-529.5(the)]TJ T* [(interviewer)-343.6(may)-339.2(remind)-343.2(the)-343.9(subject)-338.8(of)-341.7(a)-343.2(pleasant)-339.5(or)-347(unpleasant)-337.1(person)-343.9(the)]TJ T* -.0001 Tc [(subject)-256.1(has)-254.2(known\).)-251.6(These)-258.2(problems)-254.4(are)-255.7(particularly)-260.3(marked)-253.3(in)-253.9(interviewing)]TJ T* 0 Tc [(children,)-257.3(where)-257.3(such)-256.6(factors)-257.9(as)-257.7(the)-255.9(childs)-257.9(desire)-258.6(to)-259.6(please)-256.7(the)-255.9(interviewer)-255.6(or)]TJ T* [(fears)-452.6(of)-455.5(parental)-449.1(disapproval)-454.7(may)-447.9(greatly)-452.7(shift)-454.7(the)-457.7(informatio)5.4(n)-456.8(provided)]TJ T* [(\(Ceci)-494.2(&)-491.6(Bruck,)-495.4(1995\).)-489.9(The)-491.6(greatest)-497(danger)-487.9(occurs)-496.4(when)-491.4(the)-493.9(evaluator)-493(is)]TJ T* [(unaware)-389.4(of)-393.4(the)-395.6(factors)-392.4(in)-393.4(the)-390.4(interview)-395(or)-393.5(testing)-391.8(situation)-392.1(that)-394(shape)-392(the)]TJ T* [(information)-291.1(received.)-287.4(Although)-285.1(this)-291.1(hazard)-286.1(has)-290.3(been)-286.7(particularly)-291.6(well)-289.1(stud-)]TJ T* [(ied)-411.1(with)-412.8(regard)-406.9(to)-414.8(interviews)-407.8(about)-414.2(abuse)-407.4(allegations,)-410.1(interviewers)-408(are)-410.8(at)]TJ T* [(constant)-548.1(risk)-544(of)-543.5(suggesting)-544.6(correct)-547.3(answers)-541.1(to)-549.3(the)-545.6(questions)-544.1(through)]TJ T* [(responses)-268(such)-266.9(as)-268(approving)-272.2(remarks,)-265.9(gestures,)-265.7(and)-268.8(interested)-270.1(further)-272.3(ques-)]TJ T* [(tions)-334.7(when)-331.1(the)-333.5(interviewee)-332(responds)-327.2(in)-336.5(a)-332.9(certain)-330.1(fashion.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(Because)-397.2(the)-395.6(attitudes)-402.4(of)-398.6(the)-395.6(interviewer)-400.5(and)-398.1(the)-395.6(intentions)-399.5(of)-398.6(the)-400.8(inter-)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(viewee)-265.5(are)-265.9(so)-268.4(different)-263(depending)-265.6(on)-267.6(whether)-262.8(the)-266.3(interviewer)-266(is)-270.1(performing)]TJ T* [(as)-324.9(an)-329.3(evaluator)-322.2(or)-331.4(a)-327.7(therapist,)-322.5(these)-327.7(roles)-329.5(should)-323.3(not)-328.4(overlap)-326.9(\(Greenberg)-321.4(&)]TJ T* [(Daniel,)-421.1(1997\).)-417.5(In)-418.7(talking)-416.4(to)-420(a)-420.8(therapist,)-420.8(it)-421.6(is)-420.1(in)-419.3(the)-421.4(clients)-417.5(best)-418.6(interest)-421.6(to)]TJ T* 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[(them)-265.9(to)-264.8(keep)-265.7(in)-269.3(mind)-265.3(that)-264.7(the)-266.3(underlying)-265.4(intentions)-265(of)-269.3(litigants)-264.7(are)-265.9(different)]TJ T* [(from)-277.4(those)-276(of)-279.6(patients)-274.3(without)-280.5(the)-276.6(further)-277.5(confusion)-274.9(that)-280.2(results)-272.8(from)-277.4(trying)]TJ T* [(to)-332(ll)-334.9(more)-333.2(than)-329.6(one)-331.8(role.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(In)-408.3(a)-405.3(forensic)-404.6(situation)-407.6(most)-406.4(subjects)-408.4(are)-405.6(highly)-407.1(motivated)-403.7(to)-409.6(have)-405.7(their)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(point)-307.7(of)-305.5(view)-307.8(prevail.)-301(They)-306.9(are)-307.3(likely)-306.5(therefore)-303.3(to)-306.1(use)-305.8(whatever)-306.3(means)-302.4(they)]TJ T* [(think)-359.1(will)-363.3(be)-360.6(effective)-361.9(to)-363(convince)-360.8(the)-359.4(evaluator)-358.4(of)-362.4(the)-359.4(merits)-361.8(of)-362.4(their)-361.4(own)]TJ T* 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[(reason)-447.9(to)-445.8(anticipate)-446.2(that)-450.9(anyone)-445.3(would)-443.4(try)-448.5(to)-451(be)-443.4(less)-450.5(than)-443.4(honest)-448.3(or)-445.2(the)]TJ T* [(clinician)-269.7(was)-273.1(given)-269.6(information)-270.4(of)-274.5(a)-270.8(type)-272.7(different)-268.2(from)-272.2(that)-275(ordinarily)-270.2(used)]TJ T* [(by)-427.3(clinicians)-432.5(in)-429.6(making)-429(judgments)-426.5(of)-434.8(this)-430.8(kind.)-425.9(Methods)-432.5(are)-431.4(available)-426.1(to)]TJ T* [(increase)-403.1(the)-400.8(clinicians)-405(detection)-402(of)-403.8(deceit)-404.7(\(Ekman,)-400.9(1992\).)-396.8(Still,)-404.3(the)-405.9(clinical)]TJ T* [(assessment)-584.5(of)-595.2(credibility)-591.3(remains)-588.9(signicant)6.2(ly)-595.2(imperfect,)-584.8(and)-594.7(clinicians)]TJ T* [(cannot)-428(claim)-431.3(to)-435.5(be)-427.8(better)-430.8(at)-429.9(assessing)-429.1(truthfulness)-429.2(than)-433.1(other)-432.2(individuals)]TJ T* -.0001 Tc 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[(tested)-310.9(against)-306.6(reliable)-307(observations)-308.5(about)-310.8(the)-307.6(world.)-309.3(If)-311.7(I)-308.5(say)-310.9(X)-311.7(i)0(s)-306.3(a)-312.2(scientic)]TJ T* [(fact,)-206.9(I)-210.2(must)-203.8(be)-205.4(able)-205.9(to)-213(demonstrate)-205.6(this)-203.1(through)-206.8(observations)-210.2(about)-202.1(the)-209.4(world.)]TJ T* [(Moreover,)-573.9(terms)-580.4(must)-576.2(have)-576.4(commonly)-572.4(accepted,)-576(agreed-on)-578.2(denitions.)]TJ T* [(Observations)-389.3(must)-395.2(be)-391.6(replicable)-394.2(both)-392(across)-392.8(raters)-394.5(and)-393(through)-393(time.)-390.7(The)]TJ T* [(question)-386.5(of)-383.1(which)-387.6(data)-381.6(will)-389.2(determine)-382.4(whether)-387(X)-384.2(i)0(s)-389.1(a)-384.6(scientic)-387.3(fact)-384.5(is)-383.9(not)]TJ T* [(simple.)-285.6(The)-289.8(things)-289(referred)-290.2(to)-290.6(in)-290(X)-291(must)-291.7(be)-288.2(clear)-288.4(enough)-289.6(so)-289.1(that)-290.6(researchers)]TJ T* 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[(prove)-290.1(faulty)-289.8(in)-295.1(two)-290.5(ways.)-288.5(First,)-292.7(it)-292.3(can)-291(involve)-291.6(a)-291.5(sampling)-286.8(error:)-293.9(For)-291.6(some)]TJ T* [(reason)-463.5(the)-468(scientist)-472(may)-463.4(not)-468.1(look)-465(at)-471.3(those)-467.4(cells)-465.4(that)-466.4(lack)-470.7(nuclei.)-464.2(Second,)]TJ T* [(although)-271.2(the)-276.6(statement)-269.7(appears)-272.6(to)-275.1(be)-272.6(about)-274.5(the)-276.6(external)-269.5(world,)-278.2(it)-271.6(may)-272(really)]TJ T* [(be)-220.9(in)-217.5(a)-219.1(form)-220.5(in)-222.7(which)-216.9(no)-221(observation)-218.2(could)-218.9(show)-218.1(it)-225.1(to)-218.2(be)-220.9(wrong.)-218.9(For)-219.2(example,)]TJ T* [(if)-234.8(a)-239.8(theory)-237.1(stated,)-236.5(Every)-234.8(cell)-240.6(contains)-232.5(a)-239.8(nucleus,)-236.3(but)-234.3(some)-239.1(of)-233.1(these)-239.7(nuclei)-238.2(are)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 98.8157 714.5573 Tm [(12)-1281.9(F)]TJ 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 127.1055 714.5573 Tm (ROM)Tj 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 147.1181 714.5573 Tm (E)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 153.2976 714.5573 Tm (MPIRICAL)Tj 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 191.4519 714.5573 Tm (F)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 196.9511 714.5573 Tm [(INDIN)-11.6(GS)-476(TO)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 243.9495 714.5573 Tm (C)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 251.0362 714.5573 Tm [(USTO)-11.2(DY)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 283.2377 714.5573 Tm (E)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 289.3606 714.5573 Tm [(VALUAT)-11.6(IONS)]TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj > endobj 35 0 obj > stream 0 g /GS2 gs 0 757.474 25.455 .28345 re f 37.077 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f 541.417 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f q 1 i 0 794.834 578.82 -794.819 re W n 553.323 757.474 25.497 .28345 re f 553.323 37.134 25.497 .28348 re f 541.417 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f 37.077 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f Q 0 37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(1)0(3)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.959 0 0 10.959 109.4173 676.7432 Tm 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[(extent)-331.7(to)-332(which)-335.9(the)-333.5(test)-333(measured)-329.8(the)-333.5(resulting)-329.1(qualities.)]TJ 8.2191 0 0 7.3052 379.6156 500.3148 Tm (4)Tj 10.959 0 0 10.959 110.7779 481.4928 Tm [(Validity)-264.7(always)-259.6(refers)-264.9(to)-264.8(a)-265.6(purpose)-262.1(for)-267.4(which)-263.5(the)-266.3(test)-265.8(is)-264.9(being)-264.1(used.)-259.2(A)-264(test)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(may)-556.5(be)-557.2(valid)-561.4(for)-562.3(one)-554.2(purpose)-557(but)-560.2(not)-561.2(another)-559.7(\(e.g.,)-555.4(grades)-561.1(in)-559(college)]TJ T* [(mathematics)-354.8(courses)-353(may)-354.7(be)-355.4(valid)-354.5(predictors)-358.2(of)-357.2(grades)-354.2(in)-357.2(physical)-355.6(science)]TJ T* [(courses)-290.9(but)-291.2(not)-292.2(grades)-287(in)-295.1(English)-290.6(courses\).)-287.3(The)-289.8(concept)-291.4(of)-295.1(validity)-291.4(has)-290.3(been)]TJ T* [(the)-266.3(subject)-261.2(of)-269.3(considerable)-262.3(renement)-265.9(and)-263.6(clarication.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 24.7381 0 TD [(Face)-263.8(validity)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 5.4422 0 TD [(refers)-264.9(to)]TJ -30.1803 -1.2726 TD [(the)-193.8(observatio)5.8(n)-193(that)-192.3(a)-193.2(test,)-191.7(on)-195.2(the)-188.7(face)-191.3(of)-196.9(it,)-192.3(is)-192.5(relevant)-191.3(to)-192.3(the)-193.8(quality)-188.9(measured.)]TJ T* [(For)-472.6(example,)-472(performance)-468.6(on)-474.5(a)-472.6(test)-472.7(in)-476.2(which)-470.4(the)-473.2(subject)-473.3(is)-471.8(asked)-469.9(to)-476.9(do)]TJ T* [(arithmetic)-296.1(problems)-300.8(on)-298.6(the)-297.3(face)-299.9(of)-295.1(it)-302.7(shows)-298.1(that)-295.7(subjects)-298.2(abilities)-296.2(to)-301(do)-298.7(that)]TJ T* [(sort)-286(of)-279.6(problem.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 7.408 0 TD [(Content)-280.8(validity)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 6.9527 0 TD [(refers)-285.5(to)-285.4(a)-281.1(more)-281.4(thorough)-286.6(analysis)-277.9(in)-284.8(which)]TJ -14.3607 -1.2726 TD [(we)-467.6(explore)-467.5(the)-473.2(extent)-466.2(to)-471.7(which)-470.4(a)-467.4(test)-467.6(measures)-465.1(matters)-472.3(pertinent)-468.6(to)-466.5(the)]TJ T* [(question)-396.8(we)-395.2(are)-400.4(trying)-398.6(to)-399.3(answer.)-392.2(For)-400.2(example,)-394.4(a)-400.1(test)-395.1(of)-398.6(parenting)-398.6(ability)]TJ T* [(might)-502(be)-505.4(shown)-504.2(to)-507.9(measure)-498.9(factors)-506.2(known)-503.4(or)-507.3(believed)-505.4(to)-502.7(contribute)-507.9(to)]TJ T* [(parental)-480.1(function.)-484.6(However,)-480.5(measures)-475.4(need)-483.3(not)-483.6(have)-478.1(content)-483.9(validity)-482.8(to)]TJ T* [(be)-396.8(useful.)-390.1(Certain)-395(important)-394(measures)-392.7(may)-396.1(accurately)-393.1(reect)-398.6(an)-396.5(aspect)-392.2(of)]TJ T* [(psychological)-275.4(function)-279.4(even)-276.7(though)-281.1(they)-278.1(do)-278(not)-281.9(necessarily)-276.4(directly)-276.8(address)]TJ T* [(it.)-213(For)-214(example,)-213.4(although)-214.3(an)-215.5(individual)-211.5(claiming)-215.8(to)-213(have)-214.3(unusual)-215.2(experiences)]TJ T* [(is)-482.2(not)-483.6(necessarily)-478.1(delusional,)-478.1(reports)-484.1(of)-481.4(such)-484.2(experiences)-476.5(may)-484.1(be)-479.6(highly)]TJ T* [(correlated)-192.9(with)-190.3(delusions.)]TJ 8.2191 0 0 7.3052 223.5401 249.2787 Tm (5)Tj /F3 1 Tf 10.959 0 0 10.959 229.7196 244.4031 Tm [(Correlation)-191.8(validity)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.1115 0 TD [(refers)-192.4(to)-192.3(the)-193.8(extent)-186.8(to)-192.3(which)-191(test)]TJ -20.0564 -1.2726 TD [(results)-427.9(correlate)-429.3(with)-433.4(signicant)-428.4(aspects)-425.6(of)-434.8(the)-426.6(persons)-427.5(current)-432.5(or)-429.7(future)]TJ T* [(performance.)-260(The)-258.8(correlation)-264.1(need)-260.9(not)-261.2(reect)-264.1(any)-258.4(other)-261.4(meaningful)-258.5(relation-)]TJ T* [(ship)-278.1(between)-277.1(the)-276.6(item)-278.5(measured)-272.9(and)-279.2(its)-279.2(correlate.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 22.4309 0 TD [(Construct)-276.2(validity)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 7.7391 0 TD [(refers)-275.2(to)]TJ -30.1699 -1.2726 TD [(the)-369.7(extent)-367.9(to)-373.4(which)-366.9(a)-369.1(measure)-369.6(makes)-364.4(conceptual)-370.8(or)-367.6(scientic)-371.7(sense.)-365.8(In)-372.1(the)]TJ T* [(absence)-180.1(of)-186.5(a)-182.9(gold)-185.1(standard,)-181.9(the)-188.7(validity)-182.7(of)-186.5(a)-182.9(measure)-183.3(is)-182.1(assessed)-182.7(by)-184.1(how)-184.7(well)-180.5(it)]TJ T* [(ts)-374.9(within)-376.8(a)-374.3(network)-376.7(of)-372.7(measures)-372(that)-378.5(are)-374.5(used)-374.7(to)-373.4(study)-378(related)-375.7(concepts,)]TJ T* [(known)-596.5(as)-593.9(the)-597.3(nomothetic)-598.3(net.)-595.7(In)-594.6(assessing)-594.6(the)-597.3(validity)-596.6(of)-595.2(a)-596.7(measure,)]TJ T* [(researchers)-472.5(commonly)-474.1(combine)-469.2(several)-472.7(points)-475.6(of)-476.2(view)-473.3(about)-471.1(validity.)-475.9(In)]TJ T* [(assessing)-418.7(the)-426.6(usefulness)-420.9(of)-424.5(a)-420.8(study,)-422.9(the)-426.6(various)-420.2(points)-423.9(of)-424.5(view)-421.6(regarding)]TJ T* [(validity)-451.7(may)-453(serve)-451.5(as)-454.2(guideposts)-451.9(in)-455.5(mapping)-450.7(the)-452.5(investigators)-452.2(thinking.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 98.8157 714.5573 Tm [(16)-1281.9(F)]TJ 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 127.1055 714.5573 Tm (ROM)Tj 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 147.1181 714.5573 Tm (E)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 153.2976 714.5573 Tm (MPIRICAL)Tj 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 191.4519 714.5573 Tm (F)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 196.9511 714.5573 Tm [(INDIN)-11.6(GS)-476(TO)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 243.9495 714.5573 Tm (C)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 251.0362 714.5573 Tm [(USTO)-11.2(DY)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 283.2377 714.5573 Tm (E)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 289.3606 714.5573 Tm [(VALUAT)-11.6(IONS)]TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj > endobj 43 0 obj > stream 0 g /GS2 gs 0 757.474 25.455 .28345 re f 37.077 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f 541.417 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f q 1 i 0 794.834 578.82 -794.819 re W n 553.323 757.474 25.497 .28345 re f 553.323 37.134 25.497 .28348 re f 541.417 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f 37.077 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f Q 0 37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(1)0(7)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.959 0 0 10.959 109.4173 676.7432 Tm [(Looked)-430.3(at)-429.9(from)-432.6(a)-426(different)-433.7(angle,)-428.2(the)-431.8(reader)-428.2(of)-429.6(published)-428.2(studies)-431.4(should)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(always)-316.5(be)-319.2(skeptical)-318.7(about)-321.1(the)-318(way)-318.8(the)-323.2(author)-319.3(uses)-318.5(terms.)-320.1(Simply)-317.9(because)-319.5(a)]TJ T* [(test)-203.7(is)-202.8(said)-195.9(to)-202.7(measure)-198.9(a)-203.6(quality)-199.2(that)-202.6(goes)-199.6(by)-204.8(the)-199(same)-202.5(name)-196.5(as)-200.8(one)-202.5(with)-200.7(which)]TJ T* [(the)-447.3(reader)-443.7(is)-446(familiar)-445.7(does)-442.8(not)-447.4(mean)-444.8(that)-445.7(the)-447.3(test)-446.9(measures)-439.2(that)-445.8(familiar)]TJ T* [(quality.)-197.5(One)-200.4(must)-198.6(look)-201.2(at)-202.3(the)-199(way)-199.8(the)-199(test)-198.5(was)-200.7(put)-197.9(together)-201.8(and)-201.6(demonstrated)]TJ T* [(to)-357.9(be)-350.2(related)-355(to)-357.9(the)-354.2(underlying)-353.4(construct)-355.8(to)-352.7(know)-351.8(whether,)-354.3(in)-357.2(fact,)-351.8(the)-359.4(test)]TJ T* [(measures)-330.6(that)-331.9(construct)-335.1(well.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(All)-426.9(the)-426.6(issues)-423.1(discussed)-424.2(in)-429.6(Chapter)-423.4(4)-426(o)0(n)-428(testing)-428(apply)-423.6(to)-430.3(tests)-423.4(used)-426.4(in)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(research)-278.4(studies.)-279.7(Especially)-278.9(in)-284.8(the)-281.8(case)-278.4(of)-279.6(projective)-281(tests)-283.7(and)-279.2(tests)-283.7(that)-280.2(have)]TJ T* [(not)-225(been)-219.4(well)-227(studied,)-222(the)-219.7(reader)-226.4(should)-219.8(not)-225(assume)-221.7(they)-221.2(are)-224.5(as)-221.5(solidly)-221.1(based)]TJ T* [(as)-200.8(one)-207.6(might)-201.9(hope.)-202(For)-203.6(many)-201.1(years,)-206.1(the)-204.2(standard)-199.1(text)-203.8(of)-207.2(psychological)-203(testing,)]TJ T* [(which)-248(focused)-248.7(primarily)-250.2(on)-252.1(projective)-250(tests,)-245.8(was)-252.4(a)-250.1(volume)-248.9(by)-246.2(Rapaport,)-248.1(Gill,)]TJ T* [(and)-455.1(Schafer)-457.4(\(1945\))-453.5(based)-454.3(on)-453.8(the)-457.7(diagnostic)-455.2(test)-457.2(battery)-452.7(developed)-458.5(at)-455.8(the)]TJ T* [(Menninger)-291.6(Clinic.)