Turfgrass Biology, Genetics, and Breeding by Michael D. CaslerTurfgrass Biology, Genetics, and Breeding by Michael D. Casler

Turfgrass Biology, Genetics, and Breeding

EditorMichael D. Casler, Ronny R. Duncan

Hardcover | January 30, 2003

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The cultivation of various turfgrasses has evolved into a dynamic, multi-billion dollar industry. Yet, there is still a real lack of information available for those seeking to understand the complex science behind its growth. This book, edited by two knowledgeable and highly respected experts, presents for the first time a comprehensive study of the various types of turfgrasses, their genetic and biological makeup, and the specifics of when, how, where and why each species was adapted for use. The only book that deals specifically with the science behind the major types of turfgrasses, Turfgrass Biology will prove to be an invaluable, time-saving reference and research tool for professionals interested or engaged in the genesis of turfgrasses.
MICHAEL D. CASLER, PhD, is a research geneticist with the USDA-ARS and professor in the Department of Agronomy at the University of Wisconsin--Madison. A member and former chair of the Plant Breeding and Plant Genetics program at the university, he's written more than 100 peer-reviewed publications, spoken at numerous international con...
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Title:Turfgrass Biology, Genetics, and BreedingFormat:HardcoverDimensions:384 pages, 10.14 × 7.2 × 1.03 inPublished:January 30, 2003Publisher:WileyLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0471444103

ISBN - 13:9780471444107

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/ColorSpace > >> endobj 14 0 obj > stream BT /F7 1 Tf 14 0 0 14 265.5 715.5 Tm 0 0 0 rg /GS3 gs 0.002 Tc (INTRODUCTION)Tj /F9 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 133.5 683.1 Tm -0.001 Tc 0.015 Tw (The evolution of turfgrass science is one of the remarkable stories of the twentieth)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.04 Tw (century. What started as a small number of professors with limited resources and even)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.142 Tw (less visibility has evolved into a dynamic, multibillion dollar, worldwide industry.)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.014 Tw (Turfgrasses evolved from forage and pasture grasses in many ways. The grasses them-)Tj T* 0.092 Tw (selves were the foundation of livestock agriculture from its beginning. Many sports)Tj T* 0.062 Tw (evolved from play on rough pastures to finer-textured meadows, as rules, skills, and)Tj T* -0.071 Tw (goals also evolved. Turfgrass cultivars were developed from germ plasm used largely for)Tj T* 0.045 Tw (forage and fodder uses. Many turfgrass scientists, ourselves included, began work on)Tj T* 0.06 Tw (turfgrasses after establishing ourselves on forage or fodder crops. Similarly, the grass)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.035 Tw (seed industry adapted to a turf-based economy as consumers demanded better prod-)Tj T* -0.006 Tc -0.071 Tw (ucts. Turfgrass breeders responded with improved commercial products, including finer)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.02 Tw (textured grasses and closer mowing heights for the golfer, better and more persistent)Tj T* 0.057 Tw (\(wear tolerant\) sports turfs for sports facility owners and players, and more cosmeti-)Tj T* -0.055 Tw (cally appealing home lawns/landscapes for homeowners, public officials, and business)Tj T* -0.004 Tc (people.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD -0.014 Tc -0.071 Tw (In these days when agricultural science is experiencing a severe identity crisis, turfgrass)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc 0.085 Tw (science serves to enhance the visibility and identity of agriculture. Turfgrasses have)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.103 Tw (improved the quality of life for most people in developed parts of the world. They)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.086 Tw (enhance our recreation, leisure, and competitive experiences, as well as our homes.)Tj T* -0.009 Tc -0.071 Tw (They provide greenspace to break up urban sprawl and industrial complexes. Turfgrasses)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.069 Tw (have evolved from a nonessential luxury item to an existential component of our daily)Tj T* 0.127 Tw (lives. The turfgrass industry has transitioned from initial light green, coarse-leaved)Tj T* -0.045 Tw (grasses to high-quality dark green and fine-leaved grasses. The evolution has also tran-)Tj T* -0.014 Tw (scended development of grasses in an initial era when fertilizer was cheap and plenti-)Tj T* -0.003 Tw (ful and water issues were not a concern to a currently emerging era of environmental)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.071 Tw (stewardship, water quality and quantity issues, and adaptation/persistence under chal-)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.025 Tw (lenging environmental extremes. Genetic manipulation has become the cornerstone)Tj T* -0.005 Tw (for enhancement of any \221new and improved\222 cultivars.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0.032 Tw (Much has been written about turfgrasses in recent years. There are some excellent)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc 0.046 Tw (books describing the management and physiology of turfgrasses. For this reason, we)Tj T* -0.007 Tw (have purposely avoided the general subject of turfgrass management, focusing on ba-)Tj T* 0.099 Tw (sic biology and its relationship to adaptation, genetics, and breeding of turfgrasses.)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.022 Tw (Each author presents detailed information on the natural and economic distribution)Tj T* -0.02 Tw (of a turfgrass species, including interactions with the environment and with humans.)Tj T* 0.062 Tw (They address the when, how, where, and why each species was adapted for use as a)Tj T* -0.025 Tw [(turfgrass, bringing us up-to-date on the progress that has been made in domesticating)]TJ T* -0.001 Tc 0.012 Tw (these grasses for turf.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD -0.066 Tw (We have assembled a world-class and highly respected group of authors to write this)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.057 Tw (book. These colleagues have dedicated their time, effort, and expertise to help produce)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.043 Tw (an excellent resource for turfgrass students and scientists. 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1 Tf 8 0 0 8 317.16 87.48 Tm 0 0 0 rg /GS3 gs (5)Tj /F13 1 Tf 16 0 0 16 449.04 609.9 Tm -0.002 Tc 0.069 Tw (Chapter 1)Tj /F7 1 Tf 22 0 0 22 248.34 571.5 Tm -0.001 Tc 0.071 Tw [(Origins of the T)62(u)4(r)-23(fgrasses)]TJ /F11 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 385.62 517.5 Tm 0.083 Tw (M.D. Casler and R.R. Duncan)Tj /F9 1 Tf -25.212 -3.6 TD -0.009 Tc -0.072 Tw (Three types of selective forces act to modify populations of organisms \(Darwin, 1875\),)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc -0.054 Tw (including all turfgrass species. Natural selection is the process whereby those individu-)Tj T* 0.04 Tw (als best fitted to a particular environment, a range of fluctuating environments, or a)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.03 Tw (human-imposed management system have the greatest survival rate or contribute the)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.002 Tw (greatest numbers of viable progeny to succeeding generations. Unconscious selection)Tj T* 0.08 Tw (is the process by which humans save the phenotypically most valuable or desirable)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.046 Tw (individuals, or their seed, and destroy or ignore the less valuable or desirable individu-)Tj T* 0.037 Tw (als. This process allows humans to facilitate genetic changes insofar as genetic varia-)Tj T* -0.008 Tw (tion allows, without the need to define or predetermine selection criteria or potential)Tj T* -0.068 Tw (correlated traits. Methodical selection comprises the forces that are applied by humans)Tj T* -0.043 Tw (in their systematic attempts to create predetermined changes to populations. All three)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.051 Tw (of these selective forces have acted and continue to act to create the worldwide pool of)Tj T* 0.017 Tw (turfgrass germ plasm.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD -0.005 Tc -0.071 Tw (Turfgrasses are used in a range of highly artificial and contrived environments, many)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc -0.043 Tw (of which bear no similarity to natural environments in which turfgrasses evolved over)Tj T* -0.049 Tw (many millennia. Turf environments are human-defined and are often highly stressful,)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.063 Tw (typically combining a large number of biotic and abiotic stress factors \(Duncan and)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.068 Tw (Carrow, 1999\) that are seldom combined, or may be altogether absent, in natural habi-)Tj T* 0.004 Tw (tats. Ironically, all turfgrasses arose from natural habitats, including mountain mead-)Tj T* -0.01 Tw (ows, prairie and steppe grasslands, coastal plains, riparian and estuarine habitats, and)Tj T* 0.068 Tw (many other habitats. Prior to human intervention and our discovery that perennial)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.07 Tw (grasses can enhance our quality of life, these grasses served other purposes in the grand)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.003 Tw (evolutionary scheme of Planet Earth.)Tj /F7 1 Tf 0 -3 TD 0.02 Tw (NATURAL SELECTION)Tj /F9 1 Tf 1.2 -1.8 TD -0.008 Tc -0.071 Tw (Perennial grasses coevolved with herbivores during the Miocene epoch. Fossil records)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc -0.037 Tw (suggest that evolution of the extensive North American grasslands was largely respon-)Tj T* -0.026 Tw (sible for the great evolutionary advances in the horse, including increase in body size,)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.063 Tw (strengthening of teeth, and loss of toes \(Thomasson, 1979\). Likewise, perennial grasses)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.055 Tw (have evolved numerous defense mechanisms to survive and/or thrive under grazing)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.035 Tw (pressure, including axillary meristems, rhizomes, stolons, trichomes, siliceous denta-)Tj ET /CS1 CS 0 SCN 0 J 0 j 0.48 w 10 M []0 d /GS2 gs 1 i 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 580.44 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 580.44 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 58.56 m 571.5 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 58.56 m 571.5 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 580.44 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 580.44 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 67.5 796.44 m 67.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 67.5 796.44 m 67.