Thinking Like a Planet: The Land Ethic and the Earth Ethic

Paperback | January 15, 2014

byJ. Baird Callicott

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Bringing together ecology, evolutionary moral psychology, and environmental ethics, J. Baird Callicott counters the narrative of blame and despair that prevails in contemporary discussions of climate ethics and offers a fresh, more optimistic approach. Whereas other environmental ethicistslimit themselves to what Callicott calls Rational Individualism in discussing the problem of climate change only to conclude that, essentially, there is little hope that anything will be done in the face of its "perfect moral storm" (in Stephen Gardiner's words), Callicott refuses to accept thisview. Instead, he encourages us to look to the Earth itself, and consider the crisis on grander spatial and temporal scales, as we have failed to in the past. Callicott supports this theory by exploring and enhancing Aldo Leopold's faint sketch of an Earth ethic in "Some Fundamentals of Conservationin the Southwest," a seldom-studied text from the early days of environmental ethics that was written in 1923 but not published until 1979 after the environmental movement gathered strength.

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Bringing together ecology, evolutionary moral psychology, and environmental ethics, J. Baird Callicott counters the narrative of blame and despair that prevails in contemporary discussions of climate ethics and offers a fresh, more optimistic approach. Whereas other environmental ethicistslimit themselves to what Callicott calls Ration...

J. Baird Callicott is University Distinguished Research Professor at the University of North Texas. He is co-Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy and author or editor of a score of books and author of dozens of journal articles, encyclopedia articles, and book chapters. His research goes forward on...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:384 pages, 9.25 × 6.12 × 0.68 inPublished:January 15, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199324891

