Trichinella and Trichinosis by William CampbellTrichinella and Trichinosis by William Campbell

Trichinella and Trichinosis

EditorWilliam Campbell

Paperback | November 1, 2011

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I have cured the Empress of Boolampoo of a Cramp she got in her tongue by eating Pork and buttered parsnips .... The Earl of Rochester-17th Century As the modern outpouring of biological information continues at ever­ increasing pace, two kinds of reviews are needed to keep the torrent in manageable form. The one assumes a working knowledge of the field in question and tries to bring the reader up to date by reporting and assessing the recent developments. The other attempts to assimilate the recent developments into a coherent restatement of the whole subject. This book falls in the latter category. Trichinella spiralis infection has been in the medical and biological limelight for more than a century, and interest in it continues una­ bated-as evidenced by what Norman Stoll called the "perennially exuberant" research on trichinosis. The infection seems to offer some­ thing for almost everyone. For the physician, it offers a patient with painful and sometimes fatal disease; for the public-health official, a threat to the commonweal; for the experimental biologist, a life cycle that is unique yet easily and rapidly maintained in the laboratory; for the field ecologist, a symbiont with an affinity for an extraordinary range of wildlife species; for the pork producer, a poorer profit; for the cook, a culinary constraint; and for the diner, a dietary danger. Yet, despite this breadth of interest, and the cascade of new data, the only comprehensive books on the subject in English are those of S.E.
Title:Trichinella and TrichinosisFormat:PaperbackPublished:November 1, 2011Publisher:Springer USLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:1461335809

