Traditions in Architecture: Africa, America, Asia, and Oceania by Dora P. CrouchTraditions in Architecture: Africa, America, Asia, and Oceania by Dora P. Crouch

Traditions in Architecture: Africa, America, Asia, and Oceania

byDora P. Crouch, June G. Johnson

Paperback | September 15, 2000

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Traditions in Architecture: Africa, America, Asia, and Oceania is the first wide-ranging, one-volume study to examine the architectural achievements of diverse cultures outside the Euroamerican tradition. In contrast with traditional chronological surveys of architectural history, this volumeis arranged thematically to show the basic commonalties of all human communities. In order to provide a basic understanding of the cultural heritage defining these diverse groups, both vernacular and monumental works are discussed. The book is divided into five major sections, each of whichaddresses specific topics fundamental to all societies. The authors discuss these topics in terms of particular architectural solutions, comparing and contrasting geographically separated buildings and construction traditions. For example, the issue of architectural meaning is studied throughsymbolic gardens in China, verbal ornament in the Islamic world, and the wall paintings of Ndebele women of southeast Africa. Beginning with an investigation into the ways in which the continuity of traditional forms is maintained, the authors then explore practical issues such as housing and foodstructures, climate and ecology, building materials, and architectural forms and methods. Architectural goals and purposes, which determine what is built, vary from culture to culture and are given special attention. Planning and design-ways in which space is used in patterns of organization-rangefrom urban plans to landscaped settings. The authors conclude with an examination of cultural values, investigating the way in which architecture interacts with social relations, traditional theories, decision-making, and the economics of building. The book is enhanced by over 200 photographs, maps,and charts, as well as a glossary and full bibliography. This unique study will enlighten students and open new avenues of research for scholars.
Dora P. Crouch is Professor Emeritus at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. June G. Johnson is Lecturer in the Department of Agriculture at El Camino Community College.
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Title:Traditions in Architecture: Africa, America, Asia, and OceaniaFormat:PaperbackDimensions:448 pages, 8.43 × 10 × 0.91 inPublished:September 15, 2000Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195088913

