This reference analyzes and chronicles the Soviet occupation of and withdrawal from Afghanistan in the period from 1973 to 1990 by an observer in the area who relied on a variety of sources and cross-checked them carefully. The analysis of events leading to the Soviet withdrawal covers the important negotiations and relates them to the historic changes that were taking place in the Soviet Union and in its relationships to the rest of the world. This analysis and chronology is indispensable to students and researchers assessing the final years of the Soviet Union, events in Afghanistan, and current problems. A brief introduction precedes a discussion of the international implications of Soviet policy in Afghanistan, a description of the negotiations following years of crisis from 1973 to 1986, an analysis of the Soviet decision to withdraw, and the final years from 1988 to 1990. The chronology covering the Soviet intervention and withdrawal is detailed and occupies the main portion of this reference. An index makes important detail easily accessible to students and researchers in history, political science, military studies, and Soviet and Asian affairs.