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 58.56 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 58.56 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 67.5 58.56 m 67.5 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 67.5 58.56 m 67.5 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 58.56 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 58.56 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 44.88 427.5 m 44.88 427.5 l 44.88 424.884 47.004 422.76 49.62 422.76 c 52.236 422.76 54.36 424.884 54.36 427.5 c 54.36 430.116 52.236 432.24 49.62 432.24 c 47.004 432.24 44.88 430.116 44.88 427.5 c h 40.68 427.5 m 58.56 427.5 l 49.62 436.44 m 49.62 418.56 l S /CS1 cs 0 scn 52.68 427.5 m 52.68 427.5 l 52.68 429.189 51.309 430.56 49.62 430.56 c 47.931 430.56 46.56 429.189 46.56 427.5 c 46.56 425.811 47.931 424.44 49.62 424.44 c 51.309 424.44 52.68 425.811 52.68 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 44.88 427.5 m 44.88 427.5 l 44.88 424.884 47.004 422.76 49.62 422.76 c 52.236 422.76 54.36 424.884 54.36 427.5 c 54.36 430.116 52.236 432.24 49.62 432.24 c 47.004 432.24 44.88 430.116 44.88 427.5 c h 40.68 427.5 m 58.56 427.5 l 49.62 436.44 m 49.62 418.56 l S 1 scn 52.56 427.5 m 52.56 427.5 l 52.56 429.123 51.243 430.44 49.62 430.44 c 47.997 430.44 46.68 429.123 46.68 427.5 c 46.68 425.877 47.997 424.56 49.62 424.56 c 51.243 424.56 52.56 425.877 52.56 427.5 c f 0 SCN 46.68 427.5 m 52.56 427.5 l 49.62 430.44 m 49.62 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 0 scn 322.56 805.38 m 322.56 805.38 l 322.56 807.069 321.189 808.44 319.5 808.44 c 317.811 808.44 316.44 807.069 316.44 805.38 c 316.44 803.691 317.811 802.32 319.5 802.32 c 321.189 802.32 322.56 803.691 322.56 805.38 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 1 scn 322.44 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 322.44 807.003 321.123 808.32 319.5 808.32 c 317.877 808.32 316.56 807.003 316.56 805.38 c 316.56 803.757 317.877 802.44 319.5 802.44 c 321.123 802.44 322.44 803.757 322.44 805.38 c f 0 SCN 316.56 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 319.5 808.32 m 319.5 802.44 l S 0.48 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 0 scn 592.44 427.5 m 592.44 427.5 l 592.44 429.189 591.069 430.56 589.38 430.56 c 587.691 430.56 586.32 429.189 586.32 427.5 c 586.32 425.811 587.691 424.44 589.38 424.44 c 591.069 424.44 592.44 425.811 592.44 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 1 scn 592.32 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 592.32 429.123 591.003 430.44 589.38 430.44 c 587.757 430.44 586.44 429.123 586.44 427.5 c 586.44 425.877 587.757 424.56 589.38 424.56 c 591.003 424.56 592.32 425.877 592.32 427.5 c f 0 SCN 586.44 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 589.38 430.44 m 589.38 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 0 scn 322.56 49.62 m 322.56 49.62 l 322.56 51.309 321.189 52.68 319.5 52.68 c 317.811 52.68 316.44 51.309 316.44 49.62 c 316.44 47.931 317.811 46.56 319.5 46.56 c 321.189 46.56 322.56 47.931 322.56 49.62 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 1 scn 322.44 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 322.44 51.243 321.123 52.56 319.5 52.56 c 317.877 52.56 316.56 51.243 316.56 49.62 c 316.56 47.997 317.877 46.68 319.5 46.68 c 321.123 46.68 322.44 47.997 322.44 49.62 c f 0 SCN 316.56 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 319.5 52.56 m 319.5 46.68 l S BT /F3 1 Tf 6 0 0 6 81.48 54.06 Tm 0 Tc (001-024.p65)Tj 51.33 0 TD 0 Tw (12/3/2002, 12:29 PM)Tj -30.33 0 TD (5)Tj ET 0.65 scn 81.48 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 1 scn 82.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.9 scn 96.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.8 scn 110.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.7 scn 124.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.6 scn 138.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 scn 152.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.4 scn 166.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.3 scn 180.3 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.2 scn 194.28 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.1 scn 208.26 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 scn 222.24 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.65 scn 403.56 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 0 0 1 0 k 404.52 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 0 0 k 418.5 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 0 0 k 432.48 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 1 0 0 k 446.46 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 1 0 k 460.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 1 0 k 474.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 1 k 488.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0.5 0 k 502.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0.5 0 0 k 516.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 0 0 0 k 530.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 0.5 k 544.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f endstream endobj 25 0 obj > /ExtGState > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 28 0 obj > stream BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 121.5 742.5 Tm 0 0 0 rg /GS3 gs (6)Tj /F5 1 Tf 13.522 0 TD 0.108 Tw (TURFGRASS BIOLOGY, GENETICS, AND BREEDING)Tj ET 0 0 0 RG 0 J 0 j 0.48 w 10 M []0 d /GS2 gs 1 i 121.5 737.22 m 517.5 737.22 l S BT /F9 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 121.5 715.5 Tm /GS3 gs -0.001 Tc -0.035 Tw (tions, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, and associations with endophytic fungi \(Casler)Tj 0 -1.2 TD (et al., 1996\). Many grasses have become dependent on herbivores\227grazing pressure is)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.122 Tw (often required for their survival \(McNaughton, 1979\). Perennial grasses respond to)Tj T* -0.015 Tw (grazing by increasing their photosynthetic rate, leaf growth rate, and protein concen-)Tj T* -0.013 Tc -0.071 Tw (tration, making them more desirable and nutritionally valuable to graziers \(McNaughton)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.008 Tw (et al., 1982\).)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0.044 Tw [(The evolution of grasslands may have partially directed the evolution of humans,)]TJ -1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc -0.059 Tw (forcing the upright gait, the tool-using hand, and the heightened intellect required for)Tj T* -0.055 Tw (survival in such a demanding habitat \(Pohl, 1986\). Whether grasses contributed to the)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.056 Tw (prehistorical evolution of humans is highly debatable. However, it is scarcely debat-)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.141 Tw (able that perennial grasses are an integral component of the evolution of modern)Tj T* -0.03 Tw (humans and our societies. Perennial grasses have evolved a large number of traits that)Tj T* -0.055 Tw (collectively serve to make them useful for human enterprise and recreation. As human)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.005 Tw (needs change, so too will turfgrasses, resulting in future coevolution with humans.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc 0.106 Tw (The evolution of perennial grasses generated tremendous inter- and intraspecific)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0.029 Tw (variability for adaptation. It requires little scientific expertise to observe and identify)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.011 Tw (adaptive variation among some species, e.g., poor winter survival of many warm-sea-)Tj T* -0.011 Tw (son grasses in cold climates and poor summer survival of many cool-season grasses in)Tj T* 0.029 Tw (warm climates. The tremendous differences among turfgrass species in adaptation to)Tj T* -0.068 Tw (diverse climates and biotomes are illustrated throughout this text. What is less obvious)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.08 Tw (to untrained observers is the tremendous variability that natural selection pressures)Tj T* 0.095 Tw (have generated within species. Natural selection has resulted in ecotypic variability)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.015 Tw (within all turfgrasses, providing the genetic foundation for all turfgrass cultivars that)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.012 Tw (have been developed to date.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0.016 Tw (Most perennial turfgrass plants are highly heterozygous and originate from highly)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.051 Tw [(heterogeneous populations. These species are generally highly self-incompatible \(with)]TJ T* -0.001 Tc 0.049 Tw (facultative apomicts as the obvious exceptions\) and often exist as a polyploid series.)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.118 Tw (Furthermore, many turfgrass species, as reviewed later in this text, freely exchange)Tj T* 0.003 Tw (genes with their closest relatives due to similar genomic structures and frequent high)Tj T* 0.141 Tw (levels of cross-compatibility. These characteristics, combined with the ever-present)Tj T* -0.004 Tc -0.072 Tw (possibility of new mutations, act to create highly heterogeneous populations with huge)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.089 Tw (numbers of potential genotypes and the possibility of creating new genotypes with)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.013 Tw (each pollination event.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0.059 Tw (The natural environments in which these heterogeneous populations evolved are)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0.028 Tw (typically characterized by fluctuating environmental conditions, often including an-)Tj T* -0.046 Tw (nual cycles of fluctuating temperature, humidity, precipitation, and sunlight. Further-)Tj T* -0.005 Tc -0.072 Tw (more, these geophysical and geoclimatic cycles are not constant, varying across decades)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.007 Tw (and centuries \(Ruzmaikin, 1999; Cai and Whetton, 2000; Cockell, 2000; Robertson et)Tj T* 0.042 Tw (al., 2000\). Climatic fluctuation creates natural selection pressures that vary in inten-)Tj T* -0.067 Tw (sity and direction, resulting in populations with mixtures of interbreeding phenotypes)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.035 Tw (favored by different environmental conditions. This process, a form of disruptive se-)Tj T* 0 Tc 0 Tw (lection, maintains a large amount of genetic variation within populations.)Tj /F7 1 Tf 0 -3 TD -0.001 Tc 0.02 Tw (Biotic Stresses)Tj /F9 1 Tf 1.2 -1.8 TD -0.014 Tc -0.071 Tw (The high degree of uniformity, the presence of numerous predisposing abiotic stresses,)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc 0.003 Tw (the constant presence of litter and/or decomposing tissue, and the use of mechanical)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.053 Tw (mowers in turfgrass environments often leads to disease epidemics and epiphytotics)Tj T* -0.007 Tc -0.071 Tw (unlike those that occur in nature \(Endo, 1972\). Nevertheless, turfgrasses have coevolved)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.035 Tw (with many disease-causing pathogens, resulting in alleles for resistance in many natu-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.011 Tw (ral populations. Some turfgrasses, such as perennial ryegrass \()Tj /F15 1 Tf 28.62 0 TD 0 Tc 0.015 Tw (Lolium perenne)Tj /F9 1 Tf 6.672 0 TD -0.001 Tc 0.012 Tw [( L.\), have)]TJ ET /CS1 CS 0 SCN /GS2 gs 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 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obj > stream BT /F5 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 271.32 742.5 Tm 0 0 0 rg /GS3 gs 0 Tc 0.119 Tw [(ORIGINS OF TURFGRASSES)]TJ /F7 1 Tf 30.195 0 TD (7)Tj ET 0 0 0 RG 0 J 0 j 0.48 w 10 M []0 d /GS2 gs 1 i 121.5 737.22 m 517.5 737.22 l S BT /F9 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 121.5 715.5 Tm /GS3 gs -0.007 Tc -0.071 Tw (evolved loci that act in a gene-for-gene manner with highly virulent and variable patho-)Tj 0 -1.2 TD 0.007 Tc 0.142 Tw (gens, such as the rust fungi \()Tj /F15 1 Tf 14.352 0 TD 0.008 Tc (Puccinia)Tj /F9 1 Tf 3.738 0 TD 0.007 Tc 0.143 Tw [( spp.