ISBN - 13:9780199324897

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Table of Contents

IntroductionPART 1: THE LAND ETHIC1. A Sand County Almanac1.1 The Author1.2 The Provenance of the Book1.3 The Unity of A Sand County Almanac-An Evolutionary-Ecological Worldview1.4 The Argument of the Foreword-Toward Worldview Remediation1.5 The Argument in Part I-The Inter-subjective Biotic Community-Introduced1.6 The Argument of Part I-The Inter-subjective Biotic Community-Driven Home1.7 The Argument in Part II-The Evolutionary Aspect: Time and Telos1.8 The Argument in Part II-The Evolutionary Aspect: Beauty, Kinship, and Spirituality1.9 The Argument of Part II-The Ecological Aspect1.10 The Argument of Part II-The Pivotal Trope: "Thinking Like a Mountain"1.11 Norton's Narrow Interpretation of Leopold's Worldview-remediation Project1.12 The Argument of Part III-To "See" with the Ecologist's "Mental Eye"1.13 The Argument of Part III-Axiological Implications of the Evolutionary-Ecological Worldview1.14 The Argument of Part III-The Normative Implications of the Evolutionary-Ecological Worldview1.15 The Persuasive Power of Leopold's Style of Writing1.16 The New Shifting Paradigm in Ecology and the Evolutionary-Ecological Worldview1.17 The Challenge Before Us2. The Land Ethic: A Critical Account of Its Philosophical and Evolutionary Foundations2.1 The Odysseus Vignette2.2 Expansion of the Scope of Ethics Over Time (?)2.3 Ethical Criteria/Norms/Ideals versus (un)Ethical Behavior/Practice2.4 Ethics Ecologically (Biologically) Speaking2.5 Darwin's Account of the Origin of Ethics by Natural Selection2.6 Darwin's Account of the Extension of Ethics2.7 The Community Concept in Ecology2.8 The Humean Foundations of Darwin's Evolutionary Account of the Moral Sense2.9 Universalism and Relativism: Hume and Darwin2.10 How Hume Anticipates Darwin's Account of the Origin and Expansion of Ethics2.11 Shades of the Social-Contract Theory of Ethics in "The Land Ethic"2.12 Individualism in (Benthamic) Utilitarianism and (Kantian) Deontology2.13 Holism in Hume's Moral Philosophy2.14 Holism in "The Land Ethic"2.15 The Land Ethic and the Problem of Ecofascism Resolved2.16 Prioritizing Cross-community Duties and Obligations2.17 Is The Land Ethic Anthropocentric or Non-anthropocentric?3. The Land Ethic (an Ought): A Critical Account of Its Ecological Foundations (an Is)3.1 Moore's Naturalistic Fallacy3.2 Hume's Is/Ought Dichotomy and the Land Ethic3.3 How Hume Bridges the Lacuna Between Is-statements and Ought-statements3.4 How Kant Infers Ought-statements from Is-statements in Hypothetical Imperatives3.5 The Specter of Hume's Is/Ought Dichotomy Finally Exorcised3.6 The Roles of Reason and Feeling in Hume's Ethical Theory Generally and Leopold's Land Ethic Particularly3.7 How the General Theory of Evolution Informs the Land Ethic3.8 How Ecosystem Ecology Informs the Land Ethic-Beyond the Biota3.9 How Ecosystem Ecology Informs the Land Ethic-A Fountain of Energy3.10 How Organismic Ecology Informs the Land Ethic3.11 How Mechanistic Ecology Informs the Land Ethic3.12 How the Ecosystem Paradigm Returns Ecology to Its Organismic Roots3.13 How Leopold Anticipates Hierarchy Theory in "The Land Ethic"3.14 Ecological Ontology and the Community Paradigm in Ecology3.15 Ecological Ontology and the Ecosystem Paradigm in Ecolo3.16 The "Flux of Nature" Paradigm Shift in Contemporary Ecology and "The Land Ethic"3.17 A Revised Summary Moral Maxim for the Land Ethic4. The Land Ethic and the Science of Ethics: From the Seventeenth through the Twentieth Centuries4.1 Hobbes's Science of Ethics4.2 Locke's Science of Ethics4.3 Hume's Science of Ethics4.4 Kant's Science of Ethics4.5 The Utilitarian Science of Ethics4.6 How Logical Positivism Cleaved Apart Science and Ethics4.7 Ayer's Migration of a Science of Ethics from Philosophy to the Social Sciences4.8 Kohlberg's Social Science of Ethics4.9 Gilligan's Social Science of Ethics4.10 Group Selection in Darwin's Science of Ethics4.11 Group Selection in Wynne-Edwards's Evolutionary Biology4.12 Williams's Attack on Group Selection4.13 Huxley's and Williams's Anti-natural (and Anti-logical) View of Ethics4.14 Sociobiology: Wilson's Neo-Darwinian Account of the Origin of Ethics4.15 The Fallacies of Division and Composition in the Sociobiological Science of Ethics4.16 Sociobiology and Biological Determinism4.17 The Evolutionary Foundations of the Land Ethic in Light of the Modern and the New Syntheses in Evolutionary Biology5. The Land Ethic and the Science of Ethics: In the Light of Evolutionary Moral Psychology5.1 Singer's Response to the Evolutionary Account of Ethics5.2 Rachels' Response to the Evolutionary Account of Ethics5.3 Darwin's Alternative to Animal Ethics ... la Singer and Rachels5.4 Midgley's Alternative to Animal Ethics ... la Singer and Rachels5.5 A Community-based Analysis of Ethical Partiality5.6 A Community-based Analysis of Ethical Impartiality5.7 Dennett, Singer, Arnhart, and Haidt on the Philosophical Implications of Darwinism5.8 Group Selection Revisited5.9 The Analogy between Language and Ethics5.10 Hume on Nature and Nurture in Ethics5.11 Post-Positivist Ethical Absolutism5.12 Wherefore Post-Positivist Ethical Rationalism and Exclusionism5.13 Moral Norms in Humean Ethics Analogous to Medical Norms5.14 Critically Appraising Moral Norms in Terms of Intra-social Functionality and Inter-social Harmony5.15 A Humean-Darwinian Science of Ethics and Constrained Cultural