-289.5(This)-294(book)-286.8(formed)-291.5(the)-292.1(basis)-291.3(of)-290(many)-289.1(research)-293.9(and)-289.5(clinical)]TJ T* [(studies.)-243.5(Though)-237.4(the)-245.6(studies)-240(claimed)-243.6(to)-244.1(include)-239.8(normal)-245.2(controls,)-243.3(these)-239.7(turned)]TJ T* [(out)-354(to)-357.9(be)-350.2(Kansas)-351.8(State)-355.7(Troopers.)-353(With)-354.4(no)-355.5(offense)-353.1(meant)-355.6(to)-352.7(these)-353.5(men,)-353.4(it)-354.4(is)]TJ T* [(reasonable)-198.6(to)-202.7(doubt)-201.9(that)-202.6(they)-200.5(reect)-202.1(the)-199(ordinary)-205.5(members)-197(of)-202(the)-204.2(community.)]TJ T* [(Major)-347.1(criticism)-352.9(can)-347.9(be)-350.2(raised)-351.4(of)-346.9(the)-349(research)-350.8(supporting)-348.5(the)-349(validity)-348.3(of)-352.1(the)]TJ T* [(most)-530.6(commonly)-525.8(used)-529.9(scoring)-530.1(system)-529.3(for)-526.1(the)-530.1(Rorschach,)-530.8(a)-529.5(widely)-530.2(used)]TJ T* [(projective)-488(test)-488.2(\(Groth-Marnat,)-488.9(1997\).)-484.7(Much)-486.7(of)-486.6(the)-488.7(supporting)-488.2(research)-485.3(is)]TJ T* [(correlational,)-475(with)-474.8(little)-471.6(information)-477.3(given)-471.4(about)-471.1(the)-473.2(actual)-476.2(false-positive)]TJ T* [(or)-331.4(false-negative)-330.4(rates)-334.3(of)-331.4(inferences)-330.6(based)-335.4(on)-329.7(the)-333.5(use)-331.7(of)-331.4(this)-337.7(test.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(An)-286.3(important)-290.5(aspect)-288.7(of)-290(validity)-286.2(is)-290.8(sensitivity.)-288.3(If)-291(the)-286.9(instruments)-289.8(used)-286.7(in)-290(a)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(study)-481.5(cannot)-484.9(pick)-480.5(up)-483.6(signicant)-480.1(differences)-484(between)-478.8(subjects,)-479.2(important)]TJ T* [(aspects)-358.4(of)-362.4(the)-359.4(situation)-355.9(will)-363.3(not)-359.5(be)-360.6(adequately)-353(studied.)-361.7(The)-357.1(more)-359(sensitive)]TJ T* [(a)-436.3(measure,)-430(the)-437(less)-434.9(reliable)-431.2(it)-437.2(is)-435.6(likely)-435.8(to)-435.5(be)-433(\(i.e.,)-433.6(the)-437(less)-434.9(likely)-435.8(it)-432(is)-435.6(that)]TJ T* [(repeated)-245.9(measures)-242.6(of)-248.6(the)-245.6(same)-243.9(quantity)-247.4(or)-243.5(measures)-242.6(of)-248.6(the)-245.6(same)-243.9(quantity)-247.4(by)]TJ T* [(different)-537.2(individuals)-534.6(will)-534(be)-536.5(the)-540.4(same\).)-530(Obviously)-536(for)-536.4(a)-534.6(measure)-535.1(to)-538.9(be)]TJ T* [(meaningful)-186(it)-183.7(must)-188.2(also)-186.1(be)-184.7(reasonably)-182.5(reliable.)-186.4(Researchers)-185.9(must)-183.1(demonstrate)]TJ T* -.0001 Tc [(or)-259.1(refer)-257.4(to)-259.7(demonstrations)-259.7(that)-259.6(the)-256(measures)-253.1(they)-257.5(use)-259.3(are)-255.7(both)-257.6(appropriately)]TJ T* 0 Tc [(sensitive)-329.3(and)-336.1(reliable)-332.9(if)-333(their)-330.4(claims)-335.4(are)-333.2(to)-332(be)-329.5(credible.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(It)-426.2(is)-425.3(rare)-424.4(that)-425.1(ndings)-422.5(of)-424.5(research)-428.4(studying)-421.2(people)-421.5(will)-425.4(show)-425.1(the)-426.6(clear)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(delineation)-225.1(seen)-220.3(in)-227.9(the)-219.7(physical)-226.3(sciences.)-220.6(If)-223.8(we)-224.4(do)-226.2(a)-224.2(study)-222.8(of)-222.7(whether)-226.6(weights)]TJ T* [(fall)-188.7(at)-186.8(the)-188.7(same)-187(rate)-187(when)-186.2(dropped)-189.3(in)-186.5(a)-188(vacuum,)-188.3(we)-183.1(expect)-190.9(that)-187.1(all)-190.6(the)-183.5(weights)]TJ T* [(will)-534(so)-537.4(fall)-535.3(and)-537.8(would)-531.3(regard)-536.2(the)-535.3(experiment)-534.6(as)-537(incomplete)-535.8(if)-534.8(a)-534.6(small)]TJ T* [(proportion)-470(of)-465.9(the)-468(weights)-465.3(fell)-468.4(at)-466.1(a)-467.4(different)-470(rate)-466.4(without)-466.7(explanation.)-464.5(In)]TJ T* [(studies)-462.4(of)-460.7(people,)-456(things)-464.9(are)-457.3(rarely)-460.9(so)-459.8(straightforward;)-460.3(among)-462(the)-457.7(many)]TJ T* [(factors)-402.8(that)-404.4(are)-405.6(likely)-404.8(to)-404.4(affect)-405.4(any)-403.2(signicant)-402.5(aspect)-402.5(of)-403.8(human)-404.2(living,)-402.9(we)]TJ T* [(rarely)-254(nd)-257.9(one)-254.2(factor)-255.5(so)-252.9(powerful)-255.2(that)-254.3(it)-261.3(almost)-251.8(always)-254.4(causes)-251(a)-255.3(given)-254.1(effect.)]TJ T* 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37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(1)0(8)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.959 0 0 10.959 98.8157 676.7432 Tm [(Over)-348.9(the)-349(past)-345.6(century)-347.9(and)-346.4(a)-348.4(half,)-350.3(scientists)-350.2(who)-345.1(have)-348.8(had)-346.4(to)-347.5(deal)-350.8(with)-350.7(the)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(messy)-339.1(data)-345.4(typical)-345.3(of)-346.9(the)-343.9(study)-341.8(of)-341.7(people)-343.9(have)-343.6(developed)-344.7(a)-343.2(discipline)-343.1(that)]TJ T* [(addresses)-330.1(this)-332.5(problem:)-333(statistics.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(The)-388.1(discipline)-384.5(of)-388.3(statistics)-388.5(is)-389.1(devoted)-387.9(to)-388.9(the)-385.2(question)-386.5(of)-388.3(how)-391.6(to)-383.7(reliably)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(extract)-434.5(information)-430.7(from)-432.6(observatio)5.8(ns)-433.3(and)-434.4(how)-427.8(to)-435.5(estimate)-428.4(the)-431.8(degree)-431.8(of)]TJ T* 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[(methodological)-493.9(problems)-492.3(of)-491.7(which)-496.3(readers)-492.6(should)-488.8(be)-495.1(aware)-490.1(in)-496.9(thinking)]TJ T* [(about)-331.4(the)-333.5(usefulness)-327.8(of)-331.4(the)-333.5(study.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(As)-478.5(discussed)-481.1(earlier,)-479.2(the)-483.5(mere)-477.9(presence)-478.4(of)-481.4(a)-482.9(statistical)-479.7(or)-481.5(quantitative)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(treatment)-348.2(in)-346.9(a)-348.4(research)-345.6(paper)-346(may)-344.4(suggest)-346.2(a)-348.4(greater)-349.2(level)-344.9(of)-352(authority)-344.2(and)]TJ T* [(credibility)-503.4(than)-505.5(the)-504.2(paper)-506.4(deserves.)-502.5(In)-506.6(assessing)-501.5(the)-504.2(quality)-504.4(of)-507.2(a)-503.6(study,)]TJ T* [(remember)-282.8(that)-285.4(statistics)-290.2(and)-284.3(quantity)-283.6(are)-286.6(only)-288.5(tools)-288.7(for)-283(nding)-285.6(information.)]TJ T* [(If)-472.1(used)-473(wisely)-468.9(to)-476.9(gather)-469.5(important)-471.6(information,)-470.4(they)-474.7(can)-472(be)-469.2(exceedingly)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 98.8157 714.5573 Tm [(18)-1281.9(F)]TJ 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 127.1055 714.5573 Tm (ROM)Tj 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 147.1181 714.5573 Tm (E)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 153.2976 714.5573 Tm (MPIRICAL)Tj 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 191.4519 714.5573 Tm (F)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 196.9511 714.5573 Tm [(INDIN)-11.6(GS)-476(TO)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 243.9495 714.5573 Tm (C)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 251.0362 714.5573 Tm [(USTO)-11.2(DY)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 283.2377 714.5573 Tm (E)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 289.3606 714.5573 Tm [(VALUAT)-11.6(IONS)]TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj > endobj 47 0 obj > stream 0 g /GS2 gs 0 757.474 25.455 .28345 re f 37.077 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f 541.417 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f q 1 i 0 794.834 578.82 -794.819 re W n 553.323 757.474 25.497 .28345 re f 553.323 37.134 25.497 .28348 re f 541.417 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f 37.077 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f Q 0 37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(1)0(9)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.959 0 0 10.959 109.4173 676.7432 Tm [(useful.)-421.2(However,)-418.4(because)-423(of)-424.5(their)-418.3(prestige,)-422.4(they)-423(can)-425.5(also)-418.9(hide)-423(substantial)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(limitations)-330.9(in)-336.5(the)-333.5(study.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(The)-274.3(concept)-281(of)-279.6(statistical)-277.9(signicance)-274.5(is)-280.4(often)-276.9(misunderstood.)-274.7(Often)-280(given)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(as)-412.9(a)-410.5(probability,)-409.9(statistical)-412.4(signicance)-414.1(states)-409.7(the)-411.1(likelihood)-414.7(that)-409.5(a)-415.7(nding)]TJ T* [(would)-189.9(arise)-184.2(by)-189.3(chance)-189.1(in)-186.5(a)-188(given)-186.9(situation.)-188.7(In)-185.9(the)-188.7(behavioral)-189.5(sciences,)-184.4(ndings)]TJ T* 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[(which)-403.1(two)-399.2(variables)-400.2(change)-399.7(together.)-401.8(Thus)-400(the)-400.8(extent)-404.1(to)-404.4(which)-398(childrens)]TJ T* [(behavior)-220.1(becomes)-225.1(disruptive)-222.1(in)-222.7(the)-224.9(period)-226.5(immediately)-220.5(after)-221.4(a)-224.2(divorce)-225(varies)]TJ T* [(with)-262.7(the)-261.1(age)-264.1(of)-258.9(the)-266.3(child.)-260.6(The)-264(description)-262(of)-264.1(this)-260.1(relationship)-264.6(is)-259.7(a)-265.6(correlation.)]TJ T* [(In)-403.2(many)-397.7(circumstances,)-402.3(correlations)-401(can)-399.6(be)-402(described)-399.3(as)-402.5(a)-400.1(single)-403.3(number,)]TJ T* [(the)-302.5(correlation)-305.5(coefcient,)-304.1(which)-299.7(measures)-299.5(how)-303.7(much)-300.4(one)-305.9(variable)-299.6(changes)]TJ T* [(with)-319.6(the)-318(other.)-316.7(In)-320.4(regression)-314.5(analysis,)-317.6(the)-318(situation)-319.7(is)-316.6(conceptualized)-318.1(some-)]TJ T* 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[(to)-399.3(simplify)-397.3(the)-400.8(situation)-397.3(to)-399.3(such)-401.5(an)-396.5(extent)-398.9(that)-399.2(factors)-397.6(that)-399.2(are)-400.4(commonly)]TJ T* [(believed)-231.2(to)-228.5(be)-231.3(important)-228.4(cannot)-231.4(be)-231.3(addressed)-225.9(in)-233.1(a)-229.4(study.)-231.5(Additionally,)-230(for)-231.2(all)]TJ T* [(their)-289(limitations,)-293.1(in-depth)-288.2(studies)-291.7(of)-290(individuals)-286.3(over)-294(time)-288.9(have)-291.9(contributed)]TJ T* [(much)-403.9(of)-403.8(what)-400.3(we)-405.5(know)-403.5(about)-403.9(human)-399(psychological)-404.7(function)-403.5(in)-403.8(complex,)]TJ T* [(emotion-laden)-526.3(situations,)-532.5(such)-530.8(as)-531.8(the)-530.1(ones)-530.7(we)-534.8(are)-529.7(trying)-533.1(to)-528.6(address)-532.6(in)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 98.8157 714.5573 Tm [(20)-1281.9(F)]TJ 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 127.1055 714.5573 Tm (ROM)Tj 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 147.1181 714.5573 Tm (E)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 153.2976 714.5573 Tm (MPIRICAL)Tj 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 191.4519 714.5573 Tm (F)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 196.9511 714.5573 Tm [(INDIN)-11.6(GS)-476(TO)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 243.9495 714.5573 Tm (C)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 251.0362 714.5573 Tm [(USTO)-11.2(DY)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 283.2377 714.5573 Tm (E)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 289.3606 714.5573 Tm [(VALUAT)-11.6(IONS)]TJ ET endstream endobj 52 0 obj > endobj 53 0 obj > stream 0 g /GS2 gs 0 757.474 25.455 .28345 re f 37.077 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f 541.417 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f q 1 i 0 794.834 578.82 -794.819 re W n 553.323 757.474 25.497 .28345 re f 553.323 37.134 25.497 .28348 re f 541.417 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f 37.077 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f Q 0 37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(2)0(1)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.959 0 0 10.959 109.4173 676.7432 Tm [(custody)-300.5(evaluations.)-299.2(In)-299.7(recent)-300.6(years,)-299.2(many)-299.4(methodologists)-302.4(have)-297.1(recognized)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(that)-435.4(the)-437(old,)-435.4(conceptually)-438.2(weak)-434.7(case)-433.6(history)-437.8(method)-435.2(can)-435.8(be)-433(improved)-434.9(in)]TJ T* [(several)-245.1(ways)-243.6(to)-244.1(produce)-242.5(very)-246.8(informative)-244.7(case)-242.2(studies)-245.2(\(Yin,)-246.3(1994\).)-241.6(By)-246.3(paying)]TJ T* [(close)-194.7(attention)-200.8(to)-197.5(the)-193.8(way)-199.8(conclusions)-193(are)-198.7(drawn)-194.5(and)-196.4(generalized,)-194.8(researchers)]TJ T* [(have)-348.8(found)-346.2(case)-345.6(studies)-348.6(to)-347.5(be)-350.2(an)-344.8(increasingly)-346.1(effective)-351.5(means)-343.8(for)-350.2(studying)]TJ T* [(complex)-345.7(psychological)-342.6(function.)-345(In)-346.3(addition)-346.4(to)-347.5(care)-346.6(in)-346.9(collecting)-344.7(and)-346.4(inter-)]TJ T* [(preting)-245.2(data,)-250.6(contemporary)-243.2(case)-247.3(study)-248.7(methodology)-244.8(often)-245.8(focuses)-249.4(on)-246.9(closely)]TJ T* [(monitoring)-204.8(the)-199(time)-206.1(course)-200.6(of)-202(events)-200.2(\(e.g.,)-203.6(whether)-200.8(an)-200(improvement)-202.6(occurs)-201.6(in)]TJ T* [(a)-234.6(subject)-235.4(at)-238.5(some)-233.9(regular)-234.5(interval)-239.6(following)-234.4(an)-236.2(intervention\).)-235.3(When)-236.5(assessing)]TJ T* [(reports)-308.2(of)-315.8(case)-309.4(studies)-307.2(or)-310.7(groups)-312(of)-310.7(case)-309.4(studies,)-305.6(readers)-311.6(should)-307.8(not)-312.9(simply)]TJ T* -.0001 Tc [(discard)-281.6(them)-281.5(as)-283.6(methodologically)-286.2(unsound)-275.8(but)-286.2(rather)-280(examine)-282.7(the)-281.9(extent)-280.1(to)]TJ T* 0 Tc [(which)-330.7(they)-335(use)-331.7(contemporary)-331.2(methods)-329(to)-337.2(ensure)-328.4(quality.)]TJ 0 -3.3626 TD (I)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 113.0456 486.4818 Tm [(S)-477.7(THE)]TJ 10.959 0 0 10.959 140.2015 486.4818 Tm (S)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 145.8708 486.4818 Tm (TUDY)Tj 10.959 0 0 10.959 171.2692 486.4818 Tm (C)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 179.0362 486.4818 Tm [(ONSISTENT)-479.4(WITH)]TJ 10.959 0 0 10.959 251.1495 486.4818 Tm (O)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 259.7102 486.4818 Tm (THER)Tj 10.959 0 0 10.959 284.3149 486.4818 Tm (R)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 291.5716 486.4818 Tm [(ESEARCH)-481.6(IN)-474.7(THE)]TJ 10.959 0 0 10.959 363.6849 486.4818 Tm (S)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 369.3542 486.4818 Tm (UBJECT)Tj 10.959 0 0 10.959 397.5306 486.4818 Tm (?)Tj -26.2901 -1.7278 TD [(Although)-331.7(a)-332.9(study)-336.6(may)-328.9(be)-334.7(carefully)-334.5(performed)-334.4(and)-330.9(its)-336.1(careful)-334.3(analysis)-329.6(may)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(show)-347.5(no)-345.2(glaring)-348.6(failings,)-346.4(it)-349.2(is)-347.7(still)-349(appropriate)-341.7(to)-352.7(ask)-342(how)-350.2(well)-346(it)-349.2(coincides)]TJ T* [(with)-236.9(related)-236(studies.)-233.1(In)-232.4(its)-237.8(most)-235.7(formal)-236.5(version,)-232.9(this)-234.2(process)-234(takes)-234.2(the)-235.2(form)-236(of)]TJ T* [(replication,)-412(usually)-409.2(in)-414.1(a)-410.5(different)-413(context.)-410.8(Replication)-411.7(is)-414.9(often)-411.4(particularly)]TJ T* [(important)-342.2(when)-341.4(studying)-343.6(behavioral)-344.7(and)-341.2(psychological)-342.6(issues)-340.3(because)-340.2(fac-)]TJ T* [(tors)-208.4(of)-207.2(which)-206.6(the)-209.3(investigator)-203.1(may)-209.9(be)-205.4(unaware)-203.2(can)-208.2(inuence)-203.1(outcomes.)-206.5(When)]TJ T* [(a)-208.7(study)-207.3(appears)-210.6(signicant)6.2(ly)-212.3(inconsistent)-208.3(with)-211(other)-209.7(research)-206(ndings,)-208.7(a)-208.7(high)]TJ T* [(level)-220.8(of)-217.5(skepticism)-215.4(about)-217.6(that)-218.1(study)-217.6(is)-218.4(appropriate)-217.6(and)-217.1(a)-219.1(search)-221.2(for)-215.7(the)-219.7(causes)]TJ T* [(of)-403.8(the)-400.8(differences)-396(should)-400.9(be)-402(made.)-401.8(Because)-397.2(isolated)-399.4(studies)-400.4(are)-400.4(subject)-400.9(to)]TJ T* [(substantial)-328.4(errors,)-335.8(behavior)-328.7(scientists)-334.7(rely)-331.6(on)-334.8(them)-333.1(only)-329.9(when)-331.1(they)-335(must.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(Studies)-353.9(of)-357.2(the)-359.4(same)-352.5(subject)-359.5(matter)-356.1(are)-353.8(often)-359.6(difcult)-358.4(to)-357.9(compare.)-353.2(Differ-)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(ences)-207.8(in)-207.2(the)-209.4(population)-204.3(studied)-208.2(and)-206.7(the)-209.3(study)-207.3(procedure)-206.5(may)-209.9(make)-206.8(it)-209.5(unclear)]TJ T* [(how)-267.5(much)-269.4(weight)-266.4(should)-266.4(be)-267.5(given)-269.6(to)-264.8(each)-272.4(study.)