\) \(Wilkins, 1978, 1991\). In many other)]TJ -18.09 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc 0.069 Tw (pathosystems, resistance is less obvious, often measured on a quantitative scale and)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.141 Tw (likely controlled by loci with small individual effects \(Casler and Pederson, 1996\).)Tj T* 0.014 Tw (Natural selection has also created morphological and chemical barriers that act as re-)Tj T* 0.016 Tw (sistance mechanisms to various insects \(Chamberlain and Evans, 1979; Lancashire et)Tj T* 0.015 Tw (al., 1977\).)Tj /F7 1 Tf 0 -3 TD (Abiotic Stresses)Tj /F9 1 Tf 1.2 -1.8 TD -0.013 Tw (The variability present within most perennial grasses has allowed them to colonize)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tw (a large portion of the Earth\222s land mass. The Park Grass Experiments at Rothamstead,)Tj T* -0.048 Tw (reviewed by Snaydon \(1973, 1978\), have shown that natural selection can create rapid)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.047 Tw (genetic shifts in natural populations of perennial grasses. Natural populations of pe-)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.066 Tw (rennial grasses contain loci that confer resistance or tolerance to a wide array of abiotic)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.031 Tw (stresses, often including opposite extremes of the same stress factor, such as soil pH or)Tj T* 0 Tc 0 Tw (fertility. Less than 50 years were required to bring about dramatic changes in popula-)Tj T* -0.003 Tc -0.07 Tw [(tions for limed vs. unlimed or high-)-101( )-99(vs. low-P soils. In some cases evolutionary changes)]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.013 Tw (to an environmental extreme resulted in a population unable to survive at the oppo-)Tj T* -0.043 Tw (site environmental extreme. The infrequent cutting management that allowed surviv-)Tj T* 0.125 Tw (ing plants to undergo sexual reproduction, combined with human intervention to)Tj T* -0.004 Tc -0.072 Tw (create a more-or-less constant environment, may have been partly responsible for these)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.01 Tw (rapid changes.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc -0.063 Tw (Cold or freezing tolerance shows considerable variation among accessions of several)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0.135 Tw (turfgrass species. In perennial ryegrass, freezing tolerance of natural populations is)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.023 Tw [(closely associated with mean temperature of the coldest month at their site of origin)]TJ T* 0.041 Tw (\(Humphreys and Eagles, 1988; Tcacenco et al., 1989\). Crown height, as indicated by)Tj T* -0.029 Tw (subcrown internode length, is inversely related to cold tolerance in perennial ryegrass)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.131 Tw (\(Wood and Cohen, 1984\). In tall fescue \()Tj /F15 1 Tf 19.932 0 TD 0 Tc 0.135 Tw (Festuca arundinacea)Tj /F9 1 Tf 8.988 0 TD -0.001 Tc 0.132 Tw [( Schreb.\), genome size)]TJ -28.92 -1.2 TD 0 Tc 0.133 Tw (\(amount of heterochromatin and frequency of repeated DNA sequences\) was posi-)Tj T* 0.12 Tw (tively correlated with latitude of origin, suggesting that structural changes in DNA)Tj T* -0.004 Tw (may play a role in environmental adaptation \(Ceccarelli et al., 1992\).)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tw (Natural variation exists for drought tolerance in species such as perennial ryegrass,)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc -0.043 Tw [(which possess a wide geographic and climatic range. Accessions collected from consis-)]TJ T* 0 Tc -0.005 Tw (tently dry habitats have greater drought tolerance than commercial cultivars \(Reed et)Tj T* -0.014 Tc -0.071 Tw (al., 1987\). Numerous drought-tolerance or drought-avoidance mechanisms have evolved)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.096 Tw (in perennial ryegrass, including genetic variation for stomatal resistance \(via differ-)Tj T* 0.027 Tw (ences in stomatal size and/or frequency\), depth of epidermal ridging, leaf water con-)Tj T* -0.002 Tw (ductance, and leaf osmotic potential \(reviewed by Casler et al., 1996\).)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc -0.071 Tw (Tolerance to salinity has evolved naturally in numerous turfgrasses, including mem-)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0.003 Tc 0.142 Tw (bers of )Tj /F15 1 Tf 3.696 0 TD 0.004 Tc (Agrostis, Festuca, Lolium, )Tj /F9 1 Tf 11.994 0 TD 0.005 Tc (and)Tj /F15 1 Tf 1.788 0 TD 0.145 Tw [( Poa)]TJ /F9 1 Tf 2.058 0 TD 0.004 Tc 0.144 Tw [( \(Venables and Wilkins, 1978; Wu, 1981;)]TJ -19.536 -1.2 TD -0.008 Tc -0.071 Tw (Humphreys et al., 1986; Acharya et al., 1992\). The evolution of salt tolerance in turfgrass)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.002 Tw (has occurred in coastal marshes and rocky, alpine habitats. Natural selection pressure)Tj T* -0.038 Tw (for salt tolerance drives selection coefficients, the rate at which alleles change in natu-)Tj T* -0.047 Tw (ral populations, and the eventual extent to which salt tolerance evolves \(Ahmad et al.,)Tj T* 0.075 Tw (1981; Wu, 1981\). Natural populations can vary dramatically in salt tolerance across)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.031 Tw (distances as little as 10 m. Salt tolerant genotypes of turfgrasses can evolve a form of)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.104 Tw (salt dependence, as illustrated by greater increases in root and shoot growth under)Tj T* -0.062 Tw [(high- vs. low-saline growth conditions \(Ashraf et al., 1986\). A comprehensive listing of)]TJ T* 0.109 Tw (salinity tolerance levels across turf species is available \(Carrow and Duncan, 1998\).)Tj ET /CS1 CS 0 SCN /GS2 gs 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 580.44 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 580.44 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 58.56 m 571.5 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 58.56 m 571.5 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 580.44 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 580.44 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 67.5 796.44 m 67.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 67.5 796.44 m 67.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 58.56 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 58.56 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 67.5 58.56 m 67.5 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 67.5 58.56 m 67.5 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 58.56 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 58.56 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 44.88 427.5 m 44.88 427.5 l 44.88 424.884 47.004 422.76 49.62 422.76 c 52.236 422.76 54.36 424.884 54.36 427.5 c 54.36 430.116 52.236 432.24 49.62 432.24 c 47.004 432.24 44.88 430.116 44.88 427.5 c h 40.68 427.5 m 58.56 427.5 l 49.62 436.44 m 49.62 418.56 l S /CS1 cs 0 scn 52.68 427.5 m 52.68 427.5 l 52.68 429.189 51.309 430.56 49.62 430.56 c 47.931 430.56 46.56 429.189 46.56 427.5 c 46.56 425.811 47.931 424.44 49.62 424.44 c 51.309 424.44 52.68 425.811 52.68 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 44.88 427.5 m 44.88 427.5 l 44.88 424.884 47.004 422.76 49.62 422.76 c 52.236 422.76 54.36 424.884 54.36 427.5 c 54.36 430.116 52.236 432.24 49.62 432.24 c 47.004 432.24 44.88 430.116 44.88 427.5 c h 40.68 427.5 m 58.56 427.5 l 49.62 436.44 m 49.62 418.56 l S 1 scn 52.56 427.5 m 52.56 427.5 l 52.56 429.123 51.243 430.44 49.62 430.44 c 47.997 430.44 46.68 429.123 46.68 427.5 c 46.68 425.877 47.997 424.56 49.62 424.56 c 51.243 424.56 52.56 425.877 52.56 427.5 c f 0 SCN 46.68 427.5 m 52.56 427.5 l 49.62 430.44 m 49.62 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 0 scn 322.56 805.38 m 322.56 805.38 l 322.56 807.069 321.189 808.44 319.5 808.44 c 317.811 808.44 316.44 807.069 316.44 805.38 c 316.44 803.691 317.811 802.32 319.5 802.32 c 321.189 802.32 322.56 803.691 322.56 805.38 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 1 scn 322.44 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 322.44 807.003 321.123 808.32 319.5 808.32 c 317.877 808.32 316.56 807.003 316.56 805.38 c 316.56 803.757 317.877 802.44 319.5 802.44 c 321.123 802.44 322.44 803.757 322.44 805.38 c f 0 SCN 316.56 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 319.5 808.32 m 319.5 802.44 l S 0.48 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 0 scn 592.44 427.5 m 592.44 427.5 l 592.44 429.189 591.069 430.56 589.38 430.56 c 587.691 430.56 586.32 429.189 586.32 427.5 c 586.32 425.811 587.691 424.44 589.38 424.44 c 591.069 424.44 592.44 425.811 592.44 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 1 scn 592.32 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 592.32 429.123 591.003 430.44 589.38 430.44 c 587.757 430.44 586.44 429.123 586.44 427.5 c 586.44 425.877 587.757 424.56 589.38 424.56 c 591.003 424.56 592.32 425.877 592.32 427.5 c f 0 SCN 586.44 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 589.38 430.44 m 589.38 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 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121.5 742.5 Tm 0 0 0 rg /GS3 gs (8)Tj /F5 1 Tf 13.522 0 TD 0.108 Tw (TURFGRASS BIOLOGY, GENETICS, AND BREEDING)Tj ET 0 0 0 RG 0 J 0 j 0.48 w 10 M []0 d /GS2 gs 1 i 121.5 737.22 m 517.5 737.22 l S BT /F9 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 121.5 715.5 Tm /GS3 gs -0.001 Tc 0.008 Tw (Seashore paspalum \()Tj /F15 1 Tf 9.474 0 TD 0 Tc 0.005 Tw (Paspalum vaginatum)Tj /F9 1 Tf 9.21 0 TD 0.008 Tw [( Swatrz\) has genetic variation for salinity tol-)]TJ -18.684 -1.2 TD -0.009 Tc -0.07 Tw (erance varying from bermudagrass [)Tj /F15 1 Tf 16.08 0 TD -0.008 Tc (Cynodon dactylon)Tj /F9 1 Tf 7.632 0 TD -0.009 Tc -0.072 Tw [( \(L.\) Pers.] tolerance levels to ocean-)]TJ -23.712 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc 0.002 Tw (salt levels \(Lee, 2000\).)Tj /F7 1 Tf 0 -3 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (UNCONSCIOUS SELECTION)Tj 0 -1.8 TD 0.041 Tw (Domestication of Livestock and Grasses)Tj /F9 1 Tf 1.2 -1.8 TD -0.055 Tw (Domestication is evolution under human influence \(Harlan, 1975\). In a strict sense,)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc 0.095 Tw (domesticated species should be phenotypically distinct from their wild forms, such)Tj T* 0.089 Tw (that domesticated forms are clearly more useful to humans \(Isaac, 1970\). With one)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.036 Tw (exception, perennial forage grasses are not domesticated; \223wild\224 collections are gener-)Tj T* 0.092 Tw (ally phenotypically indistinct from cultivated forms. The single exception is Italian)Tj T* -0.008 Tc -0.07 Tw (ryegrass \()Tj /F15 1 Tf 4.182 0 TD -0.007 Tc (Lolium multiflorum)Tj /F9 1 Tf 8.4 0 TD -0.071 Tw [( Lam.\), which was developed by unconscious selection prior)]TJ -12.582 -1.2 TD 0 Tc -0.045 Tw (to the twelfth century in the Lombardy and Piedmont plains of Italy \(Beddows, 1953\).)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.02 Tw (Ryegrass \()Tj /F15 1 Tf 4.536 0 TD (Lolium)Tj /F9 1 Tf 3.072 0 TD 0 Tc -0.021 Tw [( spp.\) once existed as a \223huge hybrid swarm\224 with perennial and Ital-)]TJ -7.608 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc 0.094 Tw (ian phenotypes representing opposite extremes of a continuum \(Tyler et al., 1987\).)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.019 Tw (Hay harvesting, followed by reseeding with shattered seed, resulted in the tall, sparse-)Tj T* 0.042 Tw (tillered, semiannual phenotype that has since been elevated to species status \(Breese)Tj T* 0 Tw (and Tyler, 1986\).)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD -0.043 Tw (The initial events in the domestication of turfgrasses likely were associated with the)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.025 Tw (domestication of livestock for agriculture. Animals were herded, corralled, or tethered)Tj T* 0.021 Tw (in tight groups, creating closely-grazed sods that may have enticed humans to create)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.076 Tw (games of sport, skill, and strength \(Roberts et al., 1992\). Animals were kept close to)Tj T* -0.025 Tw (homes to protect them from wild carnivores, resulting in grazed sods in close proxim-)Tj T* 0.081 Tw (ity to homesteads, perhaps leading to an evolution of human needs and desires for)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.021 Tw (lawns and landscaping. Many graziers, even in the highly mechanized rural societies)Tj T* -0.066 Tw (of contemporary industrialized countries, continue to use sheep and goats to maintain)Tj T* 0.002 Tw (their home lawns.