ISBN - 13:9780195088915

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Table of Contents

PrefaceNotes on the Text, Sources, and AppendixIntroductionPART I. MULTIPLICITY AND CONTINUITY IN TRADITION1. FORM AND CONTENTEarly Shrines, IndiaCaves: Lomas Rishi, Barabar Hills, and Chaitya Hall, KarliThe Stupa Form: Great Stupa, SanchiHindu and Jain Shrines, IndiaKandriya Mahadev Temple, KhajurahoDilwara Temples, RajputanaBuddhist Shrines, Japan, and BurmaHoryu-ji Temple, Asuka, JapanAnanda Temple, Pagan, BurmaSuggested ReadingsTRANSFER OF TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURAL KNOWLEDGEPerson-to-Person TransferCommunity Case StudiesProfessional KnowledgeDocumented KnowledgeChinese Construction ManualsSuggested ReadingsPART II. PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS3. SURVIVAL: WATER, SHELTER, AND FOODWaterMunicipal Water in Kathmandu, NepalIrrigation Systems in PeruRiver Training in ChinaShelterMovalbe DwellingsStationary DwellingsUnderground Houses: Available to EveryoneFood StructuresGranaries at Mohenjo-DaroJapanese GranariesFloating Gardens of the Valley of MexicoSuggested Readings4. CLIMATE AND ECOLOGYCold and DryHouses of Snow and Skin--Inuit Iglus of Northern CanadaSummer and Winter Houses in TibetHot and Dry: Solar Management in the Middle EastHot and Humid: Big Roof in the New Guinea Rain ForestSuggested Readings5. MATERIALS, METHODS, AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMCarved-Out ArchitectureEthiopian Rock-Cut ChurchesCosmic Mountain at Borobudur, JavaAssembled PiecesLashed Polynesian HousesInterlocking Frameworks in JapanOne Culture, Two Building TraditionsInka Stone MasonryInka Roads and Woven Suspension BridgesSuggested ReadingsPART III. PURPOSES OF TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE6. SPACES FOR DAILY LIFELiving in Tight SpacesHouseboats of ChinaHouseboats in KashmirUse of the street and the Roof in NepalAccess to Architecture--Social Rewards and the Use of BuildingsSocial Rewards and the Use of Ceremonial Buildings in New GuineaSpace and Gender in Islamic Society: Kano Palace, NigeriaSuggested Readings7. RELIGIOUS ARCHITECTURE--A CONTINUUM OF MEANINGSpace in the HomeJapanese TokonomaMexican Altar of the DeadSpace on the StreetBhaktapur's Street Shrines, NepalTemporary Temples for Processions in IndiaSpaces Set ApartSpecial Buildings: North African MosquesCeremonial District: Teotihuacan, MexicoWithout Buildings: Mount Taylor, New MexicoSuggested Readings8. EXPRESSION OF POWERMonumentalityStone Architecture in the Caroline IslandsGreat Zimbabwe in East AfricaEmpire BuildingThe Great Wall of ChinaSaqsaywaman Fortress, PeruColonialism and Native TraditionsInka and Spanish Changes at CuzcoMughals in India: Red Forts at Agra and DelhiSuggested ReadingsPART IV. PLANNING AND DESIGN9. Land UseUrban PlanningFormal or Organic: Mohenjo-Daro and ToledoSymbolic Creation or Gradual Agglomeration?Landscaped SettingsForm and Meaning: Taj Mahal, Agra, IndiaContinuity with Setting: Katsura Palace (Villa), JapanSuggested Readings10. BUILDING TYPES AND USESUnique TypesBallcourts of Central AmericaIslamic Educational BuildingsPyramids, Platforms, and AltarsPyramids in Mesoamerica: La Venta, Monte Alban, and Chicken-ItzaOceania: The Tuamotu ArchipelagoHousing VarietiesTown Houses, NepalStilt Houses in IndonesiaUsing SpaceJapanese Floor-Level LivingIslamic Floor-Level LivingSuggested Readings11. ORGANIZATION OF STRUCTURESHollow Centers: CourtyardsNorth Africa and the Middle EastChinaAmerican SouthwestSolid Center: Angkor Wat, CambodiaAxial ArrangementsBeijing, China: Forbidden CityTeotihuacan, Mexico: Street of the DeadSuggested ReadingsPART V. CULTURAL VALUES12. VERNACULAR AND MONUMENTAL COMBINATIONSWater System: Sri LankaDurbar Square, Patan, NepalEarly Historic Period (Licchavi Dynasty 300-879)Transitional Period (879-1200) and Malla Period (1200-1482)Independent PatanThe Seventeenth-Century Builder-KingsThe Eighteenth CenturySuggested Readings13. SYMBOLISM AND ORNAMENTATIONSymbolic GardensChinese GardensCalligraphy as Structural Ornamentation: Islamic ArchitectureOther Forms of Structural OrnamentationPainted Walls: The Ndebele of South AfricaSuggested Readings14. ARCHITECTURE AND SOCIAL RELATIONSBlank Walls for Privacy: Islamic and Chinese NeighborhoodsOvert Expressions of StatusAcoma Pueblo: United StatesGreat Plains Tipis: United StatesRoyal Buildings: Tikal, GuatemalaSuggested Readings15. THEORIES OF ARCHITECTURETheoretical DifferencesBeing and Nonbeing in Chinese ArchitectureAnthropomorphic Architecture in West AfricaWriting Architectural HistoryClass, Gender, and EthnicityCase Study: Maya HistoriographySuggested Readings16. ARCHITECTURAL DECISION-MAKINGAdaptationSymbols and Concepts--A ReviewDome of Stone in Islamic ArchitectureUse and Reuse of Architectural FormsPorticoes of the Old and New Worlds--Traditional?Stupas Become PagodasOriginality: The Turkish Architect SinanShezade (also Sehzade) Cami (1543-48), IstanbulSuleymaniye (1550-57), IstanbulSelimiye Cami (1569-75), EdirneSuggested Readings17. THE ECONOMICS OF BUILDINGDurabitlity: Rebuilding at the Ise Shrine, JapanConstruction CostsEconomics of ConstructionModern Research on Costs: Analogies from Ancient Construction: Describing Costs of Taj Mahal ConstructionNew Analysis of Costs: Energetics in the YucatanSuggested ReadingsConclusionAppendix I Maps of Major Areas of the WorldAfricaNorth AmericanCentral and northwest South AmericaAsiaOceaniaExpansion of BuddhismExpansion of IslamAppendix II Tables of Materials, for Wall Building, for RoofingGlossarySelected BibliographyCreditsIndex

Editorial Reviews

"An interesting and enlightened study that provides the reader with the importance of architecture beyond traditional Greco-Roman European model. The authors help to expand the definition of architecture beyond buildings."--Ellis L. Antunez, Truckee Meadows Community College