-262.5(In)-268.7(the)-271.4(past)-268(four)-268.7(decades,)-266.5(a)]TJ T* [(means)-188.6(of)-191.7(comparing)-189(and)-191.2(consolidating)-193.8(groups)-187.9(of)-191.7(studies)-193.4(has)-192(emerged.)-186.7(Called)]TJ T* [(meta-analysis,)-436.9(the)-442.1(method)-440.4(is)-446(continuing)-438.3(to)-445.8(evolve)-438.3(and)-439.5(has)-440.3(at)-445.4(times)-441.3(been)]TJ T* [(controversial)-552.9(\(Gareld,)-554.1(1991;)-553.9(Hunt,)-553.3(1997\).)-552(Yet)-550.6(meta-analysis)-552.4(provides)-551.5(a)]TJ T* [(systematic)-454(way)-458.5(to)-456.2(bring)-456.8(together,)-458.7(compare,)-451.4(and)-460.2(use)-455.8(comparable)-450(data)-459.2(on)]TJ T* [(the)-333.5(same)-331.8(topic)-329.9(in)-336.5(a)-332.9(manner)-330.8(far)-334.3(superior)-330.2(to)-332(the)-333.5(traditional)-331.8(review)-333.9(article.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(Findings)-380.1(that)-383.7(are)-379.7(inconsistent)-384.2(with)-381.7(other)-380.4(research)-381.9(are)-384.9(not)-380.1(necessarily)-379.8(in)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(error.)-188.5(However,)-185.6(the)-183.5(differences)-183.9(in)-186.5(the)-188.7(ndings)-184.5(must)-188.2(be)-184.7(explained)-186.3(for)-184.7(the)-188.7(work)]TJ T* [(to)-337.2(be)-334.7(taken)-331.7(seriously.)-331.7(A)-336.4(particular)-332.8(group)-335.5(of)-336.5(problems)-331.9(arises)-331.5(with)-335.2(regard)-334.5(to)]TJ T* [(studies)-596.9(of)-600.4(therapeutic)-597.3(and)-594.7(similar)-598.2(interventions.)-601.7(Initial)-596.4(evaluations)-595.7(are)]TJ T* -.0001 Tc [(commonly)-344.9(performed)-350(by)-344.6(enthusiasts)-348(for)-350.3(the)-349.1(intervention,)-350.2(who,)-348.7(in)-347(addition)]TJ T* 0 Tc [(to)-223.4(other)-220.1(difculties,)-220.2(are)-219.3(often)-220(naive)-223.3(about)-217.6(methodology.)-217.3(The)-222.6(very)-221(enthusiasm)]TJ T* [(of)-517.6(the)-514.6(investigators)-515.9(working)-510.6(on)-515.9(a)-519.1(new)-510.5(form)-515.4(of)-517.6(treatment)-513.8(may)-515.1(produce)]TJ T* [(nonreplicable)-461.6(positive)-466.4(results)-459(unrelated)-466.5(to)-461.3(the)-468(purported)-460(mode)-465.9(of)-460.7(action)]TJ T* [(of)-274.5(the)-271.4(treatment.)-274.1(Particularly)-276.1(when)-269(an)-277.5(intervention)-269.9(is)-275.3(reported)-273.4(as)-273.2(producing)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 264.6425 714.5006 Tm [(Assessing)-343.1(the)-335.5(Content)-339.8(of)-336.1(Sci)-7.2(entic)-334.5(Pub)-9.2(lications)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 20.6169 0 TD (21)Tj ET endstream endobj 54 0 obj > endobj 55 0 obj > endobj 56 0 obj > stream 0 g /GS2 gs 0 757.474 25.455 .28345 re f 37.077 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f 541.417 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f q 1 i 0 794.834 578.82 -794.819 re W n 553.323 757.474 25.497 .28345 re f 553.323 37.134 25.497 .28348 re f 541.417 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f 37.077 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f Q 0 37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(2)0(2)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.959 0 0 10.959 98.8157 676.7432 Tm [(striking)-477.3(successes)-481.6(when)-481.1(other)-478.7(methods)-479(have)-483.3(not,)-476.8(the)-483.5(likelihood)-482(that)-476.8(the)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(research)-356(can)-358.2(form)-355(a)-358.7(reliable)-358.8(basis)-353.4(for)-360.6(recommendin)5.1(g)-358.5(that)-357.8(therapy)-357(is)-358(small.)]TJ T* [(Custody)-303.3(decisions)-307.6(often)-307.9(require)-307.6(that)-311.2(a)-307(parent)-303.7(receive)-308.2(treatment)-306.8(for)-308.8(a)-307(condi-)]TJ T* [(tion)-316.8(that)-316.4(impacts)-316(the)-318(child)-314(negatively)-319.1(on)-314.1(the)-318(basis)-312(of)-321(the)-312.8(treatments)-317.9(enthu-)]TJ T* -.0001 Tc [(siastic)-212.8(endorsement)-208.9(by)-210.1(a)-214(mental)-214.8(health)-211.5(profession)6.4(al.)-216.2(These)-211.6(recommendations)]TJ T* 0 Tc [(may)-292.7(be)-298.5(contrary)-294.9(to)-301(the)-292.1(broad)-300.2(consensus)-293.1(among)-296.4(students)-293.3(of)-295.1(the)-297.3(same)-295.6(condi-)]TJ T* [(tions)-334.7(that)-331.9(these)-332.8(conditions)-331.5(are)-333.2(not)-333.6(signicantly)-330.3(responsive)-328.3(to)-337.2(treatment.)]TJ 3.0677 -3.3626 TD [(APPLYING)-330(EMPIRICAL)-328.5(STUDIES)-333.2(TO)-332.8(PARTICULAR)-327.2(CASES)]TJ -3.0677 -1.7278 TD [(In)-418.7(the)-416.3(best)-418.6(of)-419.3(all)-418.2(possible)-417.9(worlds,)-420.3(experts)-416(would)-417.5(have)-416(a)-420.8(rm)-418.1(database)-415.3(of)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD -.0001 Tc [(ndings)-272.6(about)-279.8(the)-276.7(best)-273.9(interests)-279.2(of)-274.6(children)-279.8(in)-279.7(various)-275.5(circumstances,)-277.8(match)]TJ T* 0 Tc [(the)-473.2(childs)-470(situation)-474.9(to)-471.7(the)-473.2(database,)-465.4(and)-475.7(give)-469.8(a)-472.6(clear,)-472.9(empirically)-468(based)]TJ T* [(opinion)-239(about)-238.3(how)-241.6(the)-240.4(particular)-239.7(youngsters)-237.9(best)-242.7(interests)-237.7(could)-239.6(be)-241.6(served.)]TJ 8.2191 0 0 7.3052 465.3353 500.3148 Tm (6)Tj 10.959 0 0 10.959 98.8157 481.4928 Tm [(Rarely)-283(is)-280.4(this)-280.7(possible.)-281.8(Several)-281.5(factors)-283.8(make)-279.3(the)-281.8(situation)-283.4(more)-281.4(complex)-278.5(and)]TJ T* [(difcult.)-284.3(We)-279.9(have)-286.7(already)-279.9(discussed)-284.5(the)-281.8(challenges)-282.6(of)-284.8(assessing)-284.3(the)-281.8(individ-)]TJ T* [(ual)-270.8(situation)-267.9(and)-268.8(reaching)-267.2(meaningful)-268.8(research)-268(conclusions.)-268.9(When)-267.5(we)-271(try)-267.4(to)]TJ T* [(bring)-503.3(the)-499(two)-502.6(together)-501.8(additional)-502.1(questions)-502.7(arise.)-503.3(First,)-499.6(we)-503.8(need)-498.9(to)-502.7(ask)]TJ T* [(whether)-402.5(the)-405.9(particular)-400(childs)-407.9(situation)-402.4(is)-404.6(actually)-404(an)-401.7(instance)-403.1(of)-403.8(the)-405.9(type)]TJ T* [(studied)-249.6(in)-253.8(the)-255.9(research.)-250.8(Second,)-254.5(we)-250.3(need)-250.5(to)-254.4(ask)-254(how)-252(important)-249.1(the)-255.9(nding)-249.4(is)]TJ T* [(to)-316.5(the)-312.8(childs)-314.8(situation.)-312.8(Third,)-310.4(we)-312.4(need)-317.8(to)-311.3(know)-315.6(whether)-309.4(the)-312.8(nding)-316.7(can)-311.7(be)]TJ T* [(meaningfully)-279.4(translated)-279.8(into)-285.7(something)-282.6(that)-280.2(can)-285.8(actually)-279.8(be)-283(done)-281.7(in)-284.8(the)-281.8(real)]TJ T* [(situation.)-359.4(Finally,)-363(we)-358.9(need)-359.2(to)-363(think)-364.3(through,)-360.3(given)-357.6(the)-364.5(imperfection)-356.1(of)-362.4(our)]TJ T* [(knowledge,)-547.6(what)-550.4(standards)-548.1(should)-550.9(be)-552(applied)-548.7(to)-554.5(the)-550.8(quality)-551(of)-553.8(expert)]TJ T* [(knowledge)-326.8(in)-336.5(custody)-331.5(decisions.)]TJ 0 -3.3626 TD (D)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 107.263 305.1779 Tm [(OES)-472.1(THE)]TJ 10.959 0 0 10.959 145.0771 305.1779 Tm (R)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 152.3905 305.1779 Tm (ESEARCH)Tj 10.959 0 0 10.959 192.4157 305.1779 Tm (A)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 200.9196 305.1779 Tm [(PPLY)-482.9(TO)]TJ 10.959 0 0 10.959 238.0535 305.1779 Tm (T)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 244.7999 305.1779 Tm (HIS)Tj 10.959 0 0 10.959 261.3542 305.1779 Tm (C)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 269.1212 305.1779 Tm (HILD)Tj 10.959 0 0 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[(relation)-436.5(to)-435.5(one)-435.2(another)-435.5(\(Bricklin,)-438.2(Elliott,)-440.6(&)-434.7(Halbert,)-433.8(1995\).)-433(Still,)-440.5(implicitly)]TJ T* -.0001 Tc [(or)-321.2(explicitly,)-323.2(in)-321.1(coming)-317.2(to)-321.8(a)-322.6(recommendation)-322.4(the)-323.3(evaluator)-317.2(must)-322.9(weigh)-319.5(the)]TJ T* 0 Tc [(relative)-333.3(importance)-333.2(of)-331.4(ndings.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(As)-323.3(discussed)-320.7(previously,)-316.9(studies)-322.8(should)-323.3(not)-323.2(only)-324.7(tell)-324.2(us)-319.2(that)-326.8(some)-321.9(factor)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(makes)-478.2(a)-477.7(difference)-481.6(but)-482.7(also)-475.8(give)-480.2(some)-482.2(picture)-479.3(of)-481.4(the)-478.4(magnitude)-477.7(of)-481.4(that)]TJ T* [(difference;)-329.9(this)-332.5(is)-327(called)-331.9(the)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12.6794 0 TD [(effect)-329.4(size)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 3.9006 0 TD [(.)-329.4(When)-329.6(comparing)-328.7(parents)-330.3(abilities)-327.3(to)]TJ -16.58 -1.2726 TD 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.28345 25.497 re f Q 0 37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(2)0(4)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.959 0 0 10.959 98.8157 676.7432 Tm [(provides)-220.4(limited)-225.8(opportunity)-222.9(to)-223.4(play)-225.8(with)-221.4(peers,)-221.6(we)-224.4(do)-226.2(not)-225(need)-219.5(a)-224.2(systematic)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(study)-228(to)-228.5(conclude)-230.9(that)-228.5(the)-230(latter)-231.1(parent)-226.1(should)-230.2(have)-224.6(custody.)-231.6(However,)-227(more)]TJ T* [(subtle)-506.5(situations)-503.1(may)-504.8(require)-509.4(precisely)-504.7(such)-504.9(a)-508.8(comparative)-506(analysis;)-503.8(for)]TJ T* [(example,)-208.2(with)-211(certain)-216.3(forms)-207.4(of)-212.4(parental)-211.1(psychiatric)-210.8(illness,)-215(empirical)-209.1(ndings)]TJ T* [(about)-403.9(the)-405.9(impact)-401.5(on)-407.3(children)-403.9(run)-404.5(contrary)-408.8(to)-404.4(most)-401.3(peoples)-406.7(intuition)-403.7(\(see)]TJ T* [(Jenuwine)-331.2(&)-331.2(Cohler,)-332.9(Chapter)-330.3(13\).)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(In)-237.6(many)-237.3(instances,)-233.1(the)-240.4(best)-237.6(that)-238.8(evaluators)-231.5(can)-239.2(do)-236.6(is)-239(make)-237.9(their)-237.3(analysis)-236.5(as)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(explicit)-464.2(as)-464.6(possible.)-462.8(This)-464.7(will)-466.8(allow)-461.7(evaluators)-464.3(and)-465.4(others)-460.4(who)-464.1(use)-466.2(their)]TJ T* [(ndings)-365.6(to)-373.4(explore)-369.2(the)-374.9(extent)-367.9(to)-373.4(which)-366.9(implicit)-375.2(formulation,)-366.7(including)-374(the)]TJ T* [(evaluators)-571.3(personal)-572.1(values)-572(and)-574(biases,)-576.3(have)-571.2(found)-573.8(their)-573.5(way)-572.3(into)-575.4(the)]TJ T* -.0003 Tc (recommendations.)Tj 0 -3.3626 TD 0 Tc (C)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 106.5826 500.4282 Tm [(AN)-477.5(THE)]TJ 10.959 0 0 10.959 142.0724 500.4282 Tm (R)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 149.3858 500.4282 Tm (ECOMMENDATIONS)Tj 10.959 0 0 10.959 230.3999 500.4282 Tm (B)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 237.0897 500.4282 Tm (E)Tj 10.959 0 0 10.959 245.4803 500.4282 Tm (I)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 249.1086 500.4282 Tm (MPLEMENTED)Tj 10.959 0 0 10.959 304.2141 500.4282 Tm (?)Tj -18.7424 -1.7278 TD [(In)-201.4(the)-204.2(course)-200.6(of)-202(custody)-202.2(studies,)-202.1(evaluators)-200.5(commonly)-199.9(observe)-201.8(situations)-197.9(that)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(they)-200.5(believe)-198.6(could)-198.2(be)-200.2(improved)-202.1(if)-198.5(the)-204.2(parties)-199.8(acted)-198.7(in)-202(some)-197.7(particular)-198.3(fashion.)]TJ T* [(The)-346.7(evaluator)-342.9(may)-344.4(conclude)-349.9(that)-347.5(a)-343.2(particular)-348.3(visitation)-344.8(schedule)-349.1(would)-345.1(be)]TJ T* [(optimal)-332.1(for)-334.7(the)-333.5(child)-334.7(or)-336.6(that)-331.9(one)-331.8(or)-336.6(more)-333.2(of)-331.4(the)-338.7(parties)-329.1(would)-334.7(benet)-333.3(from)]TJ T* [(therapy;)-645(the)-643.9(evaluator)-643(may)-644.4(conclude)-644.7(that)-647.5(peace)-641.5(could)-648.3(be)-645.1(maintained)]TJ T* [(between)-266.7(the)-271.4(parents)-269.9(by)-272.1(the)-266.3(introduction)-275.5(of)-269.3(a)-270.8(third)-273(party)-270.5(who)-267.5(would)-267.5(supple-)]TJ T* [(ment)-529.7(the)-530.1(custodial)-525.8(parents)-532.1(caretaking)-526.4(function,)-531.2(thereby)-528.3(making)-527.3(up)-530.2(for)]TJ T* [(observed)-394.8(limitations)-403.4(in)-398.6(that)-399.2(parent.)-400.3(Whatever)-398(the)-400.8(intrinsic)-399.9(merits)-398.1(of)-403.8(these)]TJ T* -.0001 Tc [(recommendations,)-334.3(they)-330(are)-333.3(of)-336.6(no)-329.8(value)-331.8(unless)-334.4(they)-330(can)-332.5(be)-334.8(implemented.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD 0 Tc [(Parents)-238.8(may)-246.1(voluntarily)-241.2(adopt)-243.6(the)-240.4(recommendation)-240.7(for)-246.7(the)-240.4(childs)-247.5(benet,)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(although)-183.3(the)-188.7(process)-187.5(of)-186.5(convincing)-189.8(them)-183.1(to)-192.3(do)-184.9(so)-185.6(may)-189.2(involve)-188.1(the)-183.5(evaluator)-187.7(in)]TJ T* [(problems)-362.9(of)-367.6(playing)-362.1(dual)-365.5(roles)-365.7(in)-367.6(the)-364.5(divorce)-369.9(process.)-361.7(It)-369.3(benets)-361.5(the)-369.7(child)]TJ T* [(little)-249.2(for)-246.8(parents)-244(to)-244.1(agree)-248.9(to)-244.1(terms)-244.2(in)-248.6(the)-245.6(midst)-244.2(of)-248.6(litigation)-247.7(unless)-241.2(the)-250.7(parents)]TJ T* [(are)-291.8(likely)-296.2(to)-295.8(abide)-295.5(by)-292.8(those)-296.7(terms)-290.7(once)-298.6(the)-292.1(litigation)-299.4(is)-290.8(complete.)-295.8(Evaluators)]TJ T* [(commonly)-329.2(confuse)-331.4(the)-333.5(courts)-330.1(role)-332.2(in)-336.5(custody)-331.5(matters)-327.5(with)-335.2(its)-330.9(role)-332.2(in)-336.5(child)]TJ T* [(abuse)-262.6(and)-263.6(neglect)-261.3(cases.)-263.5(In)-263.5(the)-266.3(latter)-262.1(situation,)-266.3(the)-266.3(court)-262.1(or)-264.2(those)-265.7(acting)-264.1(with)]TJ T* [(its)-201.6(implicit)-204.4(backing)-201.2(freely)-202.5(exercise)-197.4(considerable)-200.2(power)-205.4(over)-200.9(parents)-202.6(who)-200.2(have)]TJ T* [(been)-224.6(shown)-224.9(to)-228.5(be)-226.1(inadequate)-228.9(in)-222.7(their)-232.1(parental)-226.6(functioning.)-222.6(The)-227.7(court)-231.1(can)-223.7(and)]TJ T* [(does)-210(require)-214.5(parents)-213(to)-218.2(participate)-211.3(in)-212.4(arrangements)-211.4(for)-215.7(the)-214.5(childs)-216.5(benet)-209.1(and)]TJ T* [(through)-512(its)-512(agents)-515.1(often)-509.7(polices)-515.4(the)-514.6(parents)-511.4(compliance.)-507.1(In)-517(contrast,)-512(in)]TJ T* [(custody)-409.1(disputes)-401.6(in)-409(divorce)-411.2(there)-406.2(is)-409.8(no)-407.3(nding)-404.6(of)-409(parental)-407.7(incompetence,)]TJ T* [(and)-480.9(within)-480.3(very)-484.8(broad)-481.2(limits)-483.1(the)-478.4(court)-484.5(is)-482.2(likely)-482.4(to)-482(endorse)-480.9(a)-482.9(settlement)]TJ T* [(reached)-279.5(by)-282.4(the)-286.9(parents)-280.2(whether)-283.5(or)-284.9(not)-281.9(it)-287.1(is)-280.4(optimal)-285.6(for)-283(the)-281.8(child)-288.2(\(Weyrauch,)]TJ T* [(Katz,)-197.7(&)-196.7(Olsen,)-194.6(1994\).)-195(Furthermore,)-198.6(whatever)-192.5(the)-199(court)-200(may)-194.4(order)-198.8(or)-202.1(whatever)]TJ T* [(may)-370.3(be)-370.9(recommended)-365.6(to)-373.4(the)-369.7(parents,)-371.7(the)-369.7(court)-370.7(will)-373.6(not)-369.8(police)-373.3(compliance)]TJ T* [(with)-226.5(its)-227.4(order)-224.7(unless)-225.7(the)-224.9(other)-230.4(parent)-226.1(actively)-223.8(complains)-226.6(of)-227.9(failure)-221.3(to)-228.5(comply.)]TJ T* [(In)-289.4(making)-284.1(custody)-285(recommendations,)-288(evaluators)-283.2(should)-287.1(not)-292.2(accept)-284.2(parents)]TJ T* [(reports)-566.9(of)-564.1(their)-568.3(intention)-567.8(to)-564.8(behave)-564.6(differently)-563.3(than)-567.6(they)-567.8(currently)-562(are)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 98.8157 714.5573 Tm [(24)-1281.9(F)]TJ 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 127.1055 714.5573 Tm (ROM)Tj 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 147.1181 714.5573 Tm (E)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 153.2976 714.5573 Tm (MPIRICAL)Tj 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 191.4519 714.5573 Tm (F)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 196.9511 714.5573 Tm [(INDIN)-11.6(GS)-476(TO)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 243.9495 714.5573 Tm (C)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 251.0362 714.5573 Tm [(USTO)-11.2(DY)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 283.2377 714.5573 Tm (E)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 289.3606 714.5573 Tm [(VALUAT)-11.6(IONS)]TJ ET endstream endobj 61 0 obj > endobj 62 0 obj > stream 0 g /GS2 gs 0 757.474 25.455 .28345 re f 37.077 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f 541.417 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f q 1 i 0 794.834 578.82 -794.819 re W n 553.323 757.474 25.497 .28345 re f 553.323 37.134 25.497 .28348 re f 541.417 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f 37.077 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f Q 0 37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(2)0(5)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.959 0 0 10.959 109.4173 676.7432 Tm [(behaving)-445.3(because)-448.8(such)-453.2(promises)-446.5(are)-452.1(generally)-446(not)-452.6(enforceable.)