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0.013 Tw (The practice of herding animals, particularly if accompanied by a human desire to)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc 0.042 Tw (maintain a closely-grazed sod for long periods of time, set in motion selective forces)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.138 Tw (unlike those that exist in nature. Human needs for uniformity and consistency of)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.139 Tw (sward management put pressure on plants to survive under long periods of stress,)Tj T* -0.071 Tw (pressured by stresses that may not have occurred in nature. Grazing pressure can create)Tj T* 0.026 Tw (rapid shifts in the phenotype of grass populations, with phenotypic changes propor-)Tj T* 0.018 Tc 0.143 Tw (tional to grazing intensity and duration \(Brougham et al., 1960; Charles, 1964;)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.071 Tw (Brougham and Harris, 1967\). Indeed, perennial ryegrass appears specifically adapted to)Tj T* -0.07 Tw [(survive in association with grazers \(Beddows, 1953; Breese, 1983\) and is rarely found in)]TJ T* 0.13 Tw (natural habitats devoid of grazing pressure \(Davies et al., 1973\). Perennial ryegrass)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.035 Tw (appears to have spread throughout the Mediterranean Basin in direct association with)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.003 Tw (the development and spread of livestock agriculture via human migration \(Balfourier)Tj T* 0.008 Tw (et al., 2000\).)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc 0.009 Tw (Frequent defoliation of perennial grass populations results in genetic shifts toward)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0.078 Tw (shorter basal internodes, a more prostrate growth habit, higher tiller densities, later)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.071 Tw (flowering dates, and greater longevity of individual plants \(Casler et al., 1996\). In some)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.019 Tw (cases, long-term defoliation by either herbivores or mechanical means \(constant and)Tj T* 0.018 Tw (low mowing heights\) can bring about such changes \(Van Dijk, 1955\). Frequent defo-)Tj T* 0.009 Tw (liation can lead to proliferation of genotypes that are extremely long-lived, with esti-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.029 Tw (mates of a single )Tj /F15 1 Tf 8.142 0 TD 0.03 Tw (Holcus mollis)Tj /F9 1 Tf 5.892 0 TD [( L. clone covering a distance of 800 m \(Harberd, 1967\))]TJ -14.034 -1.2 TD 0 Tc 0.002 Tw (and a single )Tj /F15 1 Tf 5.862 0 TD 0 Tw (Festuca rubra)Tj /F9 1 Tf 5.826 0 TD -0.001 Tc 0.002 Tw ( L. clone over 1,000 years old \(Harberd, 1961\).)Tj ET /CS1 CS 0 SCN /GS2 gs 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 580.44 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 580.44 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 58.56 m 571.5 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 58.56 m 571.5 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 580.44 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 580.44 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 67.5 796.44 m 67.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 67.5 796.44 m 67.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 58.56 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 58.56 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 67.5 58.56 m 67.5 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 67.5 58.56 m 67.5 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 58.56 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 58.56 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 44.88 427.5 m 44.88 427.5 l 44.88 424.884 47.004 422.76 49.62 422.76 c 52.236 422.76 54.36 424.884 54.36 427.5 c 54.36 430.116 52.236 432.24 49.62 432.24 c 47.004 432.24 44.88 430.116 44.88 427.5 c h 40.68 427.5 m 58.56 427.5 l 49.62 436.44 m 49.62 418.56 l S /CS1 cs 0 scn 52.68 427.5 m 52.68 427.5 l 52.68 429.189 51.309 430.56 49.62 430.56 c 47.931 430.56 46.56 429.189 46.56 427.5 c 46.56 425.811 47.931 424.44 49.62 424.44 c 51.309 424.44 52.68 425.811 52.68 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 44.88 427.5 m 44.88 427.5 l 44.88 424.884 47.004 422.76 49.62 422.76 c 52.236 422.76 54.36 424.884 54.36 427.5 c 54.36 430.116 52.236 432.24 49.62 432.24 c 47.004 432.24 44.88 430.116 44.88 427.5 c h 40.68 427.5 m 58.56 427.5 l 49.62 436.44 m 49.62 418.56 l S 1 scn 52.56 427.5 m 52.56 427.5 l 52.56 429.123 51.243 430.44 49.62 430.44 c 47.997 430.44 46.68 429.123 46.68 427.5 c 46.68 425.877 47.997 424.56 49.62 424.56 c 51.243 424.56 52.56 425.877 52.56 427.5 c f 0 SCN 46.68 427.5 m 52.56 427.5 l 49.62 430.44 m 49.62 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 0 scn 322.56 805.38 m 322.56 805.38 l 322.56 807.069 321.189 808.44 319.5 808.44 c 317.811 808.44 316.44 807.069 316.44 805.38 c 316.44 803.691 317.811 802.32 319.5 802.32 c 321.189 802.32 322.56 803.691 322.56 805.38 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 1 scn 322.44 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 322.44 807.003 321.123 808.32 319.5 808.32 c 317.877 808.32 316.56 807.003 316.56 805.38 c 316.56 803.757 317.877 802.44 319.5 802.44 c 321.123 802.44 322.44 803.757 322.44 805.38 c f 0 SCN 316.56 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 319.5 808.32 m 319.5 802.44 l S 0.48 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 0 scn 592.44 427.5 m 592.44 427.5 l 592.44 429.189 591.069 430.56 589.38 430.56 c 587.691 430.56 586.32 429.189 586.32 427.5 c 586.32 425.811 587.691 424.44 589.38 424.44 c 591.069 424.44 592.44 425.811 592.44 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 1 scn 592.32 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 592.32 429.123 591.003 430.44 589.38 430.44 c 587.757 430.44 586.44 429.123 586.44 427.5 c 586.44 425.877 587.757 424.56 589.38 424.56 c 591.003 424.56 592.32 425.877 592.32 427.5 c f 0 SCN 586.44 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 589.38 430.44 m 589.38 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 0 scn 322.56 49.62 m 322.56 49.62 l 322.56 51.309 321.189 52.68 319.5 52.68 c 317.811 52.68 316.44 51.309 316.44 49.62 c 316.44 47.931 317.811 46.56 319.5 46.56 c 321.189 46.56 322.56 47.931 322.56 49.62 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 1 scn 322.44 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 322.44 51.243 321.123 52.56 319.5 52.56 c 317.877 52.56 316.56 51.243 316.56 49.62 c 316.56 47.997 317.877 46.68 319.5 46.68 c 321.123 46.68 322.44 47.997 322.44 49.62 c f 0 SCN 316.56 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 319.5 52.56 m 319.5 46.68 l S BT /F3 1 Tf 6 0 0 6 81.48 54.06 Tm 0 Tc (001-024.p65)Tj 51.33 0 TD 0 Tw (12/3/2002, 12:29 PM)Tj -30.33 0 TD (8)Tj ET 0.65 scn 81.48 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 1 scn 82.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.9 scn 96.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.8 scn 110.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.7 scn 124.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.6 scn 138.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 scn 152.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.4 scn 166.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.3 scn 180.3 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.2 scn 194.28 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.1 scn 208.26 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 scn 222.24 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.65 scn 403.56 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 0 0 1 0 k 404.52 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 0 0 k 418.5 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 0 0 k 432.48 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 1 0 0 k 446.46 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 1 0 k 460.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 1 0 k 474.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 1 k 488.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0.5 0 k 502.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0.5 0 0 k 516.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 0 0 0 k 530.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 0.5 k 544.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f endstream endobj 36 0 obj > /ExtGState > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 38 0 obj > stream BT /F5 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 271.32 742.5 Tm 0 0 0 rg /GS3 gs 0 Tc 0.119 Tw [(ORIGINS OF TURFGRASSES)]TJ /F7 1 Tf 30.195 0 TD (9)Tj ET 0 0 0 RG 0 J 0 j 0.48 w 10 M []0 d /GS2 gs 1 i 121.5 737.22 m 517.5 737.22 l S BT 10 0 0 10 121.5 715.5 Tm /GS3 gs 0.06 Tw (Human Ball Games and Grass)Tj /F9 1 Tf 1.2 -1.8 TD -0.001 Tc -0.066 Tw (The genesis of human ball games was at least 5,000 years ago, dating to the Egyptian)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc -0.003 Tw (game of ninepins and the Greek form of hockey \(Altham and Swanton, 1926\). Soccer)Tj T* -0.029 Tw (dates to China in the third century B.C. as a form of military training called \221Tsu Chu\222)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.025 Tw (\(Green, 1953\). According to Green, the expression Tsu Chu derives from Tsu, to kick)Tj T* 0.066 Tw (the ball with feet, and Chu, a stuffed ball made of leather. Other forms of \221football\222)Tj T* 0.024 Tw (derive from the Romans about the same time \(Marples, 1954\). Early versions of foot-)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.052 Tw (ball games were violent, undisciplined, and relatively rule-free, suggesting that grass)Tj T* 0.009 Tw (playing fields were highly desirable for the participants\222 well-being. \(Imagine playing)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.01 Tw (modern rugby or American football on bare soil or gravel without modern protective)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.066 Tw (equipment, medications, or antibiotics.\) The Roman Circus and ancient Mayan ball)Tj T* 0.084 Tw (fields suggest that dedicated and permanent ball fields, likely including a perennial)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.08 Tw (grass cover, are at least 2,500 years old. Natural selection likely played a role in the)Tj T* 0.002 Tw (evolution of grass cover on these ancient ball fields.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc 0.078 Tw (Golf dates to early fifteenth century Scotland \(Browning, 1955; Campbell, 1952\).)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc -0.023 Tw (Campbell credits nature, beasts, and humans as the early architects of golf courses. By)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.128 Tw (spreading seed and manure, birds and rodents assisted in the vegetation of dunes,)Tj T* 0.085 Tw (coastlines, and riparian areas. Rabbit furthered the process by creating burrows and)Tj T* 0.069 Tw (runs connecting their burrows. Foxes and other game enlarged these runs to tracks.)Tj T* 0.117 Tw (Humans eventually found these tracked, grassy warrens to be ideal for their newly)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.14 Tw (popular game of golf \(Campbell, 1952\). Holes on the earliest links were organized)Tj T* 0.004 Tw (according to rabbit enclaves, with areas of highest \(presumably grazing\) activity serv-)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.047 Tw (ing as greens and game trails serving to connect tees and greens. Natural grasslands on)Tj T* 0.007 Tw (volcanic peaks in the Azores, dominated by )Tj /F15 1 Tf 20.556 0 TD 0.01 Tw (Agrostis canina)Tj /F9 1 Tf 6.678 0 TD 0.007 Tw [( L., are similarly character-)]TJ -27.234 -1.2 TD -0.06 Tw [(ized by heavily-grazed rabbit enclaves \(Casler, 2000, personal observations\). It requires)]TJ T* -0.001 Tc 0.001 Tw (little imagination to visualize these areas as prototypical putting or bowling greens.