The former socialist countries' transition to market economies is one of the momentous transformations in modern history. The pace and degree of success have varied widely, and there is increasing divergence in performance, structure, and institutions among the transition economies. These differences are largely determined by country-specific conditions and political configurations. This book compares the experiences of the countries involved over the first ten years to determine what has worked and failed, as well as the nature of the challenges that lie ahead.After two overviews of the transition process to date, the book presents eleven specific country cases: the reunification of East and West Germany; the most successful transition countries, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Croatia, and Slovenia; the less successful experience of countries in the former Soviet Union, namely, Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine; and the dissimilar developments in two major Balkan countries, Bulgaria and Romania. The final section summarizes the policy lessons of the different experiences. The contributors, who include ministers, government officials, academics, and leaders of international monetary institutions, stress the need for greater emphasis on institutional building and on the enforcement of contracts.