-449.5(Although)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(sometimes)-551(the)-556(outcome)-552.4(is)-554.6(positive,)-552.7(parents)-554.4(desiring)-553.1(custody)-554(often)-551.1(will)]TJ T* [(describe)-330.4(plans)-331.6(that)-337.1(they)-329.9(are)-333.2(unlikely)-330(to)-332(carry)-333.8(out)-333.3(once)-334.9(an)-329.3(order)-333.3(is)-337.3(in)-331.4(place.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(An)-462.1(arrangement)-457.3(workable)-461.2(for)-464(both)-464.5(parents)-461.3(is)-461.5(much)-460.8(more)-462.5(likely)-466.9(to)-461.3(be)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(followed)-381.1(than)-386.5(a)-379.4(plan)-386.2(that)-383.7(is)-378.7(complex,)-385.4(crafted)-381.2(to)-383.7(absolutely)-381.4(optimize)-386(some)]TJ T* [(aspect)-190.4(of)-191.7(the)-188.7(childs)-195.8(situation,)-188.7(or)-191.8(is)-192.5(scrupulously)-188.1(fair)-188.2(to)-192.3(each)-194.8(parent.)-188.2(Part)-191.4(of)-191.7(the)]TJ T* [(custody)-362.6(evaluators)-364.4(work)-369.1(is)-363.2(to)-368.2(try)-365.7(to)-363(discover)-367.1(workable)-362.9(arrangements)-361.4(that)]TJ T* [(minimize)-331.9(conict)-334.5(between)-328.8(the)-333.5(parents)-332(and)-330.9(meet)-333.7(the)-333.5(childs)-330.3(needs.)]TJ 11.0654 -3.3626 TD [(BIAS)-333.4(AND)-331.9(ITS)-333.3(SOURCES)]TJ -11.0654 -1.7278 TD [(Even)-208.9(though)-213.8(legal)-209.8(and)-206.7(mental)-209.5(health)-211.4(professionals)-208.5(have)-214.3(long)-205.7(been)-214.3(aware)-205.5(that)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(examiner)-384.2(bias)-387.2(can)-389.3(result)-384.2(in)-388.3(problematic)-388.7(evaluation,)-384.7(an)-386.2(appreciation)-387(of)-388.3(the)]TJ T* [(extent)-367.9(to)-368.2(which)-366.9(bias,)-364.9(usually)-367.8(bias)-366.5(that)-368.2(is)-368.4(outside)-369.1(of)-367.6(awareness,)-362.3(can)-368.6(impact)]TJ T* [(evaluations)-218.1(is)-223.5(only)-216.1(now)-220.9(becoming)-217.3(clear.)-219.4(Over)-219.6(the)-224.9(past)-216.3(two)-223.3(decades)-216.5(studies)-219.3(of)]TJ T* [(human)-461.1(decision)-460.4(processes,)-459.3(including)-462(the)-462.8(decisions)-462.8(of)-460.7(professionals,)-460.3(have)]TJ T* [(revealed)-324.1(a)-327.7(range)-320.8(of)-331.4(cognitive)-324.1(factors)-325.2(that)-326.8(lead)-325(to)-326.8(predictable)-325.3(irrationality)]TJ T* [(\(Arieli,)-210.2(2008\))-212.2(and)-206.7(shown)-209.4(that)-213(cognitive)-210.3(and)-211.9(social)-208.6(bias)-211.3(can)-213.4(profoundly)-208.4(impact)]TJ T* [(critical)-337.2(decisions)-328.3(\(Groopman,)-329.6(2007\).)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(Social)-369.1(psychologists)-373.6(distinguish)-369.3(prejudice)-369.1(\(an)-368.8(attitude\))-372.3(from)-370.5(discrimina-)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(tion)-270.2(\(a)-274.1(pattern)-266.2(of)-274.5(behaviors)-269(that)-269.9(is)-270.1(often)-271.7(motivated)-269.2(by)-266.9(prejudice)-270.8(but)-270.6(may)-272(not)]TJ T* [(be\).)-357(One)-360.8(of)-362.4(the)-359.4(most)-359.9(important)-357.8(forms)-362.6(of)-357.2(bias)-361.4(in)-362.4(custody)-357.4(evaluations)-357.8(is)-363.2(the)]TJ T* [(tendency)-493.4(to)-492.4(stick)-495.9(to)-492.4(a)-493.2(conclusion)-490.7(irrationally.)-493.7(Whether)-494.2(conscious)-492.8(or)-491.8(un-)]TJ T* [(conscious,)-542.8(conrmatory)-546.3(bias)-547.6(\(like)-542.3(prejudice\))-548.2(can)-544.5(be)-541.6(difcult)-549.8(to)-544.1(identify)]TJ T* [(and,)-474.1(so,)-473.6(difcult)-477.4(to)-476.9(address.)-474(Martindale)-473.7(\(2005\))-474.1(distinguishes)-472.1(the)-478.4(internal)]TJ T* [(processes)-455.8(referred)-460.9(to)-461.3(as)-459.4(conrmatory)-458.4(bias)-459.7(and)-460.2(a)-462.2(more)-457.3(readily)-457.9(detectable)]TJ T* [(pattern)-199(of)-202(professional)-195.8(behavior)-199.4(that)-197.4(can)-203(effectively)-196.6(be)-200.2(addressed)-200(in)-196.8(the)-199(cross-)]TJ T* [(examination)-330.1(of)-336.5(an)-329.3(expert.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(Conrmatory)-345.9(distortion)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.1136 0 TD [(refers)-352.8(to)-347.5(the)-354.2(process)-347.8(by)-349.7(which)-346.2(an)-350(evaluator,)-351.6(moti-)]TJ -11.2051 -1.2726 TD [(vated)-244.1(to)-249.2(bolster)-247(a)-244.9(favored)-243.8(hypothesis,)-243.6(intentionally)-242.6(selects)-247.5(or)-248.7(skews)-241.1(interpre-)]TJ T* [(tation)-519.1(of)-522.8(data.)-514.4(The)-522.6(way)-515.4(evaluators)-516(are)-519.4(selected)-517.8(may)-520.3(contribute)-518.2(to)-523.4(such)]TJ T* [(distortion.)-425.5(Whether)-421.7(evaluators)-417.7(are)-426.3(selected)-419.5(by)-422.1(judges,)-424.9(litigants)-423.4(attorneys,)]TJ T* [(or)-238.3(a)-239.8(panel)-238.3(of)-238.2(evaluators,)-235(they)-241.9(know)-232.8(that)-238.8(offering)-238.4(opinions)-241.4(that)-238.8(run)-239(counter)-234.7(to)]TJ T* [(their)-578.7(selectors)-577.3(views)-574(may)-572(greatly)-576.8(reduce)-577.4(the)-576.6(likelihood)-575.1(of)-579.7(their)-573.5(being)]TJ T* [(retained)-392.8(again,)-391.7(and)-393(so)-392.5(they)-391.9(feel)-394.2(pressured)-392.3(to)-394.1(provide)-393.9(evaluations)-394(that)-394(are)]TJ T* [(consistent)-249.4(with)-252.4(the)-245.6(views)-253.3(of)-248.6(those)-250.1(who)-246.8(retain)-249.4(them.)-248.7(The)-253.6(resulting)-246.3(distortions)]TJ T* [(of)-331.4(the)-333.5(evaluation)-329.5(process)-332.3(may)-328.9(range)-331.1(from)-334.3(truncating)-331.1(the)-333.5(evaluation)-329.5(meet)-333.7(a)]TJ T* [(judges)-450.8(demand)-453.2(that)-456.1(litigants)-456.1(not)-452.6(be)-453.7(forced)-455.3(to)-456.2(pay)-449.5(too)-458.4(much)-450.4(to)-456.2(outright)]TJ T* [(dishonesty)-281.8(about)-279.7(what)-281.4(a)-286.3(litigant)-283(said)-278.7(in)-284.8(an)-282.7(effort)-281.9(to)-285.4(help)-277.8(the)-286.9(litigant)-283(prevail.)]TJ T* [(The)-326(recognition)-329.3(that)-331.9(retention)-324.6(in)-331.4(future)-325.6(cases)-327.3(is)-332.2(contingent)-325.4(on)-329.7(how)-329.6(pleased)]TJ T* [(judges)-317.9(and)-315.4(attorneys)-317.6(are)-312.5(with)-319.6(the)-318(evaluations)-316.4(and)-315.4(that)-316.4(the)-318(degree)-318(to)-316.5(which)]TJ T* [(the)-442.1(legal)-437.4(professionals)-441.3(are)-441.8(pleased)-434.2(with)-443.8(the)-442.1(work)-441.5(often)-437.2(depends)-442.1(on)-438.3(how)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 376.781 714.5006 Tm [(Bias)-338.7(and)-339(Its)-337.5(Sources)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.361 0 TD (25)Tj ET endstream endobj 63 0 obj > endobj 64 0 obj > stream 0 g /GS2 gs 0 757.474 25.455 .28345 re f 37.077 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f 541.417 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f q 1 i 0 794.834 578.82 -794.819 re W n 553.323 757.474 25.497 .28345 re f 553.323 37.134 25.497 .28348 re f 541.417 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f 37.077 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f Q 0 37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(2)0(6)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.959 0 0 10.959 98.8157 676.7432 Tm [(well)-356.4(it)-359.6(conforms)-359.1(to)-357.9(their)-356.2(own)-360.6(view)-354.4(of)-357.2(the)-359.4(case)-356(puts)-360.6(enormous)-356.1(pressure)-354.5(on)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(evaluators.)-509.2(Attempts)-513.9(to)-513.1(avoid)-513.2(evaluator)-513.6(bias)-511.4(by)-515.2(choosing)-509.8(a)-513.9(presumably)]TJ T* 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.28348 re f 541.417 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f 37.077 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f Q 0 37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(2)0(7)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.959 0 0 10.959 109.4173 676.7432 Tm .0089 Tc [(by)-561.7(experts)-562.5(i)-.1(n)-561.7(t)-.2(he)-562.3(eld)-561.8(can)-561.7(l)-.1(ead)-561.8(e)1.6(valuat)-5.4(ors)-562.5(a)1.9(nd)-561.8(legal)-564(p)2.5(rofessionals)-562.5(t)-.2(o)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(enthusiastically)-349.7(endorse)-350.3(i)-.2(deas)-350.5(inde)]TJ 16.042 0 TD [(pendent)-346.9(o)-3.7(f)-346.2(t)-5.5(heir)-351.5(scientic)-351.2(m)8.8(e)-8.5(r).3(it.)]TJ -14.9505 -1.2726 TD 0 Tc [(Dramatic)-287.2(and)-284.3(particularly)-286.5(memorable)-285.2(cases)-285.9(are)-281.4(another)-290.7(source)-283.4(of)-290(bias)-283.8(for)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD 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[(tion)-213.3(to)-213(seek)-209.9(disconrmin)6.7(g)-213.6(information,)-211.8(is)-208(common.)-213.5(Several)-209(well-documented)]TJ T* [(psychological)-347.8(dynamics)-351.7(function)-346.6(either)-353.2(to)-352.7(elicit)-351.8(or)-352.1(to)-352.7(support)-346.7(conrmatory)]TJ T* [(bias)-257.9(\(Beattie)-255.4(&)-258.8(Baron,)-257.2(1988;)-259(Martindale,)-254.7(2004;)-259(Skov)-256.4(&)-258.8(Sherman,)-254(1986;)-259(Snyder)]TJ T* [(&)-331.2(Swann,)-331.6(1978\).)]TJ 0 -3.3626 TD (C)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 117.1842 221.4991 Tm (OGNITIVE)Tj 10.959 0 0 10.959 159.0803 221.4991 Tm (D)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 167.5275 221.4991 Tm (ISSONANCE)Tj 10.959 0 0 10.959 109.4173 202.5637 Tm [(Information)-342.2(that)-342.3(supports)-338.7(ones)-342.9(current)-344.5(impressions)-340.6(is)-342.5(gratifying.)-340.1(Informa-)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(tion)-192.6(that)-192.3(calls)-190.9(them)-193.4(into)-192.6(question)-189.9(generates)-191.6(discomfort)-191(\(Brehm)-192.6(&)-191.6(Cohen,)-192.7(1962;)]TJ T* 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[(Bias)-338.7(and)-339(Its)-337.5(Sources)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.361 0 TD (27)Tj ET endstream endobj 67 0 obj > endobj 68 0 obj > stream 0 g /GS2 gs 0 757.474 25.455 .28345 re f 37.077 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f 541.417 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f q 1 i 0 794.834 578.82 -794.819 re W n 553.323 757.474 25.497 .28345 re f 553.323 37.134 25.497 .28348 re f 541.417 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f 37.077 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f Q 0 37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(2)0(8)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.959 0 0 10.959 98.8157 676.7432 Tm [(involved)-396.6(a)-400.1(cult)-400.1(whose)-401.3(members)-393.5(had)-403.3(been)-395.3(urged)-397.9(to)-404.4(give)-397.4(up)-400.9(their)-397.6(worldly)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(goods)-242.7(in)-243.4(anticipation)-239.7(of)-243.4(the)-245.6(predicted)-240.2(end)-243.3(of)-243.4(the)-245.6(world)-243.7(on)-241.7(a)-244.9(certain)-242.1(date.)-240.6(The)]TJ T* [(uneventful)-338.4(passing)-340.7(of)-341.7(the)-343.9(date)-345.7(not)-338.8(only)-345.4(failed)-342.4(to)-342.4(disabuse)-337.7(cult)-343.2(members)-341.8(of)]TJ T* [(their)-325.2(beliefs)-324.4(\(a)-325.8(new)-319.1(date)-325(was)-324.8(set\))-327.2(but)-322.3(led)-323.2(to)-326.8(further)-324(commitment)-324.7(to)-326.8(the)-323.2(cult)]TJ T* [(roughly)-191.2(in)-191.7(proportion)-190.7(to)-192.3(the)-193.8(amount)-191.4(they)-190.2(had)-191.2(already)-192(given)-192(away.)-189.6(Evaluators)]TJ T* [(are,)-233.2(of)-238.2(course,)-229.9(subject)-235.4(to)-238.9(these)-234.5(psychological)-234(forces)-233.6(and)-232.6(like)-233.8(the)-235.2(cult)-239.7(members)]TJ T* [(are)-400.4(likely)-399.6(to)-399.3(pour)-401.2(resources)-399.8(into)-404.7(maintaining)-397.5(a)-400.1(belief)-399.6(in)-398.6(proportion)-402.8(to)-404.4(the)]TJ T* [(resources)-363.6(they)-371.3(have)-364.3(already)-367.9(committed)-366.5(to)-368.2(that)-368.2(belief.)-366.9(Evaluators)-365.5(who)-365.8(nd)]TJ T* [(themselves)-404.8(building)-407.1(a)-405.3(case,)-406(putting)-410.5(effort)-406.1(into)-409.9(proving)-408.8(a)-405.3(point,)-409.5(or)-409(simply)]TJ T* -.0001 Tc [(putting)-514.1(disproportionate)-514.9(time)-511.4(into)-518.6(investigati)5.4(ng)-515.3(a)-514(particular)-513.9(aspect)-511.3(of)-512.5(a)]TJ T* 0 Tc [(situation)-330(should)-333.6(wonder)-331.5(if)-333(cognitive)-334.4(dissonance)-327.8(is)-337.3(in)-331.4(action.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(An)-374.2(important)-373.3(source)-371.3(of)-372.7(potential)-376.3(cognitive)-370.6(dissonance)-374.4(arises)-372.8(in)-372.7(custody)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(evaluations)-456.1(when)-460.4(the)-462.8(examiner)-456.7(is)-461.5(asked)-459.5(to)-461.3(give)-459.5(a)-462.2(preliminary)-460.8(report)-461.1(on)]TJ T* [(some)-218.4(aspect)-221.5(of)-222.7(the)-224.9(case.)-219.8(This)-221.5(sets)-222.9(up)-219.8(a)-219.1(situation)-226.5(in)-217.5(which)-222.1(the)-224.9(examiner)-218.7(will)-223.6(be)]TJ T* [(pressed)-563.6(by)-566.9(cognitive)-572.4(dissonance)-565.8(to)-570(conform)-568.8(the)-566.3(ultimate)-568.7(report)-569.7(to)-564.8(the)]TJ T* [(preliminary)-331.4(report)-331.7(and)-330.9(so)-335.6(reduces)-331.5(the)-333.5(examiners)-328.1(objectivity.)]TJ 0 -3.3626 TD (S)Tj 7.6711 0 0 7.6711 104.485 430.696 Tm (UGGESTIBILITY)Tj 10.959 0 0 10.959 98.8157 411.7605 Tm [(Another)-278.7(reason)-277.2(that)-280.2(evaluators)-283.2(tend)-278.2(to)-280.3(conrm)-280.1(their)-278.6(own)-283(hypotheses)-274.5(is)-280.4(that)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(once)-288.3(an)-287.9(idea)-288.8(takes)-291.1(hold)-288.6(people)-292.2(tend)-288.6(to)-290.6(better)-291.1(remember)-288(data)-288.5(that)-290.6(support)-284.6(it)]TJ T* [(than)-314.1(data)-319.5(that)-316.4(disconrm)-313.8(it.)-316.5(They)-317.2(also,)-313.8(without)-316.7(realizing)-318.7(they)-314.4(are)-317.6(doing)-316(so,)]TJ T* [(tend)-329.9(to)-337.2(collect)-332.5(conrming)-333.6(data.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(In)-289.4(a)-286.3(study)-290.1(by)-287.6(Strohmer,)-291.1(Shivy,)-289(and)-289.5(Chiodo)-291.5(\(1990\),)-286.2(counselors)-288.2(were)-286.8(asked)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(to)-347.5(consider)-351.2(a)-348.4(particular)-353.5(clinical)-350.9(hypothesis)-343.5(and,)-349.9(in)-352(doing)-347(so,)-349.5(to)-352.7(reect)-352.1(on)-345.2(a)]TJ T* [(narrative)-297.8(report)-305.9(they)-298.8(had)-299.9(read)-298.6(a)-301.8(week)-300.5(earlier.)-298.1(The)-300.2(counselors)-303.7(recalled)-301.2(more)]TJ T* -.0001 Tc [(conrmatory)-525.8(information)-523.9(than)-526.3(disconrmatory)-527.5(information)-523.9(even)-525.1(though)]TJ T* 0 Tc [(the)-380.1(report)-378.3(contained)-373.5(more)-379.7(disconrmatory)-378.3(information.)-377.3(In)-377.3(a)-379.4(second)-375.1(study)]TJ T* [(by)-411.7(the)-411.1(same)-409.4(investigators,)-410.7(counselors)-412.4(were)-411(asked)-412.9(to)-409.6(consider)-413.3(a)-410.5(particular)]TJ T* 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[(au)12.5(th)10(or)10(it)12.9(y.)-398.2(Hav)17.1(er)10.1(ka)12.2(mp)-399.2(\(1)10.5(99)11.9(3,)-398.5(p.)-397.9(31)11.9(3\))-403.4(fo)10.1(un)12.7(d)-405.1(t)0(h)10(a)0(t)-398.9(w)0(h)14.1(e)0(n)-402(h)0(y)12.4(p)0(o)12.1(t)0(h)10(e)0(s)11(e)0(s)-397.6(a)0(r)10.4(e)-405.6(se)11(lf-)]TJ T* [(ge)11.9(ne)11.8(ra)10.4(te)14.7(d)-172.3(t)0(h)10(e)0(r)10.1(e)-172.8(is)-166.6(a)-172.5(sig)18.1(ni)10.1(c)11.2(an)12.1(t)-174.6(r)0(i)13.5(s)0(k)11.6(,)-174.2(re)10.1(ga)12.2(rd)10.6(le)14.7(ss)-170.3(of)-165.8(th)10(e)-172.8(p)0(r)10.9(o)0(f)15.2(e)0(s)11(sio)17.4(nal)-162.4(ex)10.9(pe)12.1(rie)16.5(nc)10.9(e)-172.8(o)0(f)]TJ T* [(th)10(e)-307.3(s)0(u)11.9(b)0(j)10.2(e)0(c)10.3(t)0(s)14.4(,)-308.7(th)10(at)-305.8()13.6(in)10.1(fo)10.1(rm)12.6(at)9.8(io)9.5(n)-306.8(r)0(e)10.1(l)0(e)14.7(v)0(a)11.8(n)0(t)-305.5(t)0(o)-306.1(a)0(l)15(t)0(e)9.5(r)0(n)10.6(a)0(t)9.8(i)0(v)9.8(e)-307.3(hy)12.4(po)12.1(th)10(es)11(es)-299.4(wi)11.8(ll)-307.8(no)11.8(t)-309.1(b)0(e)]TJ T* [(el)9.5(ic)13.8(ite)16(d.)10.4()-265.7(H)10.5(e)0(r)-269.3()0(n)12.7(d)0(i)15.2(ngs)-259(di)10(ffe)17.2(re)10.1(d)-270.6(f)0(r)14.1(o)0(m)-265.6(S)0(t)9.1(r)0(o)10(h)0(m)14.3(e)0(r)-264.1(e)0(t)-264.7(a)0(l)9.8(.)0()13.7(s)-271.4(in)-264.1(th)10(at)-259.2(sh)11.6(e)-271.1(d)0(i)10(d)-270.6(no)11.8(t)-267.7()0(n)12.7(d)]TJ T* [(ev)11.5(id)10(en)11.8(ce)-289.7(of)-284.8(co)10.3(n)12.7(rma)15.9(to)9.4(ry)-289.4(bi)10.1(as)-283.5(whe)17.1(n)-296.4(h)0(y)12.4(p)0(o)12.1(t)0(h)10(e)0(s)11(e)0(s)-289(w)10.5(er)10.1(e)-297(c)0(l)13.7(i)0(e)9.5(n)0(t)10(-)0(i)13.6(n)0(i)10.1(tia)16.3(te)9.5(d.