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc -0.03 Tw (As human ball games evolved in concert with the human race, so too did perennial)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc -0.037 Tw (grasses. As sport and recreation became more important to humans, rules evolved and)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.056 Tw (increased in complexity in order to develop uniformity and preserve heritage of the)Tj T* 0.062 Tw (games. Maintenance of a uniform turf with characteristics that support the game of)Tj T* -0.066 Tw (choice gradually became an integral part of the caretakers\222 and communities\222 responsi-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.067 Tw (bilities. Sheep and goats would eventually replace rabbits for golf turf maintenance,)Tj T* -0.04 Tw (largely due to the proximity of golf links to grazing lands and the ability of humans to)Tj T* -0.053 Tw (control grazing pressure and duration, i.e., \223mowing\224 height. Greater control over turf)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.01 Tw (maintenance resulted in turf that remained more uniform for longer periods of time,)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.044 Tw (supporting human needs for uniform application of newly evolving rules and perhaps)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.048 Tw (the development of new rules. In an elegant irony, which is parallel to Miocene evolu-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.071 Tw (tion, domesticated racehorses were likely made responsible for maintenance of the turf)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.003 Tw (on which they would race for human recreation and benefit.)Tj 0 -2.4 TD -0.001 Tc -0.028 Tw (The development of rules for ball games, the subsequent desire to maintain more uni-)Tj 0 -1.2 TD 0 Tc -0.041 Tw (form and high quality turf, and the increasing importance of natural variation in agri-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.025 Tw (culture eventually increased the levels of unconscious selection of turfgrasses. Natural)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.028 Tw (variation for traits that control adaptation and usefulness of grain crops in agriculture)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.028 Tw (has been recognized by humans for thousands of years \(Harlan, 1975\). However, the)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.059 Tw (earliest evidence of human recognition for ecotypic variation and the concept of supe-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc (rior strains in forage grasses is barely 200 years old \(Beddows, 1953\). Collection, propa-)Tj T* -0.051 Tw (gation, and selection of superior turf strains in Europe and North America likely began)Tj T* -0.048 Tw (about the same time, although the level of activity varied considerably among species.)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.004 Tw (Commercial sod farming began in Japan in 1701 \(Busey, 1989\).)Tj ET /CS1 CS 0 SCN /GS2 gs 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 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805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 0 scn 322.56 805.38 m 322.56 805.38 l 322.56 807.069 321.189 808.44 319.5 808.44 c 317.811 808.44 316.44 807.069 316.44 805.38 c 316.44 803.691 317.811 802.32 319.5 802.32 c 321.189 802.32 322.56 803.691 322.56 805.38 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 1 scn 322.44 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 322.44 807.003 321.123 808.32 319.5 808.32 c 317.877 808.32 316.56 807.003 316.56 805.38 c 316.56 803.757 317.877 802.44 319.5 802.44 c 321.123 802.44 322.44 803.757 322.44 805.38 c f 0 SCN 316.56 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 319.5 808.32 m 319.5 802.44 l S 0.48 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 0 scn 592.44 427.5 m 592.44 427.5 l 592.44 429.189 591.069 430.56 589.38 430.56 c 587.691 430.56 586.32 429.189 586.32 427.5 c 586.32 425.811 587.691 424.44 589.38 424.44 c 591.069 424.44 592.44 425.811 592.44 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 1 scn 592.32 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 592.32 429.123 591.003 430.44 589.38 430.44 c 587.757 430.44 586.44 429.123 586.44 427.5 c 586.44 425.877 587.757 424.56 589.38 424.56 c 591.003 424.56 592.32 425.877 592.32 427.5 c f 0 SCN 586.44 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 589.38 430.44 m 589.38 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 0 scn 322.56 49.62 m 322.56 49.62 l 322.56 51.309 321.189 52.68 319.5 52.68 c 317.811 52.68 316.44 51.309 316.44 49.62 c 316.44 47.931 317.811 46.56 319.5 46.56 c 321.189 46.56 322.56 47.931 322.56 49.62 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 1 scn 322.44 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 322.44 51.243 321.123 52.56 319.5 52.56 c 317.877 52.56 316.56 51.243 316.56 49.62 c 316.56 47.997 317.877 46.68 319.5 46.68 c 321.123 46.68 322.44 47.997 322.44 49.62 c f 0 SCN 316.56 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 319.5 52.56 m 319.5 46.68 l S BT /F3 1 Tf 6 0 0 6 81.48 54.06 Tm (001-024.p65)Tj 51.33 0 TD 0 Tw (12/3/2002, 12:29 PM)Tj -30.33 0 TD (9)Tj ET 0.65 scn 81.48 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 1 scn 82.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.9 scn 96.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.8 scn 110.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.7 scn 124.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.6 scn 138.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 scn 152.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.4 scn 166.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.3 scn 180.3 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.2 scn 194.28 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.1 scn 208.26 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 scn 222.24 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.65 scn 403.56 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 0 0 1 0 k 404.52 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 0 0 k 418.5 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 0 0 k 432.48 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 1 0 0 k 446.46 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 1 0 k 460.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 1 0 k 474.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 1 k 488.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0.5 0 k 502.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0.5 0 0 k 516.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 0 0 0 k 530.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 0.5 k 544.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f endstream endobj 39 0 obj > /ExtGState > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 41 0 obj > stream BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 121.5 742.5 Tm 0 0 0 rg /GS3 gs 0 Tc (10)Tj /F5 1 Tf 13.522 0 TD 0.108 Tw (TURFGRASS BIOLOGY, GENETICS, AND BREEDING)Tj ET 0 0 0 RG 0 J 0 j 0.48 w 10 M []0 d /GS2 gs 1 i 121.5 737.22 m 517.5 737.22 l S BT /F9 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 133.5 715.5 Tm /GS3 gs 0.007 Tw (Although the changes these practices effected in natural populations of turfgrasses)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0.009 Tw (cannot be documented, they undoubtedly increased the rate at which allele frequen-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.081 Tw (cies were modified by selection. Selection pressures brought about by the advent of)Tj T* 0.035 Tw (turf management practices were parallel to natural selection pressures by herbivores,)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.062 Tw (but represented an increase in selection intensity, a more stable selection pressure over)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.012 Tw (time, and a possible reduction or elimination of sexual recombination in turf popula-)Tj T* -0.002 Tw (tions that were maintained at a vegetative growth stage. A microcosm of these effects)Tj T* 0.004 Tw (can be observed on creeping bentgrass \()Tj /F15 1 Tf 18.498 0 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (Agrostis palustris)Tj /F9 1 Tf 7.428 0 TD -0.001 Tc 0.004 Tw ( L.\) putting greens, which are)Tj -25.926 -1.2 TD 0.049 Tw (typically composed of a patchwork of clones varying in color and texture \(Madison,)Tj T* 0.062 Tw (1982\). European colonialism and the efforts of numerous European botanists in the)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.085 Tw (sixteenth to nineteenth centuries resulted in collection and dissemination of many)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.014 Tw (interesting turf ecotypes \(see later chapters in this book\). Successful introductions re-)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.026 Tw (sulted in long-lived turfs and non-native species became naturalized to a new locale.)Tj T* -0.069 Tw (Variation thus exploited was created by a combination of natural selection and uncon-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.024 Tw [(scious selection by humans and provided the foundation for methodical selection of)]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.001 Tw (turfgrasses in the twentieth century.)Tj /F7 1 Tf 0 -3 TD 0.049 Tw (Human Effects on the Environment)Tj /F9 1 Tf 1.2 -1.8 TD -0.047 Tw (While the measurement and magnitude of human influences on climate and atmo-)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc -0.071 Tw (sphere are hotly debated in the literature and popular press, it is scarcely debatable that)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.038 Tw (human industrialization has affected Earth\222s climate, atmosphere, and soil. Air pollut-)Tj T* 0.044 Tw (ants can be directly absorbed by stomata, causing direct toxicities, and can combine)Tj T* -0.015 Tw (with water to create acid rain. Both point and nonpoint source pollutants can rapidly)Tj T* 0.092 Tw (contaminate soils and can spread to uncontaminated sites by movement of surface)Tj T* -0.019 Tw (and groundwater. While many industrial pollutants are also naturally occurring com-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0 Tw (pounds \(O)Tj 5.8 0 0 5.8 170.76 401.28 Tm (3)Tj 10 0 0 10 174.12 403.5 Tm 0.005 Tw (, CO, CO)Tj 5.8 0 0 5.8 216.72 401.28 Tm (2)Tj 10 0 0 10 220.08 403.5 Tm -0.002 Tc (, NO)Tj 5.8 0 0 5.8 241.92 401.28 Tm (x)Tj 10 0 0 10 245.22 403.5 Tm -0.001 Tc (, SO)Tj 5.8 0 0 5.8 264.12 401.28 Tm (x)Tj 10 0 0 10 267.42 403.5 Tm (, and heavy metals\), their role as forces creating selec-)Tj -14.592 -1.2 TD 0.002 Tw (tion pressures on turfgrass populations is entirely human-derived.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0.01 Tw (Tolerance to toxic atmospheric gases has evolved in several turfgrasses used for ur-)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.01 Tc -0.07 Tw (ban parks and recreation, including perennial ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass \()Tj /F15 1 Tf 34.044 0 TD -0.009 Tc -0.075 Tw (Poa pratensis)Tj /F9 1 Tf -34.044 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc -0.01 Tw (L.\), and red fescue \()Tj /F15 1 Tf 9.042 0 TD 0 Tc (Festuca rubra)Tj /F9 1 Tf 5.82 0 TD -0.001 Tc [( L.\). Rapid evolution of populations with tolerance to)]TJ -14.862 -1.2 TD 0 Tc 0.075 Tw (acute SO)Tj 5.8 0 0 5.8 162.96 341.28 Tm (2)Tj 10 0 0 10 166.32 343.5 Tm -0.001 Tc 0.08 Tw [( injury, in less than 5 years, suggests that alleles for SO)]TJ 5.8 0 0 5.8 428.94 341.28 Tm (2)Tj 10 0 0 10 432.3 343.5 Tm 0 Tc [( tolerance exist in)]TJ -31.08 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc 0.086 Tw (natural populations of perennial ryegrass \(Wilson and Bell, 1985\). Evolution of SO)Tj 5.8 0 0 5.8 514.14 329.28 Tm (2)Tj 10 0 0 10 121.5 319.5 Tm -0.039 Tw (tolerance is driven by selection pressures, which are proportional to local atmospheric)Tj T* (SO)Tj 5.8 0 0 5.8 134.64 305.28 Tm (2)Tj 10 0 0 10 138 307.5 Tm 0 Tc 0.072 Tw [( concentrations \(Horsman et al., 1979; Wilson and Bell, 1986\). Tolerance to SO)]TJ 5.8 0 0 5.8 514.14 305.28 Tm (2)Tj 10 0 0 10 121.5 295.5 Tm -0.001 Tc -0.045 Tw (may carry a physiological cost, as relaxation of selection pressure \(caused by reduction)Tj T* 0.125 Tw (in atmospheric pollutions levels\) may cause turfgrass populations to lose tolerance)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.015 Tw (\(Wilson and Bell, 1986\). Avoidance mechanisms appear to regulate tolerance to acute)Tj T* -0.011 Tc -0.071 Tw (injury, caused by short-term exposure to high levels of toxic gases, while internal mecha-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.022 Tw (nisms appear to regulate tolerance to chronic injury, caused by long-term exposure to)Tj T* 0.003 Tw (low levels of toxic gases \(Ayazloo et al., 1982\).)