THiNK by Judith A. BossTHiNK by Judith A. Boss


byJudith A. Boss

Paperback | January 13, 2014

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THiNK offers instructors core content and pedagogy in a succinct magazine format that teaches them the importance of overcoming feelings and opinions to commit to positions based on reason and logic. Boss’s 3rd edition is powered by Connect Critical Thinking, a state of the art digital learning environment that helps you connect your students to their coursework. Whether accessing online homework and quizzes, or assigning SmartBook and LearnSmart, the first and only adaptive learning experience, Connect provides a complete digital solution for your classroom. With extensive opportunity for application and practice, and groundbreaking digital content, THiNK directs students to make connections between skill development and apply it to their college studies, careers, and personal lives.
Title:THiNKFormat:PaperbackDimensions:10.8 × 8.4 × 0.5 inPublished:January 13, 2014Publisher:McGraw-Hill EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:007803843X

ISBN - 13:9780078038433


Table of Contents


Chapter 1: Critical Thinking: Why It's Important

What is Critical Thinking?

Critical Thinking in Everyday Life
Cognitive Development in College Students

Characteristics of a Good Critical Thinker

Analytical Skills
Effective Communication
Research and Inquiry Skills
Flexibility and Tolerance for Ambiguity
Open-minded Skepticism
Creative Problem Solving
Attention, Mindfulness, and Curiosity
Collaborative Learning

Critical Thinking and Self-Development

Living the Self-Examined Life
Developing a Rational Life Plan
Facing Challenges
The Importance of Self-Esteem
Critical Thinking in a Democracy

Barriers to Critical Thinking

The Three-Tier Model of Thinking
Types of Resistance
Rationalization and Doublethink
Cognitive and Social Dissonance
Stress as a Barrier

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Affirmative Action in College Admissions

Chapter 2: Reason and Emotion

What is Reason?

Traditional Views of Reason
Gender, Age, and Reason
Dreams and Problem Solving

The Role of Emotion in Critical Thinking

Cultural Attitudes Toward Emotion
Emotional Intelligence and the Positive Effects of Emotion
Negative Effects of Emotion
Integrating Emotion and Reason

Artificial Intelligence, Reason, and Emotion

The Field of Artificial Intelligence
Can Computers Think?
Can Computers Feel Emotion?

Faith and Reason

Fideism: Faith Transcends Reason
Rationalism: Religious Beliefs and Reason
Critical Rationalism: Faith and Reason are Compatible
Religion, Spirituality and Real-Life Decisions

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on on Reason and Proofs for the Existence of God

Chapter 3: Language and Communication

What is Language?

Functions of Language
Nonverbal Language


Denotative and Connotative Meanings
Stipulative Definitions
Lexical Definitions
Precising Definitions
Persuasive Definitions

Evaluating Definitions

Five Criteria
Verbal Disputes Based on Ambiguous Definitions

Communication Styles

Individual Styles of Communication
Sex and Racial Differences in Communication Style
Cultural Differences in Communication Styles

The Use of Language to Manipulate

Emotive Language
Rhetorical Devices
Deception and Lying

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Free Speech Zones on College Campuses

Chapter 4: Knowledge, Evidence and Errors in Thinking

Human Knowledge and Its Limitations

Rationalism and Empiricism
The Structure of the Mind

Evaluating Evidence

Direct Experience and False Memories
The Unreliability of Hearsay and Anecdotal Evidence
Experts and Credibility
Evaluating Evidence for a Claim
Research Resources

Cognitive and Perceptual Errors in Thinking

Perceptual Errors
Misperception of Random Data
Memorable Events Error
Probability Error
Self-Serving Biases
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

Social Errors and Biases

"One of Us/One of Them" Error
Societal Expectations
Group Pressure and Conformity
Diffusion of Responsibility

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Evaluating Existence for the Existence of Unidentified Flying Objects

Chapter 5: Informal Fallacies

What is a Fallacy?

Fallacies of Ambiguity

Fallacy of Accent
Fallacy of Division
Fallacy of Composition

Fallacies of Relevance

Personal Attack (Ad Hominem) Fallacy
Appeal to Force (Scare Tactics)
Appeal to Pity
Popular Appeal
Appeal to Ignorance
Hasty Generalization
Straw Man
Red Herring

Fallacies Involving Unwarranted Assumptions

Begging the Question
Inappropriate Appeal to Authority
Loaded Question
False Dilemma
Questionable Cause
Slippery Slope
Naturalistic Fallacy

Strategies for Avoiding Fallacies

Critical Thinking Issues: Perspectives on Gun Control

Chapter 6: Recognizing, Analyzing, and Constructing Arguments

What is an Issue?

Identifying an Issue
Asking the Right Questions

Recognizing an Argument

Distinguishing Between Argumentation and Rhetoric
Types of Arguments
Premises and Conclusions
Nonarguments: Explanations and Conditional Statements

Breaking Down and Diagramming Arguments

Breaking Down an Argument into Propositions
Identifying the Premise(s) and Conclusion in Complex Arguments
Diagramming an Argument

Evaluating Arguments

Clarity: Is the Argument Clear and Unambiguous?
Credibility: Are The Premises Supported by Evidence?
Relevance: Are The Premises Relevant to the Conclusion?
Completeness: Are There Any Unstated Premises and Conclusions?
Soundness: Are the Premises True and Do They Support the Conclusion?