ISBN - 13:9781461335801

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Table of Contents

1 Historical Introduction.- 1. Prologue: Ghosts of Christmas Past and Christmas Present.- 2. A Worm Discovered (1835).- 3. A Nematode Life Cycle Discovered (1835-1860).- 4. From Zoological Curiosity to Lethal Pathogen (1860-1900).- 5. Consequences (Politics and Parasites).- 6. The Recent Past.- References.- 2 Species, and Infraspecific Variation.- 1. Historical Perspective.- 2. A Working Definition of Species.- 3. Terminology.- 4. Distribution of Isolates.- 5. Criteria for Species and Isolates.- 5.1. Genetic Criteria.- 5.2. Morphological Criteria.- 5.3. Biochemical and Immunological Criteria.- 5.4. Sensitivity to Drug Treatment.- 5.5. Effect of Host on Reproductive-Capacity Index.- 5.6. Other Biological Characteristics.- 6. Trichinella spiralis var. pseudospiralis-an Enigma.- 7. Speciation in Trichinella.- 8. Future Considerations.- References.- 3 Biology.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Ingestion of the Infective First-Stage Larva.- 3. Digestion of Host Tissues away from the Infective First-Stage Larva.- 4. Intramulticellular Enterai Niche.- 4.1. Entrance of the Infective First-Stage Larva.- 4.2. Molting and Development.- 4.3. Mating.- 4.4. Fecundity.- 5. Intracellular Parenteral Niche.- 5.1. Migration of the First-Stage Larva to the Niche.- 5.2. Entrance of the Migratory First-Stage Larva.- 5.3. Growth and Development.- 5.4. Mature Nurse Cell-Infective First-Stage Larva Complex.- References.- 4 Biochemistry.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Carbohydrates and Carbohydrate Metabolism.- 2.1. Adult Worms.- 2.2. Muscle Larvae.- 3. Respiration.- 3.1. Adult Worms.- 3.2. Muscle Larvae.- 4. Lipids and Lipid Metabolism.- 4.1. Adult Worms.- 4.2. Muscle Larvae.- 5. Nucleic Acids and Nucleic Acid Metabolism: Muscle Larvae.- 6. Proteins and Protein Metabolism: Muscle Larvae and Adult Worms.- 7. Nutrition.- 7.1. Adult Worms.- 7.2. Muscle Larvae.- References.- 5 Anatomical Pathology.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Gastrointestinal Tract.- 2.1. Gross Changes.- 2.2. Microscopic Changes.- 3. Striated Muscle.- 3.1. Gross Changes.- 3.2. Microscopic Changes.- 3.3. Encapsulation.- 3.4. Calcification.- 4. Other Organs Involved.- 4.1. Heart.- 4.2. Liver.- 4.3. Spleen.- 4.4. Kidneys.- 4.5. Eyes.- 4.6. Lungs.- 4.7. Central Nervous System.- 4.8. Bone Marrow.- 4.9. Other Locations.- References.- 6 Pathophysiology of the Gastrointestinal Phase.- 1. Format of This Review.- 2. Gastrointestinal Symptoms.- 3. Morphological Changes.- 3.1. Macroscopic.- 3.2. Histological.- 4. Physiological Changes.- 4.1. Epithelium-Related.- 4.2. Smooth-Muscle-Related.- 5. Bases for Functional Changes.- 5.1. Direct Action of Parasite.- 5.2. Influence of Lamina Propria.- 5.3. Endocrine Disturbances.- 6. Host-Parasite Interrelationships.- 7. Relationships between Pathophysiology and Symptoms.- 8. Summary.- References.- 7 Pathophysiology of the Muscle Phase.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Parasite-Induced Modifications in Host Striated Skeletal Muscle.- 2.1. Alterations Induced in the Host Myofiber during Contact and Entry by the Newborn First-Stage Larva.- 2.2. Alterations in Host Muscle during Growth and Development of the Muscle Larva.- 2.3. Mature Nurse Cell.- 2.4. Hypothesis: A Possible Mechanism by Which the Parasite Initiates Redifferentiation in the Host Myofiber.- 2.5. Benefits Derived by the Muscle Larva from Pathophysiological Alterations in Host Muscle.- 3. Cardiopathophysiology in Trichinosis.- References.- 8 The Immune Response.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Immunity and the Intestinal Phase.- 2.1. Immunity against Adult Worms in Primary Infections.- 2.2. Immunity against Adult Worms in Reinfections.- 2.3. Immunity against Preadult Stages-Rapid Expulsion.- 3. Immunity and Newborn Larvae.- 3.1. Active Immunity in Mice and Rats.- 3.2. Passive Immunity in Mice.- 3.3. Effects of Cells and Serum Components in Vitro.- 4. Genetic Influences on Immunity to Trichinella.- 5. Stage Specificity of the Immune Response.- 5.1. "Dual-Antibody" Hypothesis of Oliver-Gonzalez.- 5.2. Immunological Evidence.- 5.3. Parasitological Evidence.- 5.4. A Revision of the Dual-Antibody Hypothesis.- References.- 9 Antigens.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Source of Antigens.- 2.1. Cuticular Antigens.- 2.2. Excretory-Secretory Antigens.- 2.3. Somatic Antigens.- 3. Enumeration, Isolation, and Characterization of Antigens.- 4. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 10 Chemotherapy.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Experimental Chemotherapy.- 2.1. Methods.- 2.2. Drug Efficacy.- 3. Clinical Chemotherapy.- 3.1. Clinical Prophylaxis.- 3.2. Clinical Therapy (Treatment of Patent Infections).- References.- 11 Clinical Aspects in Man.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Infection and Disease.- 2.1. Proportion of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Cases in Trichinosis.