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0.068 Tw (Numerous turfgrasses have evolved tolerance to a wide array of heavy metals, in-)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc -0.02 Tw (cluding arsenate, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc. As with other abiotic stress)Tj T* -0.056 Tw (tolerances, alleles conferring tolerance exist in extremely low frequencies within natu-)Tj T* -0.035 Tw (ral populations, rapidly increasing in frequency as exposure and selection pressure are)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.028 Tw (applied to populations. Most documented tolerance has evolved in close proximity to)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.013 Tw (mine spoils, smelters, areas contaminated with windblown mine waste, or galvanized)Tj T* -0.067 Tw (\(Zn-coated\) electricity pylons, the latter caused by Zn solubilization from rainwater. As)Tj T* 0.002 Tw (with tolerance to atmospheric gases, heavy-metal tolerances often carry a physiologi-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.006 Tw (cal cost. Heavy-metal tolerant populations may be extremely poor in vigor in uncon-)Tj T* -0.004 Tc -0.071 Tw (taminated soils and may revert to intolerant after relaxation of selection pressure \(Cook)Tj ET /CS1 CS 0 SCN /GS2 gs 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 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436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 0 scn 592.44 427.5 m 592.44 427.5 l 592.44 429.189 591.069 430.56 589.38 430.56 c 587.691 430.56 586.32 429.189 586.32 427.5 c 586.32 425.811 587.691 424.44 589.38 424.44 c 591.069 424.44 592.44 425.811 592.44 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 1 scn 592.32 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 592.32 429.123 591.003 430.44 589.38 430.44 c 587.757 430.44 586.44 429.123 586.44 427.5 c 586.44 425.877 587.757 424.56 589.38 424.56 c 591.003 424.56 592.32 425.877 592.32 427.5 c f 0 SCN 586.44 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 589.38 430.44 m 589.38 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 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-13.98 re f 1 scn 82.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.9 scn 96.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.8 scn 110.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.7 scn 124.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.6 scn 138.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 scn 152.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.4 scn 166.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.3 scn 180.3 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.2 scn 194.28 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.1 scn 208.26 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 scn 222.24 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.65 scn 403.56 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 0 0 1 0 k 404.52 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 0 0 k 418.5 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 0 0 k 432.48 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 1 0 0 k 446.46 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 1 0 k 460.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 1 0 k 474.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 1 k 488.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0.5 0 k 502.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0.5 0 0 k 516.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 0 0 0 k 530.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 0.5 k 544.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f endstream endobj 42 0 obj > /ExtGState > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 44 0 obj > stream BT /F5 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 271.32 742.5 Tm 0 0 0 rg /GS3 gs 0 Tc 0.119 Tw [(ORIGINS OF TURFGRASSES)]TJ /F7 1 Tf 29.625 0 TD (11)Tj ET 0 0 0 RG 0 J 0 j 0.48 w 10 M []0 d /GS2 gs 1 i 121.5 737.22 m 517.5 737.22 l S BT /F9 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 121.5 715.5 Tm /GS3 gs -0.001 Tc -0.036 Tw (et al., 1972; Hickey and McNeilly, 1975; Baker et al., 1986\). Cultivars of red fescue and)Tj 0 -1.2 TD 0.003 Tw (colonial bentgrass \()Tj /F15 1 Tf 9.042 0 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (Agrostis capillaris)Tj /F9 1 Tf 7.68 0 TD -0.001 Tc 0.004 Tw ( L.\) have been developed from plants collected at)Tj -16.722 -1.2 TD -0.002 Tc -0.072 Tw [(heavy-metal contaminated sites \(Humphreys and Bradshaw, 1977\). Seashore paspalum)]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.07 Tw (also has an innate capability to tolerate heavy metals, due to an extremely efficient)Tj T* -0.001 Tw (uptake system \(Duncan and Carrow, 2000\).)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0.004 Tc -0.021 Tw (Finally, global climate changes may continue to create selection pressures of value)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0.031 Tw (to humans. Atmospheric loading of CO)Tj 5.8 0 0 5.8 308.88 641.28 Tm (2)Tj 10 0 0 10 312.3 643.5 Tm 0.032 Tw [( and sulfate aerosols are capable of creating)]TJ -19.08 -1.2 TD 0.005 Tc 0.134 Tw (localized and global changes in surface air temperatures \(Santer et al., 1995\). The)Tj T* 0.099 Tw (interrelationship of atmospheric aerosols and terrestrial plants is illustrated by the)Tj T* 0.004 Tc -0.044 Tw (effect of temperature changes on agricultural pest populations \(Patterson et al., 1999\))Tj T* 0.012 Tw (and by the potential mitigating effect of healthy cropping systems \(Robertson et al.,)Tj T* 0.003 Tc -0.071 Tw (2000\). In the short term, temperature changes will begin to cause genetic shifts within)Tj T* 0.004 Tc 0.083 Tw (populations, favoring those plants that respond best to the change. These changes)Tj T* 0.033 Tw (will probably occur much more slowly than those brought about by exposure to air)Tj T* 0.005 Tc 0.106 Tw (and soil pollutants. In the long term, temperature changes will likely change geo-)Tj T* 0.004 Tc -0.001 Tw (graphic adaptation of turfgrass species, unless populations contain sufficient genetic)Tj T* 0.005 Tc 0.089 Tw (variation for temperature response that they can respond, in situ, with changes in)Tj T* -0.025 Tw (allele frequencies.)Tj /F7 1 Tf 0 -3 TD 0 Tc 0.01 Tw (METHODICAL SELECTION)Tj 0 -1.8 TD 0.001 Tc 0.038 Tw (Natural Variation and Domestication)Tj /F9 1 Tf 1.2 -1.8 TD 0 Tc -0.037 Tw (The practice of methodical selection of turfgrasses has undergone a dramatic evolu-)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc -0.057 Tw (tion. Early efforts to apply plant breeding and selection concepts to turfgrasses directly)Tj T* -0.002 Tc -0.072 Tw (utilized genetic variation created by natural selection. Early cultivars of highly stolonif-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.031 Tw (erous species, such as bermudagrass, were identified and propagated from turf areas as)Tj T* -0.047 Tw (early as 1907 \(Roux, 1969\). This practice was first applied to the cool-season apomictic)Tj T* -0.055 Tw [(species, Kentucky bluegrass, in the 1930s with the release of \221Merion\222 \(Huff, Chapter 2;)]TJ T* [(Meyer and Funk, 1989\). Natural selection from old turf areas was used to select parents)]TJ T* 0 Tc 0.001 Tw (for synthetic cultivars of cool-season turfgrasses beginning in the 1960s. \221Manhattan\222)Tj T* (perennial ryegrass, derived from plants growing in Central Park, Manhattan, NY, was)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.003 Tw (the most prominent of these early cultivars \(Funk et al., 1969\).)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw (It could be argued that the value of natural selection in old turf sods will gradually)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc 0.083 Tw (fade as most turf areas have been planted to new cultivars. Logic suggests that new)Tj T* 0 Tw (cultivars are more homogeneous and more highly adapted to the stresses imposed by)Tj T* 0.062 Tw (a turf environment. However, transgressive segregation and high selection pressures)Tj T* -0.047 Tw (within turf environments, particularly those subject to severe biotic or abiotic stresses,)Tj T* (will ensure that valuable and useful genotypes will continue to appear in old turf sods.)Tj T* -0.012 Tc -0.071 Tw (The creeping bentgrass breeding programs for dollar-spot resistance \(caused by )Tj /F15 1 Tf 35.202 0 TD (Sclerotinia)Tj -35.202 -1.2 TD 0.001 Tc (homeocarpa)Tj /F9 1 Tf 5.226 0 TD 0 Tc 0.125 Tw [( F.T. Bennet\) at Rutgers University \(Bonos and Meyer, 2000\) and snow-)]TJ -5.226 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc 0.004 Tw (mold resistance \(caused by )Tj /F15 1 Tf 12.726 0 TD 0 Tc (Typhula)Tj /F9 1 Tf 3.612 0 TD -0.001 Tc ( spp.\) at the University of Wisconsin \(Wang et al.,)Tj -16.338 -1.2 TD 0.016 Tw (2000\) are based exclusively on germ plasm collected from old golf-course turfs, often)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.021 Tw (of undetermined origin. Furthermore, as turf management changes with human pref-)Tj T* -0.005 Tc -0.071 Tw (erences or the edaphic environment changes due to cyclic weather patterns, the stresses)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.053 Tw (imposed on turf environments may also change. Thus, the genotypes favored by natu-)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.005 Tw (ral selection may vary over time, warranting long-term commitments to collecting in)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.003 Tw (old turf areas.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0.008 Tc 0.07 Tw (Contrary to the vast majority of forage grasses, most cultivars of turfgrasses can)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0.009 Tc -0.048 Tw (\(and should\) be considered as domesticated by humans. Cultivars that cannot repro-)Tj T* 0.002 Tc -0.071 Tw (duce themselves without human management are domesticated from their wild forms)Tj T* 0.005 Tc (\(Harlan, 1992\). For synthetic turfgrass cultivars, which are highly heterogeneous mix-)Tj ET /CS1 CS 0 SCN /GS2 gs 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 580.44 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 580.44 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 58.56 m 571.5 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 58.56 m 571.5 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 580.44 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 580.44 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 67.5 796.44 m 67.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 67.5 796.44 m 67.