Constructing an Argument

Steps for Constructing an Argument
Using Arguments in Making Real-Life Decisions

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Same Sex Marriage

Chapter 7: Inductive Arguments

What is an Inductive Argument?

The Use of Inductive Reasoning in Everyday Life


Using Polls, Surveys, and Sampling to Make Generalizations
Applying Generalizations to Particular Cases
Evaluating Inductive Arguments Using Generalization


Uses of Analogies
Arguments Based on Analogies
Analogies as Tools for Refuting Arguments
Evaluating Inductive Arguments Based on Analogies

Causal Arguments

Causal Relationships
Establishing Causal Relationships
Causal Arguments in Public Policy and Everyday Decision Making
Evaluating Causal Arguments

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Legalizing Marijuana

Chapter 8: Deductive Arguments

What is a Deductive Argument?

Deductive Reasoning and Syllogisms
Valid and Invalid Arguments
Sound and Unsound Arguments

Types of Deductive Arguments

Arguments by Elimination
Arguments Based on Mathematics
Arguments from Definition

Hypothetical Syllogisms

Modus Ponens
Modus Tollens
Chain Arguments
Evaluating Hypothetical Syllogisms for Validity

Categorical Syllogisms

Standard-Form Categorical Syllogisms
Quantity and Quality
Diagramming Propositions with Venn Diagrams
Using Venn Diagrams to Evaluate Categorical Syllogisms

Translating Ordinary Arguments into Standard Form

Rewriting Everyday Propositions in Standard-Form
Identifying the Three Terms in the Argument
Putting the Argument in Standard Form

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on the Death Penalty

Chapter 9: Critical Thinking in Ethics and Moral Decision-Making

What is Moral Reasoning?

Moral Values and Happiness
Conscience and Moral Sentiment

The Development of Moral Reasoning

Lawrence Kohlberg's Stage Theory of Moral Development
Carol Gilligan on Moral Reasoning Women
The Development of Moral Reasoning in College Students

Moral Theories: Morality is Relative

Ethical Subjectivism
Cultural Relativism

Moral Theories: Morality is Universal

Utilitarianism (Consequence-Based Ethics)
Deontology (Duty-Based Ethics)
Rights-Based ethics
Virtue Ethics

Moral Arguments

Recognizing Moral Arguments
Constructing Moral Arguments
Evaluating Moral Arguments
Resolving Moral Dilemmas

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Abortion

Chapter 10: Marketing and Advertising

Marketing in a Consumer Culture

Marketing Research
Avoiding Confirmation Bias and Other Errors in Thinking

Marketing Strategies

The SWOT Model
Consumer Awareness of Marketing Strategies

Advertising and the Media

The Role of Advertising in the Media
Product Placement
Television Advertising and Children

Evaluating Advertisements

Common Fallacies in Advertisements
Rhetorical Devices and Misleading Language
Faulty and Weak Arguments
A Critique of Advertising

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Advertising and Children

Chapter 11: Mass Media

Mass Media in the United States

The Rise of Mass Media
The Media Today

The News Media

Sensationalism and the News as Entertainment
Depth of News Analysis
Bias in the News

Science Reporting

Misrepresentation of Scientific Findings
Government Influence and Bias
Evaluating Scientific Reports

The Internet

Impact of the Internet on Daily Life
Social Networking
The Internet as "The Great Equalizer"
Misuse of the Internet: Pornography and Plagiarism

Media Literacy: A Critical Thinking Approach

Experiencing the Media
Interpreting Media Messages

Critical Thinking Issue: Internet Plagiarism Among College Students

Chapter 12: Science

What is Science?

The Scientific Revolution
Assumptions Underlying Science
Limitations of Science
Science and Religion

The Scientific Method

1. Identify the Problem
2. Develop an Initial Hypothesis
3. Gather Additional Information and Refine the Hypothesis
4. Test the Hypothesis
5. Evaluate the Hypothesis Based on Testing or Experimental Results

Evaluating Scientific Hypotheses

Relevance to the Problem Under Study
Consistency with Well-Established Theories
Testability and Falsifiability
Predictive Power
Distinguishing Between Scientific and Pseudoscientific Hypotheses

Research Methodology and Scientific Experiments

Research Methodology and Design
Field Experiments
Controlled Experiments
Single Group (Pretest-Posttest) Experiments
Evaluating an Experimental Design
Interpreting Experimental Results
Ethical Concerns in Scientific Experimentation

Thomas Kuhn and Scientific Paradigms

Normal Science and Paradigms
Scientific Revolutions and Paradigm Shifts

Critical Thinking Issue: Evolution versus Intelligent Design

Chapter 13: Law and Politics

The Social Contract Theory of Government

The State of Nature
Social Contract Theory
International Law

The Development of Democracy in the United States

Representative Democracy: A Safeguard against the "Tyranny of the Majority"
Liberal Democracy: Protection of Individual Rights
Political Campaigns and Elections
Voting: A Right or a Duty?

The Executive Branch of Government

The Role of the Executive Branch
Executive Orders and National Security
Checks on Executive Power

The Legislative Branch of Government

The Role of the Legislative Branch
Citizens and Legislation
Unjust Laws and Civil Disobedience

The Judicial Branch of Government

The Role of the Judicial Branch
Rules of Evidence
Legal Reasoning and the Doctrine of Legal Precedent
Jury Duty

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on the Use of Drones in Warfare

Solutions Manual