Travertine by Allan PentecostTravertine by Allan Pentecost

Travertine

byAllan Pentecost

Paperback | January 29, 2011

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This is the first book entirely devoted to travertine, a material in use for over 4000 years. The single-author work is a valuable reference source for travertine, covering all aspects of travertine origins, formation, composition, flora and fauna, occurrence and utilisation, as well as covering allied continental carbonates such as lake marls, calcretes and beachrocks. Travertine, some forms of which are often known as 'tufa', is of particular significance as a source of environmental information (fossils and isotope geochemistry), often permitting the reconstruction of past environments. Reviews of dating techniques, classification and geomorphology are included and the author attempts to provide an unbiased but critical appraisal of current models of travertine formation. Currently, travertine is in great demand as a building and ornamental stone. It has also been exploited in unconventional ways, such as 'petrifying springs' and by way of unusual and little known artistic techniques. Scaling of pipes and boilers is often the result of processes allied to travertine formation. The phenomenon is described parallel to  methods of scale elimination and compared with natural processes where travertine formation is inhibited. Travertine sites are of special scientific interest, with their rich and often unique floras and faunas displaying their unique biodiversity, and their unusual and often fragile biota. Conservation issues are discussed, together with the description of travertine fossils and occurrences throughout the geological record.The content will be of interest to carbonate sedimentologists, hydrobiologists, palaeoclimatologists, physical geographers, water treatment engineers, astrobiologists, architects, and sculptors.
Title:TravertineFormat:PaperbackDimensions:460 pages, 9.45 × 6.3 × 0 inPublished:January 29, 2011Publisher:Springer NetherlandsLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9048168910