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 58.56 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 58.56 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 67.5 58.56 m 67.5 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 67.5 58.56 m 67.5 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 58.56 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 58.56 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 44.88 427.5 m 44.88 427.5 l 44.88 424.884 47.004 422.76 49.62 422.76 c 52.236 422.76 54.36 424.884 54.36 427.5 c 54.36 430.116 52.236 432.24 49.62 432.24 c 47.004 432.24 44.88 430.116 44.88 427.5 c h 40.68 427.5 m 58.56 427.5 l 49.62 436.44 m 49.62 418.56 l S /CS1 cs 0 scn 52.68 427.5 m 52.68 427.5 l 52.68 429.189 51.309 430.56 49.62 430.56 c 47.931 430.56 46.56 429.189 46.56 427.5 c 46.56 425.811 47.931 424.44 49.62 424.44 c 51.309 424.44 52.68 425.811 52.68 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 44.88 427.5 m 44.88 427.5 l 44.88 424.884 47.004 422.76 49.62 422.76 c 52.236 422.76 54.36 424.884 54.36 427.5 c 54.36 430.116 52.236 432.24 49.62 432.24 c 47.004 432.24 44.88 430.116 44.88 427.5 c h 40.68 427.5 m 58.56 427.5 l 49.62 436.44 m 49.62 418.56 l S 1 scn 52.56 427.5 m 52.56 427.5 l 52.56 429.123 51.243 430.44 49.62 430.44 c 47.997 430.44 46.68 429.123 46.68 427.5 c 46.68 425.877 47.997 424.56 49.62 424.56 c 51.243 424.56 52.56 425.877 52.56 427.5 c f 0 SCN 46.68 427.5 m 52.56 427.5 l 49.62 430.44 m 49.62 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 0 scn 322.56 805.38 m 322.56 805.38 l 322.56 807.069 321.189 808.44 319.5 808.44 c 317.811 808.44 316.44 807.069 316.44 805.38 c 316.44 803.691 317.811 802.32 319.5 802.32 c 321.189 802.32 322.56 803.691 322.56 805.38 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 1 scn 322.44 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 322.44 807.003 321.123 808.32 319.5 808.32 c 317.877 808.32 316.56 807.003 316.56 805.38 c 316.56 803.757 317.877 802.44 319.5 802.44 c 321.123 802.44 322.44 803.757 322.44 805.38 c f 0 SCN 316.56 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 319.5 808.32 m 319.5 802.44 l S 0.48 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 0 scn 592.44 427.5 m 592.44 427.5 l 592.44 429.189 591.069 430.56 589.38 430.56 c 587.691 430.56 586.32 429.189 586.32 427.5 c 586.32 425.811 587.691 424.44 589.38 424.44 c 591.069 424.44 592.44 425.811 592.44 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 1 scn 592.32 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 592.32 429.123 591.003 430.44 589.38 430.44 c 587.757 430.44 586.44 429.123 586.44 427.5 c 586.44 425.877 587.757 424.56 589.38 424.56 c 591.003 424.56 592.32 425.877 592.32 427.5 c f 0 SCN 586.44 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 589.38 430.44 m 589.38 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 0 scn 322.56 49.62 m 322.56 49.62 l 322.56 51.309 321.189 52.68 319.5 52.68 c 317.811 52.68 316.44 51.309 316.44 49.62 c 316.44 47.931 317.811 46.56 319.5 46.56 c 321.189 46.56 322.56 47.931 322.56 49.62 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 1 scn 322.44 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 322.44 51.243 321.123 52.56 319.5 52.56 c 317.877 52.56 316.56 51.243 316.56 49.62 c 316.56 47.997 317.877 46.68 319.5 46.68 c 321.123 46.68 322.44 47.997 322.44 49.62 c f 0 SCN 316.56 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 319.5 52.56 m 319.5 46.68 l S BT /F3 1 Tf 6 0 0 6 81.48 54.06 Tm 0 Tc (001-024.p65)Tj 51.33 0 TD 0 Tw (12/3/2002, 12:29 PM)Tj -30.33 0 TD (11)Tj ET 0.65 scn 81.48 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 1 scn 82.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.9 scn 96.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.8 scn 110.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.7 scn 124.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.6 scn 138.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 scn 152.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.4 scn 166.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.3 scn 180.3 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.2 scn 194.28 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.1 scn 208.26 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 scn 222.24 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.65 scn 403.56 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 0 0 1 0 k 404.52 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 0 0 k 418.5 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 0 0 k 432.48 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 1 0 0 k 446.46 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 1 0 k 460.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 1 0 k 474.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 1 k 488.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0.5 0 k 502.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0.5 0 0 k 516.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 0 0 0 k 530.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 0.5 k 544.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f endstream endobj 45 0 obj > /ExtGState > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 49 0 obj > stream BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 121.5 742.5 Tm 0 0 0 rg /GS3 gs 0 Tc (12)Tj /F5 1 Tf 13.522 0 TD 0.108 Tw (TURFGRASS BIOLOGY, GENETICS, AND BREEDING)Tj ET 0 0 0 RG 0 J 0 j 0.48 w 10 M []0 d /GS2 gs 1 i 121.5 737.22 m 517.5 737.22 l S BT /F9 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 121.5 715.5 Tm /GS3 gs 0.008 Tc 0.059 Tw (tures of numerous genotypes, seed production must be carefully controlled to pre-)Tj 0 -1.2 TD -0.045 Tw (serve the genotypic composition \(and phenotype\) of the cultivar. Synthetic cultivars)Tj T* 0.041 Tw (of perennial grasses can undergo rapid shifts in genotypic composition if seed pro-)Tj T* 0.005 Tc -0.071 Tw (duction occurs under unique, stressful, or poorly defined environmental and/or man-)Tj T* 0.009 Tc -0.048 Tw (agement conditions \(Evans et al., 1961; Crossley and Bradshaw, 1968\). Uncontrolled)Tj T* 0.075 Tw (genotypic changes to cultivars during seed production will result in unpredictable)Tj T* 0.008 Tc 0.091 Tw (changes to phenotype, compromising the reliability of products marketed to con-)Tj T* 0.01 Tc (sumers.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc -0.02 Tw (Grasses are characterized by allometric development\227organ size is directly propor-)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.008 Tw (tional to primary meristem size \(Sinnott, 1921; Grafius, 1978\). Thus, an inherent cor-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.021 Tw (relation exists between the size of all structures arising from a single meristem. As turf)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.032 Tw (breeders strive to find plants that can be mown closer to the ground and maintain a)Tj T* 0.067 Tw (dense, high-quality turf, the traits that contribute to such a phenotype probably re-)Tj T* -0.05 Tw (spond to selection in concert with each other. Finer \(narrower\) leaf blades, shorter leaf)Tj T* 0.135 Tw (blades, finer \(thinner\) stems, and shorter internodes are traits that contribute to a)Tj T* -0.012 Tw (dense and high-quality turf and, without coincidence, leaf blades, sheaths, and stems)Tj T* 0.014 Tw (all arise from a single apical meristem within a tiller. This basic physiological charac-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.118 Tw (teristic of grasses has probably contributed to the speed and efficiency with which)Tj T* -0.071 Tw (turfgrass breeders have made advancements by methodical selection \(see later chapters)Tj T* 0.012 Tw (in this book\).)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc -0.07 Tw (Grasses in general, and perennial turfgrasses in particular, are highly plastic, capable)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc 0.101 Tw (of responding to fluctuating environments and stresses by morphological or physi-)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.038 Tw (ological changes to their phenotype \(Bradshaw, 1965\). This )Tj /F15 1 Tf 27.624 0 TD -0.04 Tw (phenotypic plasticity)Tj /F9 1 Tf 8.814 0 TD -0.001 Tc [( allows)]TJ -36.438 -1.2 TD 0 Tc -0.029 Tw (turfgrass plants to survive under a wide range of environmental conditions, including)Tj T* -0.055 Tw (spatial and temporal environmental heterogeneity \(Bradley, 1982\). This phenomenon)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.063 Tw (is the basis of the successful turfgrass seed industry. Seed production of even the finest-)Tj T* -0.013 Tc -0.071 Tw (leaved, densest-tillering genotypes \(used for high-quality putting greens, bowling greens,)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.051 Tw (or cricket infields\) is successful because these plants respond to relatively noncompeti-)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.067 Tw (tive conditions by increasing their lateral spread, producing larger tillers with wider)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.058 Tw (and longer leaves, and producing elongated culms with large floral structures, i.e., a)Tj T* 0 Tc 0 Tw (phenotype completely unlike their turf phenotype. Phenotypic plasticity is under ge-)Tj T* -0.036 Tw (netic control and can be modified by selection \(Jain, 1978; Khan and Bradshaw, 1976;)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.106 Tw (Morishima and Oka, 1975\). Because breeders of all seeded turfgrasses must be con-)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.058 Tw (cerned with both turf quality traits and seed production, breeding for high levels of)Tj T* -0.011 Tc -0.071 Tw (phenotypic plasticity is an essential \(although probably unconscious\) objective of nearly)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.109 Tw (all turfgrass breeding programs. In this respect, turfgrasses are unique among culti-)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.015 Tw (vated crops\227cultivated crops generally have reduced phenotypic plasticity compared)Tj T* 0.002 Tw (to their wild progenitors \(Morishima and Oka, 1975\).)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc -0.014 Tw (As turfgrass breeding programs become more mature and more species advance be-)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0.091 Tw (yond the first two or three cycles of selection from \223wild\224 germ plasm, phenotypic)Tj T* -0.06 Tw (plasticity will probably continue to increase in turf cultivars. Plasticity profiles of plant)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.001 Tw (populations represent the accumulated historical integration of numerous evolution-)Tj T* 0.072 Tw (ary processes \(Counts, 1993; Marshall and Jain, 1968; Sultan, 1987\). Habitats domi-)Tj T* 0.085 Tw (nated by short-term environmental instability tend to be dominated by plants that)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.114 Tw (have high levels of phenotypic plasticity, i.e., numerous stress tolerances \(Duncan,)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.113 Tw (2000\). Contrasting and fluctuating environments tend to select plants that possess)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.021 Tw (multiple stress tolerances, increasing longevity of individual genotypes as well as the)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.045 Tw (turf sward. Selection strategies designed to broaden the adaptation of turfgrass culti-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.006 Tw (vars must incorporate screening against multiple stresses, a process which should for-)Tj T* 0.003 Tw (tify the plasticity profile of turfgrass cultivars \(Duncan, 2000\).)Tj ET /CS1 CS 0 SCN /GS2 gs 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 0 SCN 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52.68 427.5 l 52.68 429.189 51.309 430.56 49.62 430.56 c 47.931 430.56 46.56 429.189 46.56 427.5 c 46.56 425.811 47.931 424.44 49.62 424.44 c 51.309 424.44 52.68 425.811 52.68 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 44.88 427.5 m 44.88 427.5 l 44.88 424.884 47.004 422.76 49.62 422.76 c 52.236 422.76 54.36 424.884 54.36 427.5 c 54.36 430.116 52.236 432.24 49.62 432.24 c 47.004 432.24 44.88 430.116 44.88 427.5 c h 40.68 427.5 m 58.56 427.5 l 49.62 436.44 m 49.62 418.56 l S 1 scn 52.56 427.5 m 52.56 427.5 l 52.56 429.123 51.243 430.44 49.62 430.44 c 47.997 430.44 46.68 429.123 46.68 427.5 c 46.68 425.877 47.997 424.56 49.62 424.56 c 51.243 424.56 52.56 425.877 52.56 427.5 c f 0 SCN 46.68 427.5 m 52.56 427.5 l 49.62 430.44 m 49.62 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 0 scn 322.56 805.38 m 322.56 805.38 l 322.56 807.069 321.189 808.44 319.5 808.44 c 317.811 808.44 316.44 807.069 316.44 805.38 c 316.44 803.691 317.811 802.32 319.5 802.32 c 321.189 802.32 322.56 803.691 322.56 805.38 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 1 scn 322.44 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 322.44 807.003 321.123 808.32 319.5 808.32 c 317.877 808.32 316.56 807.003 316.56 805.38 c 316.56 803.757 317.877 802.44 319.5 802.44 c 321.123 802.44 322.44 803.757 322.44 805.38 c f 0 SCN 316.56 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 319.5 808.32 m 319.5 802.44 l S 0.48 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 0 scn 592.44 427.5 m 592.44 427.5 l 592.44 429.189 591.069 430.56 589.38 430.56 c 587.691 430.56 586.32 429.189 586.32 427.5 c 586.32 425.811 587.691 424.44 589.38 424.44 c 591.069 424.44 592.44 425.811 592.44 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 1 scn 592.32 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 592.32 429.123 591.003 430.44 589.38 430.44 c 587.757 430.44 586.44 429.123 586.44 427.5 c 586.44 425.877 587.757 424.56 589.38 424.56 c 591.003 424.56 592.32 425.877 592.32 427.5 c f 0 SCN 586.44 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 589.38 430.44 m 589.38 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 0 scn 322.56 49.62 m 322.56 49.62 l 322.56 51.309 321.189 52.68 319.5 52.68 c 317.811 52.68 316.44 51.309 316.44 49.62 c 316.44 47.931 317.811 46.56 319.5 46.56 c 321.189 46.56 322.56 47.931 322.56 49.62 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 1 scn 322.44 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 322.44 51.243 321.123 52.56 319.5 52.56 c 317.877 52.56 316.56 51.243 316.56 49.62 c 316.56 47.997 317.877 46.68 319.5 46.68 c 321.123 46.68 322.44 47.997 322.44 49.62 c f 0 SCN 316.56 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 319.5 52.56 m 319.5 46.68 l S BT /F3 1 Tf 6 0 0 6 81.48 54.06 Tm 0 Tc (001-024.p65)Tj 51.33 0 TD 0 Tw (12/3/2002, 12:29 PM)Tj -30.33 0 TD (12)Tj ET 0.65 scn 81.48 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 1 scn 82.