Relativism5.16 The Philosophical Foundations of the Land Ethic Vindicated by the Contemporary Science of Ethics, but Limited to Ecological Spatial and Temporal ScalesPART II: THE EARTH ETHIC6. The Earth Ethic: A Critical Account of Its Philosophical Foundations6.1 Leopold and Biblical Tropes6.2 Ezekiel and Virtue Ethics-Both Individualistc and Holistic6.3 Ezekiel and Responsibility to Future Generations6.4 Ezekiel and Deontological Respect for the Earth as a Living Thing6.5 Leopold Dimly Envisions Hierarchy Theory in "Some Fundamentals"6.6 How Leopold Interprets P. D. Ouspensky and His Book, Tertium Organum6.7 The Earth's Soul or Consciousness6.8 A Scalar Resolution of a "Dead" Earth versus the Earth as a "Living Being"6.9 Respect for Life as Such6.10 Leopold's Charge that Both Religion and Science are Anthropocentric6.11 How Leopold Ridicules Metaphysical Anthropocentrism6.12 Leopold's Use of Irony as an Instrument of Ridicule6.13 Norton's Reading of Leopold as an Anthropocentric Pragmatist6.14 Ouspensky, Leopold, and "Linguistic Pluralism" - according to Norton6.15 Leopold's Return to Virtue Ethics6.16 Leopold's Non-anthropocentric Anthropocentrism6.17 The Leopold Earth Ethic: A Summary and a Preview7. The Earth Ethic: A Critical Account of Its Scientific Metaphysical Foundations7.1 Ouspensky's Metaphysics and the Four-dimensional Space-time Continuum7.2 Vernadsky's Metaphysics and the Four-dimensional Space-time Continuum: Space7.3 Vernadsky's Metaphysics and the Four-dimensional Space-time Continuum: Time7.4 Vernadsky's Doctrine of the Abiogenesis of Life on Earth7.5 Venadsky's Anti-vitalism7.6 Vernadsky's Lasting Contribution to Biogeochemistry and Gaian Science7.7 Teilhard's Concept of the Nosphere7.8 Vernadsky's Concept of the Nosphere7.9 Scientific Knowledge as a Planetary Phenomenon7.10 The Biosphere Crosses the Atlantic7.11 The Advent of the Gaia Hypothesis7.12 The Biosphere and Gaia Ecologized7.13 Vernadsky's Biosphere and Lovelock's Gaia: Similarities and Differences7.14 Leopold's Living Thing, Vernadsky's Biosphere, and Lovelock's Gaia7.15 Is the Gaia Hypothesis Necessarily Teleological and Anthropomorphic?7.16 Varieties of the Earth's Soul or Consciousness7.17 Personal Speculations on the Earth's Soul or Consciousness8. The Earth Ethic: A Critical Account of Its Biocentric Deontological Foundations8.1 Leopold's Biocentric Earth Ethic and the Living Earth8.2 Gaian Ontology8.3 Gaian Norms8.4 Schweitzer's Reverence-for-Life Ethic8.5 Schweitzer's Reverence-for-Life Ethic Rooted in the Metaphysics of Schopenhauer8.6 Feinberg's Conativism8.7 Feinberg's Conativism as a Foundation for a Biocentric Earth Ethic?8.8 Goodpaster's Biocentrism8.9 Goodpaster's Holistic Biocentrism as a Foundation for a Biocentric Earth Ethic?8.10 Feinberg the Tie that Binds Schweitzer and Goodpaster8.11 Taylor's Individualistic Biocentrism and Regan's Case for Animal Rights8.12 Taylor's Deontology and Teleological Centers of Life8.13 Taylor's Biocentrism as a Foundation for a Leopold Earth Ethic?8.14 Rolston's Biocentrism as a Foundation for a Leopold Earth Ethic?8.15 Goodpaster's Biocentrism Provides the Best Theoretical Support for a Non-anthropocentric Earth Ethic9. The Earth Ethic: A Critical Account of Its Anthropocentric Foundations: The Natural Contract and Environmental Virtue Ethics9.1 No Need to Patronize Gaia with Biocentric Moral Considerability9.2 The Concept of Anthropocentrism Revisited9.3 War and Peace9.4 The Social Contract: The Ancient and Modern Theories9.5 Du Contrat Social au Contrat Naturel9.6 War or Peace?9.7 The French Connection: Larrere9.8 The French Connection: Latour9.9 The French-Canadian Connection: Dussault9.10 Virtue Ethics9.11 Aristotelian Virtue Ethics9.12 Environmental Virtue Ethics9.13 Holistic Virtue Ethics: Self-respecting Crafts9.14 Holistic Virtue Ethics: The Polis as a Social Whole9.15 Holistic Virtue Ethics: Nomos versus Phusis9.16 Holistic Virtue Ethics: Self-respecting Societies9.17 The Dialectic of Social-Contract Theory and Virtue Ethics10. The Earth Ethic: A Critical Account of Its Anthropocentric Foundations - The limits of Rational Individualism10.1 The Year was 1988 and Serres and Jamieson were the First Philosophical Responders10.2 Jamieson Frames the Theoretical Problem: The Legacy of Smith-and-Jones Ethical Theory10.3 Jamieson Suggests an Alternative Moral Philosophy-Virtue Ethics10.4 The Moral Ontology and Logic of Smith-and-Jones Ethical Thinking10.5 The Essence-and-Accident Moral Ontology of Rational Individualism10.6 Homo Economicus and Homo Ethicus-Two Sides of the Same Rational Coin10.7 Saving Rational Individualism: Moral Mathematics10.8 Saving Rational Individualism: Proximate Ethical Holism10.9 The Failure of Rational Individualism: Protracted Spatial Scale10.10 The Failure of Rational Individualism: Protracted Temporal Scale10.11 The Role of "Theoretical Ineptitude" in Gardiner's Perfect Moral Storm11. The Earth Ethic: A Critical Account of Its Anthropocentric Foundations - Responsibility to Future Generations and for Global Human Civilization11.1 Moral Ontology: Relationally Defined and Constituted Moral Beings11.2 Moral Ontology: Ethical Holism11.3 Moral Psychology: The Moral Sentiments11.4 Responsibility to Immediate Posterity11.5 Responsibility to the Unknown Future Equals Responsibility for Global Human Civilization11.6 Summary and ConclusionAldo Leopold: Appendix: "Some Fundamentals of Conservation in the Southwest"NotesIndex