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 98.8157 714.5573 Tm [(28)-1281.9(F)]TJ 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 127.1055 714.5573 Tm (ROM)Tj 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 147.1181 714.5573 Tm (E)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 153.2976 714.5573 Tm (MPIRICAL)Tj 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 191.4519 714.5573 Tm (F)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 196.9511 714.5573 Tm [(INDIN)-11.6(GS)-476(TO)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 243.9495 714.5573 Tm (C)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 251.0362 714.5573 Tm [(USTO)-11.2(DY)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 283.2377 714.5573 Tm (E)Tj 6.9738 0 0 6.9738 289.3606 714.5573 Tm [(VALUAT)-11.6(IONS)]TJ ET endstream endobj 69 0 obj > endobj 70 0 obj > stream 0 g /GS2 gs 0 757.474 25.455 .28345 re f 37.077 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f 541.417 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f q 1 i 0 794.834 578.82 -794.819 re W n 553.323 757.474 25.497 .28345 re f 553.323 37.134 25.497 .28348 re f 541.417 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f 37.077 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f Q 0 37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(2)0(9)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.959 0 0 10.959 121.3795 676.7432 Tm [(In)-460.1(their)-454.5(discussion)-459.2(of)-455.5(conrmatory)-458.4(bias,)-458(Klayman)-455.5(and)-455.1(Ha)-456.9(\(1987\))-458.6(have)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(hypothesized)-388.1(a)-389.8(positive)-390.7(test)-395.1(strategya)-384.8(tendency)-390(to)-394.1(pose)-390.8(questions)-388.9(the)]TJ T* -.0001 Tc 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.015015 .28345 25.497 re f Q 0 37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(3)0(3)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.959 0 0 10.959 109.4173 676.7432 Tm [(information)-554.9(from)-556.8(documents,)-548.9(disinterested)-557.3(collateral)-552.4(sources,)-558.2(and)-553.3(other)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(nonparties.)-332.7(However,)-335.6(standards)-330.8(and)-336.1(practices)-335.2(in)-336.5(collecting)-339.5(these)-332.8(data)-335(have)]TJ T* [(yet)-333.5(to)-332(be)-334.7(well)-330.5(developed)-329.2(\(Kirkland)-331.7(&)-336.4(Kirkland,)-326.8(2001\).)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(I)12.3(n)0(d)17.5(i)0(s)19.6(c)0(r)14.3(i)11.6(mi)17.2(na)17.3(t)11.6(e)-467.7(i)11.7(n)0(v)17.2(e)0(s)21.4(t)0(i)18.1(g)0(a)17.4(t)0(i)18.1(o)0(n)16.9(s)-462.8(\()19.1()15.9(s)13.1(h)0(i)15.2(n)0(g)-453.2(e)0(x)21.3(p)0(e)17.3(d)0(i)20.4(t)0(i)12.9(o)13.3(ns)16.7()18.8(\))-463.7(a)0(r)15.6(e)-462.5(i)11.7(l)0(l)-457.8(a)0(d)17.3(v)13.6(is)14.4(e)13.4(d)-467.2(an)22.5(d)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(po)17.2(s)13.1(s)0(i)14.4(b)14(ly)-341.7(un)17.9(e)13.4(t)0(h)15.2(i)11.6(ca)15.8(l)-345.3(\()0(b)15.9(e)0(c)20.7(a)0(u)17.6(s)0(e)-335.6(t)0(h)15.2(e)0(y)-334.7(c)0(r)14.3(e)13.4(at)15(e)-348.7(u)14.3(nd)17.5(ue)-339.6(r)12.2(i)0(s)14.4(k)-348.1(o)13.3(f)-349.9(ha)17.3(r)12.2(m)-346.2(w)10.5(i)0(t)12.9(h)-343(li)12.9(t)11.6(t)0(l)18.1(e)-348.7(li)18.1(ke)17(l)11.7(i)0(-)]TJ T* [(ho)16.9(o)13.3(d)-306.8(th)15.2(at)-295.4(pe)17.3(rt)18.6(in)15.2(e)13.4(n)0(t)-300.4(i)11.6(nf)15.9(or)20.3(m)10.7(a)0(t)15(i)11.7(on)-298.6(w)10.5(i)0(l)18.1(l)-309.1(be)-293.3(un)17.9(ea)16.8(r)12.2(t)0(h)15.2(e)0(d)22.1(\))0(.)-301.6(A)10.2(n)-306.8(e)13.4(va)17(l)11.7(u)0(a)17.6(t)0(o)14.6(r)-303.4(ca)15.8(nn)22.7(ot)14.6(,)-303.5(f)0(o)15.3(r)]TJ T* [(pr)16.1(a)13.7(c)0(t)13.7(i)11.6(ca)15.8(l)-324.6(r)0(e)20.4(a)0(s)16.5(o)0(n)22.1(s)0(,)-316.3(a)0(s)16.5(s)13.1(ur)16.1(e)-322.8(l)0(i)18.1(t)0(i)12.9(g)14(an)17.3(ts)-316.7(th)20.4(at)-316.1(ev)16.7(er)20.4(y)-327.4(d)0(o)16.9(c)12.5(um)19.8(en)17(t)-324.6(d)0(e)17(s)0(c)20.4(r)0(i)13.5(b)14(ed)-319.3(b)14(y)-327.4(th)20.4(em)-317.3(as)]TJ T* [(be)17(i)11.6(n)0(g)-199.7(o)0(f)-202(p)0(o)17.2(t)11.6(en)17(ti)18.1(al)-202.3(i)11.6(m)0(p)14.6(o)13.3(rt)13.4(a)13.7(n)0(c)16.1(e)-209(w)10.5(i)0(l)18.1(l)-210.8(be)-200.2(re)15.2(vi)20.1(ew)18.7(ed)-200.3(an)17.3(d)-208.5(t)0(h)15.2(a)13.7(t)-210.8(e)0(v)16.7(e)0(r)20.4(y)-213.6(c)12.5(o)0(l)14.6(l)11.7(at)15(e)13.4(r)0(a)15.6(l)-210.8(so)21.3(ur)16.1(ce)]TJ T* [(id)20.4(en)17(ti)18.1(e)17.3(d)-286.1(b)0(y)-277.2(t)11.6(he)17(m)-289.3(a)13.7(s)-286.9(h)0(a)17.3(v)0(i)20.1(n)0(g)-277.3(u)0(s)17(e)0(f)20.5(u)0(l)-279.3(i)11.7(nf)15.9(or)20.3(m)10.7(a)0(t)15(i)11.6(on)-277.9(w)10.5(i)0(l)12.9(l)-283.2(be)-277.8(in)15.2(t)11.6(e)0(r)15.2(v)13.6(ie)14.7(w)10.5(e)0(d)17(.)-282.8(Th)17.5(ou)17.2(gh)]TJ T* [(li)18.1(st)19.6(s)-193.8(o)0(f)-181.3(d)0(o)16.9(c)12.5(um)19.8(en)17(ts)-182.2(to)-182(be)-179.5(re)15.2(vi)20.1(ew)18.7(ed)-179.6(an)17.3(d)-193(l)11.7(is)19.6(ts)-182.2(of)-186.5(c)12.5(o)0(l)14.6(l)11.7(at)15(e)13.4(r)0(a)15.6(l)11.7(s)-193.8(t)11.6(o)-193.6(b)0(e)-179.5(i)0(n)15.2(t)11.6(er)15.2(v)13.6(i)0(e)14.7(w)10.5(ed)-179.6(m)10.7(u)0(s)17(t)]TJ T* [(so)16.1(m)10.7(e)13.4(ti)12.9(m)10.7(e)13.4(s)-214.5(b)0(e)-200.2(t)0(r)18.6(i)0(m)17.2(m)10.7(ed)17(,)-210.4(t)0(h)15.2(e)-209(ev)16.7(a)13.7(l)0(u)15.6(a)0(t)20.2(o)0(r)-202.1(m)0(u)14.6(s)13.1(t)-210.8(t)0(a)15(k)0(e)-200.2(g)0(r)15.8(e)13.4(at)-202.3(ca)15.8(re)-202(to)-202.7(av)17(oi)19.8(d)-213.7(c)12.5(on)16.9(du)17.8(ct)18.9(in)15.2(g)]TJ T* [(a)-534.6(f)0(o)15.3(c)12.5(us)17.1(ed)-526.2(s)13.1(e)0(a)16.8(r)0(c)19.5(h)-539.6(f)12.3(o)0(r)-528(d)0(a)17.3(t)11.6(a)-534.6(s)0(u)17.1(p)0(p)18.2(o)0(r)20.3(t)0(i)18.1(v)0(e)-526.5(o)0(f)-527.9(a)-534.6(fa)20.8(vo)16.6(re)15.2(d)-534.4(h)0(y)22.8(p)0(o)17.2(t)0(h)15.2(e)13.4(si)14.4(s)13.1(.)-536.3(Si)19.5(mi)17.2(la)15(r)12.2(l)0(y)15.3(,)]TJ T* [(ev)16.7(a)13.7(l)0(u)15.6(a)0(t)20.2(o)0(r)15.2(s)-416.2(s)13.1(h)0(o)16.9(u)0(l)15.6(d)-415.5(be)-407.2(aw)19(ar)20.7(e)-416(t)0(h)15.2(a)0(t)-409.2(m)10.7(an)22.5(y)-420.6(c)12.5(ol)14.6(l)11.7(a)0(t)15(e)13.4(ra)15.6(l)-417.7(s)13.1(ou)17.2(rc)14.3(e)13.4(s)-416.2(ar)15.6(e)-416(h)0(i)20.4(g)0(h)17.6(l)0(y)-408.9(b)0(i)20.5(a)0(s)16.5(e)13.4(d)]TJ T* [(or)-310.7(in)15.2(ac)21(cu)16.4(ra)20.7(te)-316.4(ev)21.9(en)-314.1(if)-312.3(th)15.2(e)13.4(y)-322.3(do)-314.2(no)16.9(t)-319.5(h)0(a)17.3(v)0(e)-309.2(a)-322.5(di)15.2(r)12.2(e)0(c)15.5(t)-319.5(in)15.3(t)11.6(e)0(r)15.2(e)13.4(st)-316.7(i)11.7(n)-322.3(th)15.2(e)-317.7(c)0(a)15.8(s)0(e)21.4(.)-324.2(Te)22.1(ac)15.8(he)17(r)12.2(s)0(,)]TJ T* [(ph)17.9(ys)22(ic)13.8(i)11.6(a)0(n)17.3(s)13.1(,)-298.4(a)0(n)17.3(d)-296.5(th)15.2(e)13.4(r)0(a)15.6(p)0(i)20.7(s)0(t)14.4(s)-297.2(a)13.7(r)0(e)-290(l)0(i)18.1(k)0(e)-288.2(e)0(v)16.7(e)0(r)20.4(y)0(o)17(n)0(e)-288.2(e)0(l)19.9(s)0(e)-289(i)11.6(n)-301.6(h)0(a)22.5(v)0(i)14.9(n)0(g)-287.6(t)11.6(he)17(ir)-291.7(o)13.3(b)0(s)16.8(e)0(r)20.4(v)0(a)17(t)0(i)18.1(o)0(n)16.9(s)]TJ T* [(sh)16.7(a)13.7(p)0(e)17.3(d)-291.3(by)-282.4(f)12.3(a)0(c)15.8(t)11.6(or)15.2(s)-292.1(t)11.6(ha)17.3(t)-293.6(m)10.7(ay)-282.7(b)14(e)-291.8(ir)13.5(r)12.2(e)0(l)19.9(e)0(v)16.7(a)0(n)17.3(t)-288.4(to)-285.4(th)20.4(e)-291.8(i)0(s)14.4(s)13.1(ue)17.3(s)-292.1(a)13.7(t)-293.6(h)0(a)17.3(n)0(d)17.5(.)-288(Th)17.5(e)-291.8(q)0(u)17.5(a)13.7(li)18.1(ty)-284.8(of)]TJ T* [(in)20.4(fo)15.2(r)12.2(m)0(a)19.3(t)0(i)12.9(o)13.3(n)-208.5(o)0(b)17(t)11.6(ai)15(ne)22.2(d)-208.5(f)0(r)19.3(o)0(m)-198.4(t)0(h)15.2(i)11.7(rd)-201.5(pa)17.6(r)12.2(t)0(i)18.1(e)0(s)-201.1(c)12.5(an)-200(be)-200.2(i)11.7(m)10.7(pr)16.1(ov)16.6(e)13.4(d)-208.5(by)-199.7(a)13.7(s)0(k)16.8(i)0(n)20.4(g)-208.5(fo)15.3(r)-205.1(s)0(p)17.1(e)0(c)20.7(i)0()15.6(c)]TJ T* [(fa)20.8(ct)13.7(ua)22.8(l)-210.8(i)11.6(nf)15.9(or)20.3(m)10.7(a)0(t)15(i)11.6(on)16.9(.)-205.2(F)0(o)17(r)-205.1(ex)16.1(am)19.3(pl)20.7(e,)-202.2(a)-203.6(t)0(e)19.8(a)0(c)15.8(h)0(e)17(r)12.2(s)-197.3(im)17.2(pr)16.1(e)13.4(s)0(s)15.9(i)11.7(on)-200.3(t)11.6(h)0(a)17.3(t)-205.7()13.6(M)10.7(r)12.2(.)-210.4(J)12.3(on)16.9(es)-195.9(se)16.2(em)19(s)]TJ T* [(to)-269.9(ha)17.3(v)13.6(e)-281.5(a)13.7(n)-280.9(r)21.3(m)-279(e)0(m)19(o)0(t)19.8(i)0(o)14.6(n)0(a)22.5(l)-278(re)15.2(l)11.7(a)0(t)15(i)11.6(on)16.9(sh)16.7(i)11.7(p)-275.4(to)-269.9(hi)15.2(s)-276.6(c)0(h)16.1(i)11.7(ld)15.2()12()-277.7(is)-270.1(fa)20.8(r)-277.5(l)0(e)14.7(s)13.1(s)-281.7(u)0(s)22.2(e)0(f)15.3(u)0(l)-269(t)11.6(ha)17.3(n)-275.7(h)0(e)17(r)]TJ T* [(ob)17(s)13.1(e)0(r)15.2(v)0(a)22.2(t)0(i)18.1(o)0(n)-262.4(t)11.6(ha)17.3(t)-267.7()0()18.8(M)10.7(r.)-260.3(Jo)20.4(ne)17(s)-266.2(h)0(a)17.3(s)-266.2(co)15.4(m)10.7(e)-265.9(to)-259.6(ea)16.8(c)12.5(h)-270.6(av)22.2(ai)15(l)11.6(a)0(b)17.4(l)11.7(e)-271.1(p)0(a)22.8(r)0(e)15.2(n)0(t)20.4(-)0(t)18.7(e)0(a)16.8(c)0(h)21.2(e)0(r)-258.9(c)0(o)15.4(n)0(f)21(e)0(r)15.2(-)]TJ T* [(en)17(c)12.5(e)0(.)-243.6(A)10.2(t)-252.2(t)0(h)15.2(e)-250.4(la)20.2(st)-244.3(co)15.4(nf)21(er)15.2(e)13.4(n)0(c)16.1(e)-250.4(he)-241.6(as)16.5(ke)22.2(d)-255.1(a)13.7(bo)17(ut)-243.1(th)15.2(r)12.2(e)0(e)-242.2(s)0(p)17.1(e)0(c)20.7(i)0()15.6(c)-251.4(gr)21(ad)17.3(es)-242.5(th)15.2(e)-250.4(c)0(h)21.2(i)0(l)18.1(d)-255.1(ha)17.3(d)]TJ T* [(re)20.4(ce)15.5(i)11.6(v)0(e)16.7(d)-301.7(a)13.7(n)0(d)-292.9(w)10.5(an)17.3(t)11.6(e)0(d)-293.4(t)11.6(o)-302.2(k)0(n)17.6(o)13.3(w)-299.9(w)10.5(ha)17.3(t)-298.8(h)0(e)-293.4(c)0(o)20.6(u)0(l)15.6(d)-296.5(do)-293.5(t)11.6(o)-302.2(he)17(l)11.6(p)-301.3(t)11.6(h)0(e)-293.4(c)0(h)21.2(i)0(l)12.9(d)-296.5(do)-293.5(b)14(e)0(t)14.7(t)11.6(er)15.3(.)12()0()]TJ /F3 1 Tf 0 -2.5452 TD [(Addressing)-282.2(Bias)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 7.4908 0 TD [(Bias)-289(and)-284.3(the)-286.9(threat)-285.7(of)-284.8(bias)-283.8(are)-286.6(inevitable)-285.2(aspects)-285.9(of)-284.8(custody)]TJ -7.4908 -1.2726 TD [(evaluations,)-356.1(just)-358(as)-361.1(they)-355.7(are)-359(inevitable)-357.6(aspects)-358.4(of)-357.2(any)-356.7(research)-356(or)-362.5(decision-)]TJ T* [(making)-222(process.)-222(The)-222.6(presence)-219.7(of)-222.7(bias)-226.9(and)-222.3(threats)-220.8(of)-222.7(bias)-221.7(do)-226.2(not)-225(in)-222.7(themselves)]TJ T* [(negate)-302.7(the)-307.6(value)-300.6(of)-305.5(custody)-305.7(evaluations.)-299.2(However,)-304.6(it)-307.8(is)-301.1(the)-307.6(responsibility)-301.6(of)]TJ T* [(the)-281.8(custody)-274.6(evaluator,)-279.2(as)-278.4(it)-282(is)-280.4(the)-276.6(responsibility)-280.9(of)-279.6(the)-276.6(researcher)-278.7(or)-279.7(decision)]TJ T* [(maker,)-343(to)-347.5(be)-350.2(as)-345.6(aware)-345.2(as)-345.6(possible)-345.5(of)-346.9(the)-343.8(impact)-349.8(of)-346.9(bias)-345.8(on)-345.2(opinions)-344.8(and)-346.4(to)]TJ T* [(work)-208.7(to)-207.8(address)-211.8(the)-209.4(impact)-205(of)-212.4(bias)-206.2(on)-210.7(evaluations.)-206.1(Several)-209(means)-204.1(of)-212.4(accessing)]TJ T* [(bias)-330.3(are)-333.2(described)-332(here.)]TJ /F5 1 Tf 0 -2.5452 TD [(Audio)-303.1(and)-310.2(Video)-303.2(Recording)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 13.3364 0 TD [(Among)-305.1(other)-308(advantages,)-303.3(recordings)-304.4(of)-310.7(inter-)]TJ -13.3364 -1.2726 TD [(views)-351.6(provide)-352.5(excellent)-351.1(opportunities)-353.9(to)-352.7(detect)-353(and)-356.8(address)-351.5(bias.)-349.3(Even)-353.8(the)]TJ T* [(best)-258.3(notes)-260.5(condense)-259.8(interactions.)-259.6(An)-260.4(evaluator)-260.2(cannot)-257.3(write)-261.4(down)-258.8(aspects)-260.1(of)]TJ T* [(the)-261.1(interaction)-258.9(of)-258.9(which)-258.3(the)-261.1(evaluator)-260.2(is)-259.7(unaware.)-253.3(Not)-259.5(only)-262.7(the)-255.9(actual)-258.9(words)]TJ T* [(used)-421.2(to)-430.3(phrase)-421.2(a)-426(question)-422.7(\(which)-421.9(are)-426.3(usually)-424.7(lost)-426.2(unless)-422.3(the)-426.6(interview)-420.9(is)]TJ T* [(recorded\))-317.5(but)-322.3(the)-318(evaluators)-317.8(inection)-318.3(and)-315.4(tone)-320.2(carry)-318.3(markers)-319.4(of)-321(bias.)-313.1(The)]TJ T* [(evaluators)-297.1(facial)-302.2(expressions)-295.1(and)-299.9(body)-301.7(language)-294.9(are)-302.1(often)-297.6(out)-302.2(of)-300.3(the)-297.3(exam-)]TJ T* 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[(accur)8.1(atel)9(y)-358.5(and)-351.6(info)9.8(rmati)8.1(vely)-350.8(in)-352(a)-358.7(way)-349.8(that)-352.6(is)-352.9(usefu)10.4(l)-360.8(t)0(o)-352.7(the)-354.2(court)-350(and)-351.6(other)]TJ T* [(decisi)8.9(on)-205.5(make)10.4(rs.)-200.6(To)-205.6(obtain)-201.1(relia)10.9(ble)-204.1(test)8.4(imon)8.3(y)-208.5(court)6.9(s)-204.1(must)-203.8(tole)8.6(rate)-202.6(the)-204.2(dist)8.9(ress)]TJ T* [(of)-336.5(dec)8.7(ision)-329.5(makin)12.3(g)-337.8(and)-330.9(the)-333.5(ambig)12.3(uity)-331.3(that)-331.9(is)-337.3(part)-331.1(of)-336.5(the)-333.5(real)9.6(ity)-335.2(of)-331.4(comp)9.4(lex)]TJ T* [(huma)11.3(n)-182.6(psych)10.9(ology)9.4(.)-184.5(When)-174.4(cou)9(rts)-180.3(displa)11.1(ce)-181.1(thei)9.2(r)-184.4(judi)10.1(cial)-178.2(respo)9.4(nsibil)8.8(ity)-174.9(for)-179.5(legal)]TJ T* [(decisi)8.9(on)-195.2(making)-191(onto)-196.1(enthu)10.3(siastic)-192(exper)9.4(ts,)-196(they)-195.4(create)-192.2(a)-203.6(situ)9.3(ation)-194.4(in)-202(which)-191(the)]TJ T* [(exper)9.4(ts)-327(may)-323.7(ll)-319.4(this)-327.3(role)-321.9(at)-326.5(the)-323.2(expen)11.1(se)-325.2(of)-326.2(provi)8.1(ding)-319(accur)8.1(ate)-323.4(inform)12(ation.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(Increasingly)-386.9(in)-393.4(the)-390.4(behavioral)-386.1(sciences,)-391.4(researchers)-389.7(have)-390.2(recognized)-390.5(the)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(value)-331.7(of)-331.4(framing)-330.6(ndings)-329.4(in)-331.4(terms)-332.1(of)-331.4(specic)-327.4(risks)-334.2(and)-325.7(probabilities.)-333.9(In)-330.7(so-)]TJ T* -.0001 Tc [(called)-373.4(second-generation)-376.3(studies)-369.4(of)-372.8(the)-375(risk)-373.3(of)-372.8(violence,)-370.9(investigators)-371.1(have)]TJ T* 0 Tc [(tried)-408(to)-409.6(make)-403.4(quantitative)-404.3(predictions)-406.9(of)-409(the)-405.9(likelihood)-409.5(of)-409(an)-406.9(individual)5.8(s)]TJ T* [(being)-227.9(violent)-226.3(in)-227.9(various)-228.8(circumstances,)-226.4(rather)-228.2(than)-226.1(attempting)-230.5(the)-224.9(essentially)]TJ T* [(impossible)-318(task)-314.8(of)-315.8(saying)-317.9(that)-316.4(the)-318(person)-318.1(will,)-315(in)-321(fact,)-315.6(be)-319.2(violent.)-312.6(Following)]TJ T* [(such)-194.5(a)-198.4(process,)-196.1(the)-199(experts)-197(goal)-200.8(should)-194(be)-195.1(to)-202.7(reach)-198.1(the)-193.8(most)-199.5(reliable)-198.4(and)-196.4(valid)]TJ T* [(opinion)-414.9(possible)-407.6(under)-413.4(the)-416.3(circumstances)-409.1(and)-413.7(to)-414.8(be)-412.3(able)-412.8(to)-414.8(describe)-413.2(how)]TJ T* [(reliable)-353.6(and)-351.6(valid)-354.5(that)-352.6(opinion)-352.8(is.)-351.2(Rarely)-350.3(can)-353(the)-354.2(expert)-351.5(accurately)-356.9(forecast)]TJ T* [(exactly)-205(what)-208.9(will)-208.1(or)-207.3(will)-202.9(not)-209.4(happen.)-204.5(\(When)-203.5(an)-205.1(expert)-206.6(gives)-208.4(an)-205.1(opinion)-208(in)-202(this)]TJ T* [(form,)-270.6(it)-271.6(almost)-272.4(always)-269.9(means)-271.3(that)-269.9(the)-271.4(opinion)-270(is)-270.1(inaccurate,)-272.5(has)-269.6(been)-271.2(poorly)]TJ T* [(expressed,)-328.5(or)-336.6(responds)-332.4(to)-332(a)-332.9(situation)-335.2(where)-329.8(the)-333.5(outcome)-329.9(is)-337.3(so)-330.5(obvious)-330.9(that)]TJ T* [(an)-375.8(expert)-377.4(opinion)-378.7(is)-378.7(not)-375(needed.\))-374.8(Experts)-379.2(should,)-373.3(however,)-378.7(be)-376.1(able)-376.6(to)-378.6(say)]TJ T* [(whether)-195.6(the)-193.8(information)-192.8(changes)-195.1(the)-193.8(likelihood)-197.4(of)-191.7(some)-197.7(outcome)-190.3(and)-196.4(in)-196.8(some)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 298.4881 714.5006 Tm [(Th)-7(e)-332(Goals)-339.6(and)-339(Standa)-8.6(rds)-334.7(of)-336.1(Evalua)-9.9(tion)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 17.2196 0 TD (35)Tj ET endstream endobj 86 0 obj > endobj 87 0 obj > stream 0 g /GS2 gs 0 757.474 25.455 .28345 re f 37.077 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f 541.417 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f q 1 i 0 794.834 578.82 -794.819 re W n 553.323 757.474 25.497 .28345 re f 553.323 37.134 25.497 .28348 re f 541.417 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f 37.077 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f Q 0 37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(3)0(6)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.959 0 0 10.959 98.8157 676.7432 Tm [(instances)-369.3(may)-370.3(be)-376.1(able)-371.4(to)-373.4(quantify)-370.9(that)-373.3(conclusion.)-370(In)-377.3(all)-371.7(instances,)-372.8(experts)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(should)-494(be)-495.1(prepared)-492.8(to)-497.6(describe)-496(the)-493.9(reliability)-499.2(and)-491.3(validity)-498.3(of)-496.9(their)-495.9(own)]TJ T* (opinions.)Tj 8.7582 -3.3626 TD [(RELEVANCE)-330.4(AND)-331.9(HELPFUL)7.8(NESS)]TJ -8.7582 -1.7278 TD [(Custody)-210.2(evaluations)-212.9(are)-209(valuable)-214.7(only)-210.9(insofar)-215(as)-211.1(they)-210.9(are)-214.2(admissible)-209.3(in)-212.4(court.)]TJ 0 -1.2726 TD [(Evaluators)-303.4(should)-307.8(be)-303.7(aware)-303.8(of)-310.7(the)-307.6(criteria)-304.7(used)-307.4(by)-303.1(the)-307.6(courts)-305.9(to)-311.3(ensure)-302.5(that)]TJ T* [(their)-330.4(reports)-334.1(meet)-328.5(these)-332.8(criteria.)-328.9(Courts)-334.6(apply)-325.3(two)-331.9(specic)-332.6(tests)-330.3(of)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 30.0923 0 TD (relevance)Tj /F2 1 Tf -30.0923 -1.2726 TD (and)Tj /F3 1 Tf 2.0951 0 TD (helpfulness)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.8886 0 TD [(in)-398.6(determining)-402.8(the)-400.8(admissibility)-401.5(of)-398.6(expert)-403.2(testimony.)