ISBN - 13:9789048168910

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction1.1 Definitions1.2 Travertine compared with other non-marine carbonates1.3 Etymology1.4 History of the science of travertine formation2. Classification And Origins2.1 Travertine precipitation2.2 Classification on carrier CO22.2.1 Meteogene travertines2.2.2 Thermogene travertines2.2.2.1 Magmatic generation of carrier2.2.2.2 Decarbonation2.2.2.3 CO2 from of heated organic matter2.2.3 'Orgamox' waters and other CO2 sources2.3 Other classifications2.4 Sources of bedrock carbonate and calcium3. Travertine Fabric3.1 The microfabric3.1.1 Calcite fabrics; micrite and sparit3.1.2 Calcite fabrics: dendritic and similar forms3.1.3 Calcite fabrics: shrubs and bushes3.1.4 Aragonite fabrics3.2 Mesofabrics3.2.1 Porosity3.2.2 Bedding and jointing3.2.3 Floe, nodules and thinolite3.2.4 Biofabrics3.2.5 Coated grains: ooids and oncoids3.2.5.1 Ooids3.2.5.2 Oncoids3.2.5.2.1 Fluvial oncoids3.2.5.2.2 Lacustrine oncoids3.2.6 Lamination3.2.6.1 Banding within a fabric3.2.6.2 Alternation of fabrics3.2.6.3 Stromatolites3.3 Diagenesis3.3.1 Primary fabric and cement3.3.2 Meteoric diagenesis3.3.2.1 Percolation of stream and groundwater3.3.2.2 Dissolution of carbonate3.3.2.3 Recrystallisation of calcite3.3.2.4 Recrystallisation of aragonite3.3.2.5 Sparmicritisation3.3.3 Burial diagenesis4. Morphology And Facies4.1 Authochthonous travertines4.1.1 Spring mounds4.1.2 Fissure ridges4.1.3 Cascades4.1.4 Dams4.1.4.1 Minidams4.1.4.2 Macrodams4.1.5 Fluvial crusts4.1.6 Lake deposits4.1.6.1 Lacustrine crusts4.1.6.2 Reefs4.1.7 Paludal deposits4.1.8 Cemented rudites and clasts4.1.9 Speleothems4.2 Allochthonous (clastic) travertines4.3 Travertine caves4.4 Post-depositional effects on morphology4.4.1 Karstification4.4.2 Soils4.4.3 Mass movement4.4.4 Effects on fluvial systems5. Limestone Solution, Groundwater And Spring Emergence5.1 Limestone solution and groundwater5.1.1 Meteogene source waters5.1.2 Thermogene and superambient meteogene source waters5.2 Spring emergence - structural controls6. Chemical Composition Of Travertine-Depositing Source Waters6.1 Meteogene source waters6.1.1 The CO2-Ca-H system6.1.2 Mg, Na, SO4 and Cl6.1.3 Calcium hydroxide source waters (invasive meteogenes)6.1.4 Superambient meteogene source waters6.1.5 'Orgamox' waters6.2 Thermogene waters6.2.1 The CO2-Ca-H system6.2.2 Mg, Na, SO4 and Cl6.3 Minor components of source waters6.3 Saline waters7. Mineralogy And Elemental Composition7.1 Calcite and aragonite mineralogy7.2 Occurrence of calcite and aragonite in travertine7.3 Autochthonous carbonate minerals excluding CaCO37.4 Calcite and aragonite crystal habit7.4.1 Calcite7.4.2 Aragonite and vaterite7.5 The calcium carbonate content of travertine7.6 Trace constituents of calcite and aragonite7.6.1 Strontium7.6.2 Magnesium7.6.3 The alkali metals7.6.4 Iron and manganese7.6.5 Phosphorus7.6.6 Other elements7.7 Autochthonous non-carbonate minerals7.7.1 Gypsum7.7.2 Barytes7.7.3 Mn and Fe minerals7.7.4 Sulphur7.7.5 Silica7.7.6 Other minerals7.8 Allochthonous components7.9 Fluid inclusions7.10 Organic matter content7.11 Fluorescence and phosphorescence8. Stable Isotopes Of Travertine And The Associated Waters8.1 Oxygen8.1.1 The hydrological cycle8.1.2 Oxygen isotopes in carbonates8.1.3 Oxygen isotopes in travertine8.1.4 Oxygen isotope equilibrium8.1.4.1 Kinetic disequilibrium caused by CO2 evasion8.1.4.2 Disequilibrium during precipitation8.1.5 Oxygen and evaporation8.2 Carbon8.2.1 Meteogene travertine8.2.2 Thermogene travertine8.2.3 Modelling downstream changes8.2.4 Disequilibrium and the 'metabolic shift'8.3 Li, Pb, S and Sr8.3.1 Sulphur8.3.2 Sr, Pb and Li9. Organisms Associated With Travertine9.1 Prokaryotes9.1.1 Photosynthetic bacteria9.1.2 Non-photosynthetic bacteria9.1.2.1 Sulphur-oxidising chemolithotrophic bacteria9.1.2.2 Heterotrophic bacteria9.1.3 Cyanobacteria9.1.3.1 Subsection I (Chroococcales) and II (Pleurocapsales)9.1.3.2 Subsection III (Oscillatoriales)9.1.3.3 Subsection IV (Nostocalesand V (Stigonematales)9.2 Eukaryotic algae9.2.1 Chlorophyta (Green algae)9.2.1.1 Zygnematales9.2.1.2 Charales9.2.1.3 Chaetophorales and other orders9.2.2 Diatoms9.2.2.1 Raphid pennate diatoms9.2.2.2 Araphid pennate and centric diatoms9.2.3 Other eukaryotic algae9.3 Fungi and lichens9.4 Bryophytes9.4.1 Mosses9.4.2 Liverworts9.5 Tracheophytes9.5.1 Lycopods, horsetails and ferns9.5.2 Gymnosperms and angiosperms9.6 Plant ecology on travertine9.6.1 Plant communities and water relations9.6.1.1 Bacteria and algae9.6.2.2 Bryophytes and Tracheophytes9.6.2 Diversity9.6.3 Light, water