- 2.2. Course of Trichinosis.- 2.3. Severity of Trichinosis.- 2.4. Factors That Influence the Severity of Trichinosis.- 3. Symptoms, Signs, and Clinical Pathology.- 3.1. Abdominal Syndrome.- 3.2. General Trichinosis Syndrome.- 3.3. Signs of Allergic Vasculitis.- 3.4. Symptoms and Signs Associated with Muscle Tissue.- 3.5. Signs of Metabolic Disorders.- 3.6. Complications of Trichinosis.- 3.7. Pathology in Laboratory Tests.- 4. Diagnosis.- 4.1. Clinical History-Taking.- 4.2. Physical Examination.- 4.3. Paraclinical Tests.- 4.4. Finding the Parasite.- 4.5. Differential Diagnosis of Trichinosis.- 5. Management and Treatment.- 5.1. Treatment of the Intestinal Infection.- 5.2. Acute Severe Trichinosis.- 5.3. Moderate or Mild Trichinosis.- 5.4. Late and Convalescent Phases of Trichinosis.- 5.5. Trichinosis in Children, Pregnant and Lactating Women, and Immunosuppressed Patients.- References.- 12 Immunodiagnosis in Man.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Immunodiagnostic Methods.- 2.1. Parasite Antigens.- 2.2. Indirect Immunofluorescence.- 2.3. Passive Hemagglutination.- 2.4. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.- 2.5. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis.- 2.6. Other Serological Methods.- 2.7. Skin Tests.- 3. Evaluation and Recommendation.- 4. Conclusions.- 5. Protocols for Indirect Immunofluorescence and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.- 5.1. Indirect Immunofluorescence.- 5.2. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.- References.- 13 Epidemiology I: Modes of Transmission.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Sylvatic Cycle.- 3. Domestic Cycle.- 4. Special Epidemiological Circumstances.- 5. Susceptible Host Species.- References.- 14 Epidemiology II: Geographic Distribution and Prevalence.- 1. Introduction.- 2. North America.- 2.1. Canada and Alaska.- 2.2. Greenland.- 2.3. United States.- 2.4. Latin America.- 3. Europe.- 3.1. British Isles.- 3.2. Germany.- 3.3. Austria.- 3.4. Switzerland.- 3.5. The Netherlands.- 3.6. Belgium.- 3.7. France.- 3.8. Spain.- 3.9. Portugal.- 3.10. Italy.- 3.11. Greece.- 4. Scandinavia.- 4.1. Norway.- 4.2. Sweden.- 4.3. Denmark.- 4.4. Finland.- 5. Eastern Europe.- 5.1. Poland.- 5.2. Czechoslovakia.- 5.3. Hungary.- 5.4. Romania.- 5.5. Yugoslavia.- 5.6. Bulgaria.- 6. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.- 7. Asia.- 7.1. Middle East.- 7.2. Southeast Asia.- 7.3. Far East.- 8. Africa.- 9. Australia, New Zealand, and Pacific Islands.- References.- 15 Control I: Public-Health Aspects (with Special Reference to the United States).- 1. Introduction.- 2. Mechanisms of Control.- 2.1. Prevention of Swine Infections.- 2.2. Detection of Infected Swine.- 2.3. Rendering Infected Pork Noninfective.- 2.4. Game Foods.- 3. Measures Adopted in the United States.- 3.1. Control of Garbage.- 3.2. Regulation of Commercial Pork Products.- 3.3. Game Foods.- 3.4. Education.- 3.5. The Future.- References.- 16 Control II: Surveillance in Swine and other Animals by Muscle Examination.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. General Methods and Uses.- 1.2. Criteria for Use.- 2. Trichinoscopic Method.- 2.1. Use.- 2.2. Procedure for Swine Diagnosis.- 2.3. Drawbacks.- 2.4. Other Uses.- 3. Basic Digestion Method.- 3.1. Basic Procedure.- 3.2. Modifications.- 3.3. Advantages and Disadvantages.- 4. Pooled Digestion Methods.- 4.1. Pooled-Sample Method: Procedure.- 4.2. Stomacher Method: Procedure.- 4.3. Other Modifications.- 5. Other Direct Diagnostic Methods.- 5.1. Mechanical Disintegration Method.- 5.2. Microscopic Section (Biopsy Method).- 5.3. Xenodiagnosis.- 6. Summary.- References.- 17 Control III: Surveillance in Swine by Immunodiagnostic Methods.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Serological Methods.- 2.1. Complement-Fixation Test.- 2.2. Particle-Agglutination Methods.- 2.3. Indirect Immunofluorescence Test.- 2.4. Enzyme Immunoassays.- 2.5. Radioimmunoassay.- 3. Sensitivity and Specificity.- 4. Antigen Preparation and Purification.- 5. Evaluation of Serological Methods in Various Geographic Areas.- 5.1. Evaluation of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in the United States.- 5.2. Evaluation of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in European Countries.- 6. Mechanization.- 6.1. Mechanized System for the Macro-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.- 6.2. Mechanized System for the Micro-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.- 7. Surveillance by Serological Methods.- 7.1. Inspection at the Slaughterhouse.- 7.2. Inspection at the Farm.- 7.3. Individual vs. Population Control.- 7.4. Legislation.- 8. Concluding Remarks.- References.- Appendix 1 Synopsis of Morphology.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Morphology of the Adult Male.- 3. Morphology of the Adult Female.- 4. Morphology of the Infective First-Stage Larva.- References.- Appendix 2 Laboratory Techniques.- Methods.- References.