-402.3(Most)]TJ -6.9838 -1.2726 TD [(state)-246.9(evidence)-240.8(codes)-244.2(adopt)-243.6(or)-248.7(closely)-246.7(resemble)-239.5(the)-245.6(Federal)-244(Rules)-243.8(of)-248.6(Evidence)]TJ T* [(\(2006\).)-441.4(Some)-446.1(states)-445.9(continue)-443.8(to)-445.8(use)-445.5(the)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 18.5406 0 TD (Frye)Tj /F2 1 Tf 2.2659 0 TD [(rule)-445.1(or)-450.4(variations)-445.7(on)-443.5(it.)-445.8(The)]TJ -20.8065 -1.2726 TD [(Federal)-295.7(Rules)-295.5(of)-300.3(Evidence)-297.2(will)-301.2(form)-298.1(the)-297.3(basis)-296.5(of)-300.3(our)-296.5(discussion,)-297.1(but)-301.6(readers)]TJ T* [(should)-499.2(be)-500.3(aware)-500.4(that)-497.5(rules)-499.2(may)-499.6(differ)-503.7(substantially)-499.3(from)-499.9(jurisdiction)-500.4(to)]TJ T* [(jurisdiction)-334.8(and)-330.9(even)-328.4(from)-334.3(court)-334.5(to)-332(court.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(Rules)-274.8(401,)-277.9(402,)-277.9(403,)-277.9(and)-279.2(702)-279.6(of)-279.6(the)-281.8(Federal)-275(Rules)-280(of)-279.6(Evidence)-281.7(are)-276.3(the)-281.8(most)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(important)-481.9(for)-484.7(custody)-486.7(evaluators.)-483.3(Rule)-484.5(401,)-479.7(Denition)-486.8(of)-481.4(Relevant)-486.1(Evi-)]TJ T* [(dence,)-388.3(states,)-387.3()-69.1(Relevant)-389.4(evidence)-384(means)-385.1(evidence)-390.8(having)-384.7(any)-387.7(tendency)]TJ T* [(to)-192.3(make)-186.1(the)-188.7(existence)-194.4(of)-186.5(any)-191.1(fact)-193.1(that)-187.1(is)-192.5(of)-191.7(consequence)-183.7(to)-192.3(the)-193.8(determination)-186.7(of)]TJ T* [(the)-473.2(action)-471.7(more)-472.8(probable)-472.9(or)-471.1(less)-471.2(probable)-472.9(than)-469.3(it)-473.4(would)-474.4(be)-469.2(without)-477(the)]TJ T* [(evidence.)-184.1(With)-188.9(special)-189.1(exceptions,)-188.9(relevant)-191.3(evidence)-183.9(is)-192.5(generally)-187.3(admissible,)]TJ T* [(and)-346.4(irrelevant)-353.7(evidence)-344.3(is)-352.9(not)-349.1(admissible.)-347.3(Even)-348.6(when)-351.8(evidence)-344.3(is)-352.9(relevant,)]TJ T* [(Rule)-422.5(403)-419.3(states,)-423.5(evidence)-418.6(may)-422(be)-422.7(excluded)-421.7(if)-421(its)-424(probative)-420.3(value)-419.6(is)-425.3(sub-)]TJ T* [(stantially)-426.9(outweighe)7.4(d)-431(b)0(y)-422.1(the)-426.6(danger)-425.8(of)-424.5(unfair)-423.8(prejudice,)-424.3(confusion)-424.9(of)-429.6(the)]TJ T* [(issues,)-271.4(or)-274.5(misleading)-275.8(the)-276.6(jury,)-272.1(or)-274.5(by)-277.2(considerat)5.2(ions)-279(of)-274.5(undue)-271.7(delay,)-273.1(waste)-273.9(of)]TJ T* [(time,)-333.7(or)-331.4(needless)-328.5(presentation)-335.3(of)-331.4(cumulative)-333.1(evidence.)]TJ 1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(Although)-264.4(courts)-269.6(seldom)-270.4(exclude)-264.9(reports)-272(for)-267.4(providing)-269.5(too)-266.9(much)-269.4(informa-)]TJ -1.0915 -1.2726 TD [(tion,)-232.3(some)-228.7(evaluators)-231.5(include)-229.5(information)-229(that)-233.7(is)-228.7(much)-233.2(more)-229.7(prejudicial)-231.7(than)]TJ T* [(relevant.)-298.3(For)-301.9(example,)-301.3(although)-297.1(sexual)-298.5(behavior)-302.8(is)-301.1(relevant)-300(to)-301(some)-301.2(psychi-)]TJ T* [(atric)-207.4(diagnoses,)-209.2(evaluators)-205.6(have)-203.9(been)-209.1(known)-208.5(to)-207.8(include)-208.8(lurid)-205.4(details)-211(of)-207.2(sexual)]TJ T* 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[(If)-233.1(scienti)-10.1(c,)-230.6(techni)-9.4(cal,)-230.5(or)-236.2(other)-235(special)-11.1(ized)-232.9(knowl)-11.1(edge)-231.9(wil)-7.6(l)-226.8(a)0(s)-6.2(sist)-234.5(the)-232.1(trier)-234.9(of)-235.6(fact)]TJ 0 -1.3999 TD [(to)-206.8(und)-8.6(erstand)-213.8(the)-209.3(evide)-10.5(nce)-209.5(or)-207.8(to)-212.5(determi)-11.9(ne)-207(a)-205.6(fact)-213.3(in)-212.9(issue,)-207.9(a)-211.3(witness)-211.6(q)-7.1(ualied)-213.4(as)]TJ T* [(an)-345.3(exp)-7.4(ert)-346.1(by)-347.1(knowle)-10.1(dge,)-347.1(skill)-8.8(,)-341.8(exp)-7.4(erience,)-352.7(train)-8.8(ing,)-344.1(or)-350.1(educa)-7.8(tion,)-351.8(may)-350.6(testify)]TJ T* [(theret)-9.2(o)-204.5(i)0(n)-207.2(the)-203.7(form)-213.3(of)-201.5(an)-208.7(opinion)-213.6(or)-207.8(otherwi)-10.1(se,)-204(if)-206.8(\(1\))-205.4(the)-209.3(testimo)-10.7(ny)-202.3(is)-209.6(based)-205(upon)]TJ T* 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(,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5861 0 TD (40)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.0015 0 TD [(,)-336.1(177184.)]TJ -21.1575 -1.3031 TD [(Beatti)-10(e,)-204.2(J.,)-208.4(&)-203.5(Baro)-10(n,)-202.7(J.)-208(\(1988\).)-208.1(Co)-8.6(nrmatio)-10.3(n)-202.3(a)-6.5(nd)-202.9(matc)-8.4(hing)-210.3(biases)-209.1(in)-207.2(hyp)-8(othesis)-213.4(testing.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 1.1723 -1.2974 TD [(Th)-7(e)-252.3(Quarter)-9.7(ly)-254.7(Journa)-9.7(l)-253.9(o)0(f)-256.5(Experim)-8.1(ental)-261.1(Psychol)-8.1(ogy)-254.5(A:)-255.5(Hum)-8.6(an)-252.9(Ex)-7(perimental)-262.2(Psyc)-7(hology)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 35.7765 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf -35.7765 -1.2974 TD (40A)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.7242 0 TD [(,)-336.1(269297.)]TJ -2.8965 -1.3031 TD [(Belsky)-9.9(,)-250.8(G.,)-253.7(&)-254.7(Gilovich)-12.5(,)-250.8(T)0(.)-251.3(\(1999\))-8.5(.)-250.8(Why)-255(smart)-259.3(peop)-8.4(le)-254.3(make)-252.8(big)-255.2(mo)-8(ney)-252.5(mis)-7.4(takesan)-7.3(d)]TJ 1.1723 -1.2974 TD [(how)-245.2(to)-246.7(correc)-10.4(t)-241.4(them:)-246.6(Lessons)-246.3(from)-247.4(the)-243.5(new)-244.6(science)-249.9(of)-241.3(behavi)-9.1(oral)-241.9(econo)-9.6(mics.)-243.7(New)]TJ 0 -1.3031 TD [(Yor)-8.4(k:)-336.1(Simon)-338.2(and)-340.2(Schus)-8.2(ter.)]TJ -1.1723 -1.2974 TD [(Bow,)-356.9(J.,)-350.6(&)-351.4(Quinn)-8.9(ell,)-350.6(F.)-353.2(\(2001\).)-356(Psychol)-10.5(ogists)-357.1(curren)-10.5(t)-349.5(practices)-361.6(and)-351.6(pro)-7.8(cedures)-356.2(in)]TJ 1.1723 -1.3031 TD [(chil)-9.8(d)-376.2(custod)-9.7(y)-375.6(evaluat)-8.3(ions:)-383.4(Five)-375.1(year)-8.8(s)-375.4(after)-383.8(American)-384.9(Psyc)-7.2(hologica)-9.7(l)-374.8(Asso)-9.1(ciation)]TJ 0 -1.2974 TD [(guide)-9.3(lines.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 5.7702 0 TD [(Pr)-8.2(ofessional)-342.7(Psyc)-7(hology:)-341.3(Research)-339(and)-339(Prac)-8.8(tice)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 19.4218 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5861 0 TD (32)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.0015 0 TD [(,)-330.4(261)-8(268.)]TJ -27.952 -1.3031 TD [(Brehm)-8.7(,)-398.7(J)0(.)-401.5(W.,)-400.6(&)-396.9(C)0(o)-8.6(hen,)-398.3(A.)-403(R.)-398.5(\(1962\))-8.5(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 17.2993 0 TD [(Explo)-8.2(rations)-407.9(in)-396.2(Co)-8(gnitive)-400.2(Di)-7.8(ssonance)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 15.8083 0 TD [(.)-398.7(Oxford,)]TJ -31.9354 -1.2974 TD [(Engl)-8.6(and:)-334.9(Wi)-6.4(ley.)]TJ -1.1723 -1.2974 TD [(Brickl)-10.6(in,)-287.2(B.,)-291.6(Ellio)-9.2(t,)-287.3(G.,)-287.8(&)-288.8(Hal)-9.2(bert,)-289.6(M.)-293.9(\(1995\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 19.5527 0 TD [(The)-287.8(custody)-297(evaluation)-298.9(handbo)-9.5(ok:)-290(Resear)-10.2(ch)]TJ -18.3805 -1.3031 TD [(bas)-7.4(ed)-332.8(solu)-8(tions)-335.1(and)-339(applic)-9.1(ations)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 13.2362 0 TD [(.)-330.4(New)-341.7(York:)-338.8(Brunne)-8.3(r/Mazel)-11.3(.)]TJ -14.4085 -1.2974 TD [(Burnh)-9.3(am,)-379.4(J.)-384.4(\(1990\))-8.5(.)-376(The)-389.7(evolutio)-10.9(n)-378.7(o)0(f)-383.6(editor)-9.8(ial)-380.5(pee)-8.6(r)-378.9(revi)-8.6(ew.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 27.1382 0 TD [(Journal)-388.8(of)-381.7(the)-381(Ameri)-10.7(can)]TJ -25.966 -1.3031 TD [(Medi)-9.6(cal)-334.2(Assoc)-9.2(iation)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.2854 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5861 0 TD (263)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.5023 0 TD [(,)-336.1(1323132)-6.1(9.)]TJ -11.5461 -1.2974 TD [(Cam)-6.8(pbell,)-247.4(D.,)-243.7(&)-243.3(Stanley,)-247.3(J.)-247.8(\(1963\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 15.0913 0 TD [(Experim)-8.1(ent)-243.7(in)-242.5(quasi-e)-9.9(xperimen)-9.5(tal)-242.1(design)-8.9(s)-241(for)-241.3(rese)-7.8(arch)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 21.8574 0 TD (.)Tj -35.7765 -1.3031 TD [(Bost)-8(on:)-338.8(Houghton)-346.2(Mifin.)]TJ -1.1723 -1.2974 TD [(Ceci,)-289(S.,)-283.1(&)-283.1(Bruck,)-290.5(M.)-282.5(\(1995\))-8.5(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 12.6672 0 TD [(Jeopardy)-292.9(in)-282.3(the)-284.3(courtro)-9.7(om:)-286.1(A)-283.5(scientic)-286.8(anal)-8.6(ysis)-281.3(of)-284.9(child)-6.6(rens)]TJ -11.4949 -1.3031 TD [(testimon)-14(y)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 4.0118 0 TD [(.)-330.4(Washi)-10.1(ngton,)-338.6(DC:)-337.7(Amer)-9.3(ican)-335.7(Psyc)-7.2(hologica)-9.7(l)-335(Associati)-13.2(on.)]TJ -5.1841 -1.2974 TD [(Chapm)-9.1(an,)-209.1(G.)-213.5(B.,)-211.9(and)-215(John)-8.6(son,)-213.4(E.)-211.5(J.)-208(\(1999\))-8.5(.)-210.9(Anchor)-10.3(ing,)-213.2(activatio)-13.9(n)-208(and)-215(the)-215(constr)-10.7(uction)]TJ 1.1723 -1.3031 TD [(of)-338.1(values,)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 4.6663 0 TD [(Organiz)-9.9(ation)-341.4(Behavior)-339(and)-339(Human)-341.1(Decisi)-7.6(on)-332.6(Pr)-8.2(ocesses.)]TJ /F2 1 Tf -5.8385 -1.2974 TD [(Chas)-7(san,)-282.9(J.)-287.6(\(1979\))-8.5(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.3423 0 TD [(Re)-7.4(search)-291.7(design)-287.8(in)-288(clinical)-291.5(psychol)-8.3(ogy)-282.9(and)-287.8(psyc)-7.2(hiatry)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 22.1761 0 TD [(\(2nd)-286(ed.\).)-287.6(New)]TJ -29.3462 -1.2974 TD [(Yor)-8.4(k:)-336.1(Irvington.)]TJ -1.1723 -1.3031 TD [(Cohen)-8.2(,)-267.8(J)0(.)-270.6(\(1990\))-8.5(.)-267.8(Things)-278.9(I)-270.2(have)-271.7(learne)-10.1(d)-268(\(so)-275.3(far\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 21.0721 0 TD [(Americ)-8.7(an)-270(Psyc)-7(hologis)-9.9(t)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.3268 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5235 0 TD (45)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.0015 0 TD [(,)-267.8(1304131)-6.1(4.)]TJ -31.924 -1.2975 TD [(Cohle)-9.9(r,)-476(B.,)-479.3(&)-476.6(Gal)-8.2(atzer-Lev)-9.9(y,)-478.4(R.)-478.2(\(2007\).)-481.2(What)-485.8(kind)-480.9(of)-480.3(science)-483.2(is)-477(psyc)-7.2(hoana)-7.4(lysis?)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 1.1723 -1.3031 TD [(Psyc)-7(hoanalyt)-9.7(ic)-337.3(Inquiry)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.5203 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5804 0 TD (27)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.0072 0 TD [(,)-330.4(547582.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 18.739 60.8889 TD [(Re)-7.4(ferences)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 5.1784 0 TD (43)Tj ET endstream endobj 112 0 obj > endobj 113 0 obj > stream 0 g /GS2 gs 0 757.474 25.455 .28345 re f 37.077 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f 541.417 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f q 1 i 0 794.834 578.82 -794.819 re W n 553.323 757.474 25.497 .28345 re f 553.323 37.134 25.497 .28348 re f 541.417 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f 37.077 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f Q 0 37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(4)0(4)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 98.8157 677.7636 Tm [(Comm)-8.3(ittee)-269.4(on)-270.2(Ethical)-275.2(Gu)-7.4(idelines)-272.3(fo)-8(r)-265.1(Fore)-7.6(nsic)-272.1(Psychol)-9.1(ogists,)-274.2(1991,)-270.9(Law)-266.6(a)-6.5(n)0(d)-265.5(Human)]TJ 1.1723 -1.2974 TD [(Behav)-10.5(ior.)-338.3(Vol.)-333.9(15\(6\))-7.8(,)-330.4(D)0(e)-8.6(c)-332.6(1991,)-339.2(655665.)]TJ -1.1723 -1.3031 TD [(Crano,)-243.8(W.)-240.9(D.)-243.3(\(1977\).)-242.2(Primacy)-246.7(versu)-8.4(s)-238.8(recenc)-9.6(y)-239(i)0(n)-235.7(rete)-9.4(ntion)-240.7(of)-241.3(inform)-10.7(ation)-244.1(and)-243.5(opinion)]TJ 1.1723 -1.2975 TD [(chang)-9.5(e.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 3.7387 0 TD [(Journal)-337.6(of)-336.1(Soci)-9.8(al)-330.4(Ps)-8.2(ychology)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 11.7453 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5861 0 TD (101)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.5023 0 TD [(,)-336.1(8796.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf -18.7447 -1.3031 TD [(Daubert)-340.7(v.)-336.9(Merrel)-9(l)-333.6(Dow)-335.9(Ph)-7(armaceutic)-9.9(als,)-338.5(Inc.,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 19.8259 0 TD [(509)-338(U.S.)-332.9(579)-338(\(1993\))-8.5(.)]TJ -19.8259 -1.2974 TD [(DePau)-7.7(lo,)-340.6(B.)-342.4(M.,)-345.5(Charlto)-11.7(n,)-339.2(K.,)-341.6(Coo)-8.2(per,)-343.3(H.,)-340(Lind)-9.2(say,)-342.3(J.)-338.9(J.,)-344.9(&)-340(Muhle)-9.5(nbruc)-8.2(k,)-336.1(L.)-342.4(\(1997\))-8.5(.)]TJ 1.1723 -1.3031 TD [(The)-270.2(accura)-9.1(cyconde)-13(nce)-266.4(correlatio)-14.7(n)-264.9(i)0(n)-264.1(the)-266.2(detec)-9.2(tion)-266.1(of)-264.1(dec)-7.8(eption.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 29.6364 0 TD [(Perso)-9(nality)-269.2(and)]TJ -29.6364 -1.2974 TD [(Social)-340.2(Psyc)-7(hology)-341(Review)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.6243 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5861 0 TD (1)Tj /F2 1 Tf .5008 0 TD [(,)-330.4(346357.)]TJ -12.8834 -1.3031 TD [(Dickersi)-12.7(n,)-561.2(K.)-563.1(\(1990\).)-566.6(The)-560.4(exi)-7.4(stence)-569.2(of)-560(publi)-8.2(cation)-565.3(bias)-568.8(and)-562.1(risk)-565.7(factors)-568.8(for)-563.3(its)]TJ 1.1723 -1.2975 TD [(occu)-9.6(rrence.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 5.4174 0 TD [(Journa)-9.7(l)-333.6(o)0(f)-336.1(the)-335.5(Americ)-8.7(an)-332.6(Medi)-9.6(cal)-334.2(Assoc)-9.2(iation)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 18.5398 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5861 0 TD (263)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.5023 0 TD [(,)-336.1(1385138)-6.1(9.)]TJ -27.2179 -1.2974 TD [(Dietz,)-193.4(P.)-187.4(\(1996\).)-191(The)-190.5(quest)-189.5(for)-193.5(excellen)-10.3(ce)-189.3(in)-184.4(fo)-8(rensic)-189.1(psyc)-7.2(hiatr)-8.8(y.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 27.4341 0 TD [(Bull)-7.6(etin)-190.3(of)-188.2(the)-187.6(Americ)-8.7(an)]TJ -26.2619 -1.3031 TD [(Academ)-12.3(y)-330.8(o)0(f)-336.1(Psyc)-7(hiatry)-336.7(and)-339(the)-335.5(Law)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 14.9548 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5804 0 TD (24)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.0015 0 TD [(\(2\),)-336.7(15)-7.2(3163.)]TJ -17.709 -1.2975 TD [(Edelso)-10.1(n,)-327.9(M.)-328.1(\(1984\))-8.5(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.9171 0 TD [(Hypothe)-8.1(sis)-331.8(and)-327.7(evid)-7(ence)-332(in)-327.9(psyc)-7.2(hoanalysi)-12.5(s)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 17.5895 0 TD [(.)-330.4(Chic)-8.2(ago:)-330.8(Univ)-8(ersity)-333.7(of)]TJ -25.3343 -1.3031 TD [(Ch)-6.4(icago)-337.8(Pres)-7(s.)]TJ -1.1723 -1.2974 TD [(Ekman)-7.1(,)-330.4(P)0(.)-335.3(\(1992\))-8.5(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.1716 0 TD [(Telling)-338.2(lies)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 4.5695 0 TD [(.)-330.4(New)-341.7(York:)-338.8(Nort)-8.8(on.)]TJ -12.7411 -1.3031 TD [(Ekman)-7.1(,)-216.6(P.,)-216.2(&)-220.5(OSulliva)-10.3(n,)-219.7(M.)-214.2(\(1991\))-8.5(.)-216.6(Who)-220.5(Can)-217.7(Catc)-9(h)-213.7(a)-217(Liar)-9.6(?)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 26.205 0 TD [(Ameri)-10.7(can)-216.8(Psyc)-7(hologist)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.2756 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .4666 0 TD (46)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.0015 0 TD (,)Tj -35.7765 -1.2974 TD (913920.)Tj -1.1723 -1.3031 TD [(Elliot,)-353.4(A.)-346.1(J.,)-350.6(&)-345.7(Devine)-11.3(,)-341.8(P)0(.)-346.7(G)0(.)-350(\(1994\).)-350.3(On)-348.8(the)-351.6(motivati)-13.3(onal)-349.8(nature)-349.2(of)-349.5(cog)-7.8(nitive)-351.4(disso-)]TJ 1.1723 -1.2974 TD [(nan)-7(ce:)-417.3(Diss)-8.4(onance)-423.6(as)-421.7(psychol)-9.1(ogical)-422.4(discom)-10.1(fort.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 22.0736 0 TD [(Journa)-9.7(l)-418.9(o)0(f)-415.8(Perso)-9(nality)-422.8(and)-418.7(So)-8.2(cial)]TJ -22.0736 -1.3031 TD [(Psyc)-7(hology)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 4.5923 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5861 0 TD (67)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.0015 0 TD [(,)-330.4(382)-8(394.)]TJ -7.3522 -1.2974 TD [(Feder)-7.6(al)-221.9(Rules)-224.6(of)-224.3(Ev)-7.6(idence)-9.1(.)-216.6(\(2006\))-8.5(.)