chemistry, temperature and pollution9.6.4 Succession and seasonality9.6.5 Biomass and growth9.7 Fauna9.7.1 Protozoa9.7.2 Metazoa9.7.2.1 Uniramia-Hexapoda (Insects)9.7.2.2 Vertebrates9.7.3 Ecology of animals on travertine10. Deposition Processes10.1 Deposition rates10.1.1 Meteogene rates10.1.2 Thermogene rates10.1.3 Temporal variation10.1.3.1 Daily (diel) rates10.1.3.2 Seasonal rates10.1.4 Lateral variation10.1.5 Amounts deposited over time10.2 CO2 loss from emerging groundwaters10.3 Saturation indices and nucleation10.3.1 CaCO3 saturation indices10.3.2 Calcite saturation indices for travertine-depositing waters10.3.3 Heterogeneous nucleation and crystal-trapping10.3.4 Apparent onset of deposition in streams10.4 Crystal growth10.4.1 Models of crystal growth and precipitation rate10.5 Travertine deposition and discharge10.6 Inhibitory effects10.7 Biological processes10.7.1 Non-photosynthetic bacteria10.7.2 Photosynthetic microbes10.7.3 Bryophytes and higher plants10.7.4 Photosynthesis and respiration11. Travertine Dating11.1 Radioisotopes11.1.1 Radiocarbon11.1.2 Uranium series11.1.3 Other radioisotopes11.2 ESR and TL dating11.3 Palaeomagnetism11.4 Amino acid racemisation11.5 Seasonal lamination11.6 Chronostratigraphy12. Palaeobiology And Biostratigraphy Of Quaternary Travertines12.1 Fossil flora12.1.1 Pleistocene flora12.1.2 Holocene flora12.2 Fossil faunas12.2.1 Invertebrates excluding Mollusca12.2.2 Mollusca12.2.2.1 Pleistocene Mollusca12.2.2.2 Holocene Mollusca12.2.3 Vertebrate faunas excluding primates12.2.3.1 Pleistocene faunas12.2.3.2 Holocene faunas12.2.4 Primates13. Climate, Man And Travertine13.1 Travertine deposition in the Quaternary13.2 Climate and travertine deposition13.3 Human influence13.4 The conservation of travertine14. Travertines And Their Fossils: Archaean To Pliocene14.1 Archaean and Proterozoic travertines14.2 Palaeozoic and Mesozoic14.3 Paleocene to Oligocene14.4 Miocene and Pliocene15. Related Sediments And Industrial Deposits15.1 Lacustrine marl15.1.1 Biogenic marls15.1.1.1 Benthonic Chara marls15.1.1.2 Planktonic marls15.1.2 Abiogenic marls15.1.3 Clastic marls15.1.4 Other marls15.2 Calcrete15.3 Coast deposits15.4 Industrial deposits15.4.1 Deposits in wells, pipes and boilers15.4.2 Quarrying and construction deposits15.4.3 Remedies15.4.3.1 Chemical inhibitors of scaling15.4.3.2 Physical and physico-chemical inhibitors15.5 Siliceous sinter16. Extraterrestrial Travertine16.1 Vulcanism16.2 Meteor impacts17. Utilisation Of Travertine17.1 Quarrying methods17.2 Mechanical and physical properties17.3 Building and exterior decoration17.3.1 Pre-Roman use17.3.2 Roman buildings 200BC-455AD17.3.2.1 Bridges, temples and other large structures17.3.2.2 Roman tombs|17.3.3 The Dark Ages to the Renaissance17.3.3.1 Europe excluding the UK17.3.3.2 The United Kingdom17.3.4 Europe: 1551-200017.3.5 A case study of English travertine use: the North Kent churches17.4 Travertine in art17.4.1 Sculpture and interior decoration17.4.2 Garden decoration17.4.3 Petrifying springs17.4.4 Graphic art and tourism17.5 Agriculture and industry17.6 Medicinal17.7 Economics and tonnagePhotoplatesReferencesIndex

Editorial Reviews

From the reviews:"This is the first book devoted entirely to travertine . . It is really everything you wanted to know about travertine, and more! . the book is generally well presented with a consistent format and the nice use of figures and tables. There are twenty-two excellent photo plates . . an excellent resource." (Mark Stephens, Journal of Sedimentary Research, August, 2006)"In conclusion, Travertine is an excellent contribution, condensing the large literature base on travertine into one book. The book's strength is the thorough, well-organized, and interdisciplinary survey of travertine, reflecting the author's extensive experience with the topic. Each chapter in this book provides and excellent starting point and literature review to launch more detailed inquiries about travertine and travertine depositing systems." (Dennis L. Newell, EOS Newsletter, vol. 88, no. 22, 29 May 2007)"This book is an excellent compilation of important ideas and key information covering much of the available literature on freshwater carbonate deposition in both ambient temperature and thermal situations. It is particularly valuable to researchers as a source book as it contains over 1200 cited references, together with 102 figures . . I found it a most enjoyable read. Certainly, I would warmly recommend it to colleagues and all those wishing better to understand freshwater limestones." (Martyn Pedley, Geological Magazine, Vol. 144 (3), 2007)