-222.3(Printed)-228.7(for)-227.6(The)-224.6(Comm)-8.3(ittee)-229.6(on)-224.7(the)-220.7(Jud)-8.2(iciary)-227(Hous)-7.8(e)]TJ 1.1723 -1.2974 TD [(of)-309.6(Represe)-10.5(ntativ)-9.2(es,)-306.5(Unit)-9(ed)-306.9(States)-315.1(Govern)-8.9(ment)-314.5(Printing)-316.8(House,)-314.4(Washin)-7.5(gton,)-312.7(DC.)]TJ -1.1723 -1.3031 TD [(Festin)-9.2(ger,)-332.7(L.)-336.7(\(1957\))-8.5(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.1276 0 TD [(A)-334.7(T)0(h)-7(eory)-337.3(of)-336.1(Cognit)-9.3(ive)-330.6(Di)-7.8(ssonance)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 14.215 0 TD [(.)-330.4(E)0(v)-7.6(anston)-8.7(,)-330.4(IL:)-339.4(Roe,)-334.5(Peter)-8.6(sen.)]TJ -23.3426 -1.2974 TD [(Festin)-9.2(ger,)-196.2(L.,)-200.5(&)-192.1(Car)-7.4(lsmith,)-200.3(J.)-196.6(M.)-197.2(\(1959\))-8.5(.)-193.9(Cog)-8.6(nitive)-197.7(co)-7.8(nseque)-7.1(nces)-197.9(of)-195.8(forced)-207(compl)-9(iance.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 1.1723 -1.3031 TD [(The)-339(Journa)-9.7(l)-333.6(o)0(f)-336.1(Abnormal)-341.1(and)-339(Social)-340.2(Psyc)-7(hology)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 19.8373 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5861 0 TD (58)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.0015 0 TD [(,)-330.4(203210)-11(.)]TJ -22.5972 -1.2974 TD [(Festin)-9.2(ger,)-218.9(L.,)-223.3(Riecken,)-230.6(H.)-220.1(W.,)-218.5(&)-220.5(Schach)-9.9(ter,)-221.3(S.)-225.8(\(1956\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 22.785 0 TD [(When)-227.9(prophe)-8.7(cy)-220.7(fails)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.1432 0 TD [(.)-216.6(M)0(i)-8.2(nneapoli)-8.9(s:)]TJ -29.7559 -1.3031 TD [(Univ)-8(ersity)-339.4(of)-338.1(Minnesota)-346(Press.)]TJ -1.1723 -1.2974 TD [(Feyera)-7.7(bend,)-338.8(P.)-335.3(\(1975\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 10.2259 0 TD [(Against)-340.6(method)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 6.8457 0 TD [(\(Rev.)-339(ed.\).)-338.8(New)-336.1(Yor)-8.4(k:)-330.4(Verso)-12.1(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf -17.0716 -1.3031 TD [(Frye)-346.1(v.)-342.6(United)-349(States)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.8829 0 TD [(.)-683.3(5)0(4)-343(App.)-344.5(D.)-345.7(C.)-339.4(46,)-343.3(293)-343.7(F.)-341.8(1)-6.5(013.)-344.1(No.)-344.9(3968.)-344.9(Court)-349.2(of)-343.8(Appeal)-7.3(s)-341.2(o)0(f)]TJ -7.7107 -1.2974 TD [(District)-348.5(of)-332.4(Col)-7.8(umbia)-7.6(,)-330.4(1923.)]TJ -1.1723 -1.2974 TD 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/F3 1 Tf 8.8659 0 TD -.0143 Tc [(Profes)-14.3(s)10.2(i)-.8(onal)-330.8(Psych)-14.3(o)10.8(logy)-14.3(:)-322.7(R)-2.7(esear)-14.3(c)8.5(h)-333.7(a).2(nd)-333.7(Practice)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 18.7902 0 TD 0 Tc (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5691 0 TD (32)Tj /F2 1 Tf .9731 0 TD [(,)-319.1(1)16.3(71)26.9(1)26.9(7)16.3(4)0(.)]TJ -30.3705 -1.2974 TD [(Klaym)-7.7(an,)-448.1(J.,)-453.1(&)-448.2(Ha,)-454.2(Y.)-449.7(\(1987\).)-452.8(Conr)-8.5(mation,)-457.7(discon)-10.5(rmation)-10.3(,)-449.9(and)-448.3(inform)-10.7(ation)-454.6(in)]TJ 1.1723 -1.3031 TD [(hyp)-8(othesis)-338.6(testin)-11.5(g.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.7236 0 TD [(Psyc)-7(hological)-342.1(Re)-7.4(view)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.7919 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5804 0 TD (94)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.0015 0 TD [(,)-336.1(211228.)]TJ -20.2697 -1.2974 TD [(Koehle)-10.7(r,)-316.7(D.)-317.3(J.,)-316.5(Brenn)-9.2(er,)-315.7(L.)-6.6(,)-313.4(&)-317.3(Grifn)-10.1(,)-313.4(D)0(.)-323(\(2002\).)-321.9(The)-315.7(cal)-8.2(ibratio)-10.1(n)-316.1(o)0(f)-315.3(exp)-7.4(ert)-317.7(judgme)-11.5(nt:)]TJ 1.1723 -1.3031 TD [(Heu)-7.4(ristics)-478.6(and)-476.8(biase)-10.1(s)-472.1(beyon)-7.4(d)-472.9(the)-476.8(labor)-8.6(atory.)-478.7(In)-478.2(T.)-473.3(Gilovich)-12.5(,)-472.7(D)0(.)-476.6(Grifn)-10.1(,)-472.7(&)-470.9(D.)]TJ 0 -1.2974 TD [(Kahne)-11.1(man)-632.6(\(Eds)-9.4(.\),)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.9512 0 TD [(Heuristi)-8.5(cs)-631.6(and)-640.6(biases:)-635.5(Th)-7(e)-633.6(psychol)-8.3(ogy)-635.7(of)-632(intuiti)-10.3(ve)-634.4(judgment)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 26.8252 0 TD (.)Tj -35.7765 -1.2974 TD [(\(pp)-6.8(.)-330.4(6867)-9.5(15\).)-334.7(New)-336.1(Yor)-8.4(k:)-330.4(Cam)-6.8(brid)-8.8(ge)-334.7(Univers)-10.1(ity)-337.3(Press.)]TJ -1.1723 -1.3031 TD [(Koriat)-10.3(,)-296.3(A.,)-301(Lichten)-9.9(stein,)-299.8(S.,)-300.2(&)-300.2(Fischhof)-10.1(f,)-299(B.)-296.9(\(1980\))-8.5(.)-296.3(Reason)-7.7(s)-295.7(f)0(o)-8(r)-293.6(co)-7.8(ndence.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 33.1645 0 TD [(Journa)-9.7(l)-299.4(o)0(f)]TJ -31.9923 -1.2974 TD [(Ex)-7(perimental)-341.9(Psyc)-7(hology:)-341.3(Human)-341.1(Learning)-340.7(and)-339(Memory)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 23.7125 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5804 0 TD (6)Tj /F2 1 Tf .5008 0 TD [(,)-336.1(107118.)]TJ -25.966 -1.3031 TD [(Kuhn,)-267(T.)-268.4(\(1970\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 7.3294 0 TD [(The)-265.1(structur)-9.3(e)-263.7(o)0(f)-267.8(scientic)-269.7(revolutions)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 15.3986 0 TD [(\(2n)-6.6(d)-262.3(ed.\).)-264.8(Ch)-6.4(icago:)-269.9(Univers)-10.1(ity)-263.3(of)]TJ -21.5558 -1.2974 TD [(Ch)-6.4(icago)-337.8(Pre)-7.2(ss.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf -1.1723 -1.3031 TD [(Kumho)-343.1(Tire)-338.1(Co.)-332.8(v)-6.5(.)-330.4(Carm)-8.6(ichael,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 13.2533 0 TD [(526)-332.3(U.S)-8.2(.)-330.4(137)-338(\(1999\).)]TJ -13.2533 -1.2974 TD [(Latou)-8.2(r,)-470.3(B.,)-473.7(&)-470.9(W)0(o)-6.8(olgar,)-475.6(S.)-470.5(\(1986\))-8.5(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 15.7287 0 TD [(Labo)-8(ratory)-479.1(life:)-473.8(The)-469.9(cons)-8.2(truction)-478.1(of)-472.7(scient)-8.2(ic)-472.1(facts)]TJ /F2 1 Tf -14.5564 -1.3031 TD [(\(2n)-6.6(d)-336.3(ed.\).)-333.1(Pri)-7.4(nceton)-9.7(,)-330.4(NJ:)-336.7(Pri)-7.4(nceton)-339.8(Univ)-8(ersity)-339.4(Pre)-7.2(ss.)]TJ -1.1723 -1.2974 TD [(Lidz,)-263.3(T.)-257(\(1984\).)-259.3(A)-254.7(psyc)-7.2(hosoci)-9.6(al)-256.1(orientatio)-14.2(n)-253.5(t)0(o)-258(schizo)-10.7(phrenic)-259.9(diso)-10.6(rders.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 31.1671 0 TD [(Ya)-8(le)-255.9(Journa)-9.7(l)-253.9(o)0(f)]TJ -29.9949 -1.3031 TD [(Biology)-344.3(and)-339(Medicine)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.9968 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5861 0 TD (58)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.0015 0 TD [(,)-330.4(20921)-10.3(7.)]TJ -11.7567 -1.2974 TD [(Lidz,)-439.7(T.,)-439.5(Corne)-8.4(lison,)-439.5(A.,)-437.5(&)-436.8(Fleck,)-439.3(S.)-436.4(\(1958\).)-441.4(The)-435.2(intra)-8.8(famili)-9.6(al)-432.5(en)-7.8(vironm)-9.3(ent)-437(of)-434.8(the)]TJ 1.1723 -1.2974 TD [(schizo)-10.7(phren)-7.8(ic)-525.3(patient:)-529.9(VI.)-525.7(The)-526.2(transmis)-11.1(sion)-525.2(of)-520.2(ir)-8.2(rationa)-9.1(lity.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 28.2934 0 TD [(AMA)-530.5(Archives)-531.5(of)]TJ -28.2934 -1.3031 TD [(Neur)-8.2(ology)-340.2(and)-333.3(Psyc)-7(hiatry)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 10.8234 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5861 0 TD (79)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.0015 0 TD [(,)-330.4(305316.)]TJ -13.5833 -1.2975 TD [(Lidz,)-354.3(T.)-6.6(,)-347.5(Fleck,)-359.6(S.,)-351.4(&)-351.4(Corn)-9.4(elison,)-358.8(A.)-351.8(\(1965\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 19.6381 0 TD [(Schizop)-8.1(hrenia)-357.8(and)-350.4(the)-358.3(family)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 12.0526 0 TD [(.)-347.5(New)-353.1(Yor)-8.4(k:)]TJ -30.5184 -1.3031 TD [(Int)-8.2(ernation)-10.5(al)-335.7(Univers)-10.1(ities)-335.3(Pre)-7.2(ss.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 29.8469 60.8889 TD [(Re)-7.4(ferences)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 5.1784 0 TD (45)Tj ET endstream endobj 116 0 obj > endobj 117 0 obj > stream 0 g /GS2 gs 0 757.474 25.455 .28345 re f 37.077 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f 541.417 769.379 .28345 25.455 re f q 1 i 0 794.834 578.82 -794.819 re W n 553.323 757.474 25.497 .28345 re f 553.323 37.134 25.497 .28348 re f 541.417 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f 37.077 .015015 .28345 25.497 re f Q 0 37.134 25.455 .28348 re f BT /F1 1 Tf 7.9702 0 0 7.9702 37.7008 786.8407 Tm 0 Tc 0 Tw [(E1C01_1)-1486.6(02/10/200)13.9(9)-1996.7(4)0(6)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 98.8157 677.7636 Tm [(Lock)-8.4(,)-444.2(J)0(.)-447(\(1990\).)-447.1(Some)-454.4(aspects)-453(of)-446.2(medic)-9.7(al)-443.8(herm)-8.2(eneutic)-10.1(s:)-444(The)-446.6(ro)-8.6(le)-442.1(of)-451.9(dialectic)-455(and)]TJ 1.1723 -1.2974 TD [(nar)-7.2(rative.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 4.6264 0 TD [(Theoretica)-10.9(l)-333.6(Medic)-7.6(ine)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.5529 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5861 0 TD (11)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.0015 0 TD [(\(1\),)-336.7(4149.)]TJ -15.9392 -1.3031 TD [(Martind)-12.7(ale,)-380.6(D.)-385.6(A.)-380.2(\(2001\))-8.5(.)-376(Cross)-11.5(-examini)-10.3(ng)-378.7(me)-7.4(ntal)-386.7(health)-383.2(exp)-7.4(erts)-385.7(in)-383.6(child)-385.9(custo)-9.2(dy)]TJ 1.1723 -1.2975 TD [(litigati)-13.7(on.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 4.5809 0 TD [(Journa)-9.7(l)-333.6(o)0(f)-336.1(Psyc)-7(hiatry)-336.7(and)-339(Law)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 12.6558 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5861 0 TD (29)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.0015 0 TD [(\(4\),)-336.7(483511.)]TJ -19.9966 -1.3031 TD [(Martind)-12.7(ale,)-471.7(D.)-476.6(A.)-471.3(\(2004\))-8.5(.)-467(Int)-8.2(egrity)-476.2(and)-476.8(transp)-8.6(arency:)-475.7(A)-476.6(commen)-9.7(tary)-473.1(on)-475(record-)]TJ 1.1723 -1.2974 TD [(keepi)-7.8(ng)-264.9(in)-258.4(chil)-9.8(d)-262.3(custod)-9.7(y)-261.7(evaluat)-8.3(ions.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 16.844 0 TD [(Journa)-9.7(l)-259.6(o)0(f)-262.1(Chil)-7.6(d)-262.5(Custody)-8.5(:)-262.1(Research,)-271.1(Issues,)-267(and)]TJ -16.844 -1.3031 TD [(Prac)-8.8(tices)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 3.6533 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5861 0 TD (1)Tj /F2 1 Tf .5008 0 TD [(,)-330.4(3342.)]TJ -5.9125 -1.2974 TD [(Martind)-12.7(ale,)-340.8(D.)-345.7(A.)-340.4(\(2005\))-8.5(.)-341.8(Conrmato)-14(ry)-339.1(bias)-346.9(and)-345.9(conrm)-10.5(atory)-347.5(distorti)-12.1(on.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 33.1247 0 TD [(Journal)-349(of)]TJ -31.9524 -1.3031 TD [(Chil)-7.6(d)-330.8(Cus)-7.4(tody)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 5.958 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5861 0 TD (2)Tj /F2 1 Tf .5008 0 TD [(,)-336.1(3148.)]TJ -8.2172 -1.2975 TD [(McLan)-10.3(ahan,)-355.3(S.,)-351.4(&)-351.4(San)-7.4(defur,)-358(G.)-350(\(1994\))-8.5(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 17.6521 0 TD [(Gro)-9.2(wing)-356.1(up)-353.6(with)-353.2(a)-349.7(singl)-9.7(e)-349.1(parent)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 13.7085 0 TD [(.)-347.5(Cam)-6.8(bridg)-8.8(e,)]TJ -30.1884 -1.2974 TD [(MA)-7.6(:)-330.4(Har)-7.6(vard)-336.1(Univ)-8(ersity)-339.4(Pre)-7.2(ss.)]TJ -1.1723 -1.3031 TD [(McNu)-8.6(tt,)-210(R.,)-211.1(Ev)-7.6(ans,)-208.9(A.,)-215.6(Fletcher,)-219.5(R.,)-211.1(&)-209.2(Fletc)-8.8(her,)-210.7(S.)-214.5(\(1990\).)-213.8(The)-213.2(effects)-218.7(of)-212.9(blinding)-215(on)-213.3(the)]TJ 1.1723 -1.2975 TD [(qua)-7(lity)-575.5(of)-577.1(pee)-8.6(r)-572.4(revi)-8.6(ew:)-577.6(A)-573.4(ran)-7.2(domiz)-8.6(ed)-574.3(trial)-10.6(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 21.5501 0 TD [(Journal)-582.3(of)-575.1(the)-580.2(Americ)-8.7(an)-577.3(Medic)-7.6(al)]TJ -21.5501 -1.3031 TD [(Assoc)-9.2(iation)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 4.6947 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5861 0 TD (263)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.5023 0 TD [(,)-336.1(1371137)-6.1(6.)]TJ -7.9554 -1.2974 TD [(Milgram,)-572.3(S.)-561.6(Behavi)-9.7(oral)-560.6(stu)-7(dy)-563.9(of)-560(obedi)-9.7(ence.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 21.1518 0 TD [(Th)-7(e)-559.6(Journal)-565.2(of)-563.8(Abn)-7.6(ormal)-566.8(and)-561(Social)]TJ -19.9795 -1.3031 TD [(Psyc)-7(hology,)-341.3(67\(4\),)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 7.9326 0 TD [(Octob)-8.8(er)-332.4(1963,)-339.2(371378.)]TJ -9.1049 -1.2974 TD [(Northcr)-12.1(aft,)-450.1(G.)-452.5(B.,)-450.9(&)-453.8(Neale)-7.2(,)-444.2(M)0(.)-453.2(A)0(.)-454.2(\(1987\).)-452.8(Exp)-9(erts,)-454.4(amateurs,)-457.8(and)-454(real)-451.9(esta)-7.6(te:)-451.3(An)]TJ 1.1723 -1.3031 TD [(ancho)-9.2(ring-)-8.4(and-adjustm)-11.2(ent)-391.4(per)-7.2(spect)-8.6(ive)-392.2(on)-389.7(pro)-7.8(perty)-396.5(pricing)-393.6(dec)-7.8(isions.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 31.8443 0 TD (Organiza-)Tj -31.8443 -1.2974 TD [(tional)-339.2(Beh)-9(avior)-335.7(and)-339(Human)-341.1(Decisi)-7.6(on)-332.6(Proc)-8.8(esses)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 19.5243 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5861 0 TD (39)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.0015 0 TD [(,)-330.4(8497)-9.5(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf -22.2842 -1.3031 TD [(People)-341.4(v.)-331.2(Ke)-7.4(lly,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 6.7376 0 TD [(549)-338(P.2d)-336.7(1240)-338.8(\(1976\).)]TJ -6.7376 -1.2974 TD [(Poppe)-7.6(r,)-333.8(K.)-335.5(\(1959\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 8.3879 0 TD [(The)-339(logic)-338.4(of)-336.1(scientic)-343.7(discovery)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 12.855 0 TD [(.)-336.1(Londo)-9.2(n:)-333.6(Hutchi)-9.9(nson.)]TJ -21.2428 -1.2974 TD [(Rapapor)-8.3(t,)-224.7(D.,)-220.9(Gill,)-228.2(M.,)-226(&)-220.5(Schafer)-9.3(,)-222.3(R)0(.)-222.1(\(1945\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 18.9097 0 TD [(Diagnos)-9.9(tic)-220.5(psyc)-7.2(hological)-228.3(testing)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 13.037 0 TD [(.)-222.3(New)-222.3(Yor)-8.4(k:)]TJ -30.7745 -1.3031 TD [(Interna)-8.7(tion)-10(al)-330(Un)-7.4(iversit)-10(ies)-333.7(Pre)-7.2(ss.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf -1.1723 -1.2974 TD [(Ramirez)-341(v.)-336.9(State,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 7.4603 0 TD [(651)-338(So.)-333.6(2d)-337.1(1164)-338.8(\(1995\).)]TJ -7.4603 -1.3031 TD [(Salsbu)-8.2(rg,)-555.7(D.)-562(\(1985\).)-560.9(The)-560.4(religion)-560.3(of)-560(statis)-10(tics)-555.9(as)-558.2(practice)-14.6(d)-552.6(i)0(n)-560(med)-8(ical)-559.4(journal)-9.5(s.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 1.1723 -1.2974 TD [(Ameri)-10.7(can)-336.3(Statistici)-9.9(an)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 8.9455 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5804 0 TD (39)Tj /F2 1 Tf 1.0072 0 TD [(,)-330.4(220223.)]TJ -11.7055 -1.3031 TD .2906 Tc [(S)275.7(a)272.8(n)276.1(d)272.9(i)274.3(f)276.5(e)274.5(r)-3(M)270.2(.)0(G)276.7(.)273.1(,J)276.5(r)270.2(.)278.8(,H)270(o)273.9(r)275.9(d)272.9(e)274.5(r)275.9(n)270.4(,A)274.9(.)278.8(,)-5.7(&G)271(r)275.9(e)274.5(e)274.5(n)276.1(,L)272.9(.M)270.2(.\()276.5(1)272.8(9)272.8(7)278.5(0)272.8(\))276.5(.T)272.9(h)270.4(e)1.4(p)274.3(s)273.7(y)273.5(c)276.7(h)276.1(i)274.3(a)272.8(t)271.2(r)275.9(i)274.3(ci)274.3(n)276.1(t)271.2(e)274.5(r)275.9(v)272.2(i)274.3(e)274.5(w)275.7(:)]TJ 1.1723 -1.2974 TD .0158 Tc [(The)-222.2(i)-.5(mpact)-219.9(o)-.9(f)-220.3(t)2.1(he)-222.2(rst)-219.9(three)-216.5(m)-4(inutes.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 16.8611 0 TD [(Am)-5.7(erican)-217.6(Journal)-215.5(o)-3.9(f)-215.4(P)-2(sychiatry,)-218(126)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 15.1539 0 TD .0166 Tc [(\(7\),)-217.1(197)4.5(0,)]TJ -32.015 -1.3031 TD .0178 Tc [(968)5.7(97)5.7(3.)]TJ -1.1723 -1.2974 TD 0 Tc [(Schach)-9.9(ter,)-335.1(D.)-340(\(2001\).)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 9.4861 0 TD [(Seven)-334.7(sins)-337.5(of)-336.1(memor)-9.3(y)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 9.0024 0 TD [(.)-336.1(New)-336.1(Yor)-8.4(k:)-330.4(Hou)-8(ghton)-338.2(Mif)-10.2(in.)]TJ -18.4886 -1.2974 TD [(Seligm)-9.3(an,)-334.3(M.)-339.4(\(1971\).)-339(Phobias)-337.4(a)-6.5(n)0(d)-333.7(prepa)-7.2(redness)-10.3(.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 21.9428 0 TD [(Behavi)-10.1(or)-334.6(Therap)-8.6(y)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 7.2441 0 TD (,)Tj /F3 1 Tf .5804 0 TD (2)Tj /F2 1 Tf .5065 0 TD [(\(3\),)-336.7(307320.)]TJ -30.2737 -1.3031 TD 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Table of Contents

Preface.

Preface to the Second Edition.

Introduction (Robert M. Galatzer-Levy).

References.

Contributors.

1 From Empirical Findings to Custody Evaluations (Robert M. Galatzer-Levy, Jonathan Gould, and David Martindale).

2 Legal and Ethical Issues in Child Custody Evaluations (David A. Martindale and Norman M. Sheresky).

3 Observations of Parents, Caretakers, and Children for Child Custody Assessment (Anita Lampl).

4 Use of Psychological Tests in Child Custody Evaluations (Jonathan Gould, David A. Martindale, and James R. Flens).

5 An Updated Review of the Effects of System and Estimator Variables on Child Witness Accuracy in Custody Cases (Bradley D. McAuliff, Margaret Bull Kovera, and Livia L. Gilstrap).

6 The Importance of Attachment in Custody Evaluations: Toward the Best Interest of the Child (Louis Kraus and Kayla Pope).

7 Improving the Quality of Parent-Child Contact in Separating Families with Infants and Young Children: Empirical Research Foundations (Michael E. Lamb and Joan B. Kelly).

8 Divorce, Custody, and Visitation in Middle Childhood (Louis Kraus, Robin Shapiro, and Robert M. Galatzer-Levy).

9 Custody Evaluations of Adolescents (Sarghi Sharma and Christopher Thomas).

10 Adopted Children and Custody Arrangements (Susan M. Fisher).

11 Medically Ill Children and Adolescents (Brenda Bursch).

12 Parental Sexual Orientation, Social Science Research, and Child Custody Decisions (Charlotte J. Patterson).

13 Child Custody Evaluations of Parents with Major Psychiatric Disorders (Michael J. Jenuwine and Bertram J. Cohler).

14 Child Adjustment and High-Conflict Divorce (Robin M. Deutsch and Marsha Kline Pruett).

15 Evaluating Child Sexual Abuse Allegations (Kathryn Kuehnle and Mary Connell).

16 Rejection in Cases of Abuse or Alienation in Divorcing Families (Leslie M. Drozd).

17 Joint Custody: A Judicious Choice for Families—But How, When, and Why? (Marsha Kline Pruett and Carrie Barker).

18 Conclusions and Prospects (Robert M. Galatzer-Levy).

Author Index.

Subject Index.