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.9 scn 96.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.8 scn 110.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.7 scn 124.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.6 scn 138.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 scn 152.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.4 scn 166.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.3 scn 180.3 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.2 scn 194.28 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.1 scn 208.26 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 scn 222.24 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.65 scn 403.56 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 0 0 1 0 k 404.52 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 0 0 k 418.5 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 0 0 k 432.48 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 1 0 0 k 446.46 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 1 0 k 460.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 1 0 k 474.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 1 k 488.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0.5 0 k 502.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0.5 0 0 k 516.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 0 0 0 k 530.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 0.5 k 544.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f endstream endobj 50 0 obj > /ExtGState > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 52 0 obj > stream BT /F5 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 271.32 742.5 Tm 0 0 0 rg /GS3 gs 0 Tc 0.119 Tw [(ORIGINS OF TURFGRASSES)]TJ /F7 1 Tf 29.625 0 TD (13)Tj ET 0 0 0 RG 0 J 0 j 0.48 w 10 M []0 d /GS2 gs 1 i 121.5 737.22 m 517.5 737.22 l S BT 10 0 0 10 121.5 715.5 Tm /GS3 gs 0 Tw (Recurrent Selection)Tj /F9 1 Tf 1.2 -1.8 TD 0.015 Tw (Most new turfgrass cultivars are created by phenotypic and/or genotypic recurrent)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0.009 Tw [(selection. Phenotypic recurrent selection involves an evaluation of a large number of)]TJ T* 0.046 Tw (individual plants or replicated clones, followed by selection and intercrossing of the)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.019 Tw (best individuals. Selection is based on plant or clone performance per se, i.e., pheno-)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.04 Tw (type. Genotypic recurrent selection requires an additional step\227plants or clones to be)Tj T* -0.058 Tw (evaluated are put into a crossing block and seed is produced on each individual, result-)Tj T* -0.05 Tw (ing in a half-sib \(polycross if the parents are replicated and randomized\) family of seed)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.028 Tw (produced from each plant. Families can be tested in turf plots followed by selection of)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.097 Tw (the best families. Intercrossing, to complete the cycle, is conducted either with the)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.088 Tw (original parents of the best families \(among-family selection\) or the phenotypically)Tj T* 0.041 Tw (best plants dug from each of the best families \(among- and within-family selection\).)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.002 Tw (Numerous recurrent selection schemes have been described by Hallauer and Miranda)Tj T* (\(1981\).)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc -0.016 Tw (In many species, five or six cycles of recurrent selection have been completed since)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.014 Tw [(the original collections were made from old turf areas. This level of activity and num-)]TJ T* 0.006 Tw (ber of cycles exceeds that of all perennial forage grasses, with the exception of peren-)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.028 Tw (nial and Italian ryegrasses \(Casler et al., 1996\). Synthetic cultivars are created either as)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.078 Tw (a composite of polycross families from a selection cycle or as a polycross of parents)Tj T* -0.009 Tc -0.071 Tw (deriving from various recurrent selection programs that may be in different germ plasms)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.065 Tw (and cycles of selection. Apomictic and vegetatively propagated cultivars are also de-)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.02 Tw (rived by recurrent selection, although the breeder need only identify a single superior)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.044 Tw (genotype to represent a cycle of selection with a new cultivar. New cycles of apomictic)Tj T* -0.022 Tw (or vegetatively propaged cultivars are typically initiated from a small number of hand)Tj T* 0 Tc (crosses.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc 0.038 Tw (The progress made in improving perennial forage crops by recurrent selection has)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.05 Tw (lagged severely behind that for annual grain crops \(Humphreys, 1999\). For turfgrasses,)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.046 Tw (it is difficult to measure progress using the traditional quantitative scale that expresses)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.032 Tw (genetic gain as a percentage of the previous cycle or the original population. Turfgrass)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.014 Tw (cultivars are generally ranked on the basis of the semiquantitative rating scale termed)Tj /F15 1 Tf T* -0.035 Tw (turf quality)Tj /F9 1 Tf 4.842 0 TD -0.001 Tc -0.036 Tw [( \(1 to 9, where 9 is best and 6 is considered adequate\). The performance of a)]TJ -4.842 -1.2 TD 0 Tc 0.034 Tw (given cultivar is always evaluated in relation to others in a given trial and the rating)Tj T* 0.098 Tw (scale is not linear, i.e., the difference between 2 and 3 may bear no relation to the)Tj T* -0.018 Tw (difference between 7 and 8. Thus, the incremental numerical \(and surely the percent-)Tj T* 0.036 Tw (age\) increase in turf quality of one cultivar relative to another is subjective and arbi-)Tj T* 0.002 Tc 0.143 Tw (trary. Perhaps the best measure of breeding progress is to track the ranking of an)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.077 Tw (individual cultivar in successive trials, often planted 3 or 4 years apart, a numerical)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.035 Tw (value that often shows dramatic changes \(e.g., Meyer and Watkins, Chapter 8\). If crop)Tj T* 0.06 Tw (cultivars were evaluated in this manner, the progress made by turfgrass breeders be-)Tj T* 0.044 Tw (tween 1960 and 2000, relative to grain, forage, fruit, and fiber crops, would be com-)Tj T* -0.033 Tw (paratively astounding. Furthermore, much of this progress has been achieved without)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.027 Tw (the serious and severe reductions in genetic variation and consequential increases in)Tj T* -0.004 Tw (genetic vulnerability that have occurred in many agronomic and horticultural crops.)Tj /F7 1 Tf 0 -3 TD 0.053 Tw (Form vs. Function of Turfgrasses)Tj /F9 1 Tf 1.2 -1.8 TD -0.004 Tc 0.084 Tw (Form and function of turfgrasses are not mutually exclusive. Historically, govern-)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0.01 Tc 0.143 Tw (mental testing agencies have largely emphasized visual appearance of turfgrasses)Tj T* -0.004 Tc 0.021 Tw (\(Shildrick, 1980; Voigt, 1996\). Numerous visual traits are typically combined into the)Tj T* -0.025 Tw (single variable )Tj /F15 1 Tf 6.846 0 TD -0.003 Tc -0.03 Tw (turf quality)Tj /F9 1 Tf 4.812 0 TD -0.028 Tw (. Turf quality generally combines all important traits, includ-)Tj -11.658 -1.2 TD -0.056 Tw (ing color, texture, density, and pest resistance. 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BIOLOGY, GENETICS, AND BREEDING)Tj ET 0 0 0 RG 0 J 0 j 0.48 w 10 M []0 d /GS2 gs 1 i 121.5 737.22 m 517.5 737.22 l S BT /F9 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 121.5 715.5 Tm /GS3 gs -0.004 Tc 0.046 Tw (stress tolerances insofar as stresses are manifested at trial sites. However, documenta-)Tj 0 -1.2 TD -0.01 Tw (tion of stress levels is not specifically required and is often lacking \(Voigt, 1996\). Win-)Tj T* -0.003 Tc 0.13 Tw (ners and losers of national trials are largely based on turf quality, fueling breeder\222s)Tj T* -0.004 Tc 0 Tw (efforts to develop turfgrass cultivars with better quality.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc 0.096 Tw (Huge gains have been made to improve the visual appearance of turfgrasses, but)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0.107 Tw (more effort is required to make them more functional. Turfgrass breeders have un-)Tj T* 0.095 Tw (doubtedly made progress toward improved functionality \(e.g., environmental stress)Tj T* 0.125 Tw (tolerances, pest resistances, improved longevity, and wear tolerance\), but these are)Tj T* -0.006 Tw (poorly documented at best. Conversely, hundreds of turfgrass cultivars have been de-)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.053 Tw (veloped and released with little thought or effort toward environmental stress toler-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.036 Tw (ances, except what may naturally occur in breeder\222s test plots. Nevertheless, it is likely)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.012 Tw (that considerable genetic variation exists for many important stress tolerances within)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.091 Tw (improved turfgrass germ plasm pools. Natural variability for tolerance to numerous)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.025 Tw (biotic and abiotic stresses, described earlier in this chapter, likely exists within many)Tj T* -0.013 Tc -0.071 Tw (turfgrass germ plasm pools. Discovery, characterization, and use of this variability should)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.044 Tw (be a relatively simple matter to redesign breeding programs around functional stress)Tj T* 0.009 Tw (tolerance tests, combined with evaluation of elite germ plasm. In some cases, natural)Tj T* 0.008 Tw (stress tolerances may have been lost due to drift \(random loss of alleles\) during selec-)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.005 Tw (tion. These can be recovered in crosses of elite, high-quality genotypes with nonelite,)Tj T* 0 Tw (stress-tolerant genotypes.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD -0.043 Tw (The emphasis on national trials with broad regional adaptations, particularly in the)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0.096 Tw (United States where a trial may be planted in 20 to 30 highly contrasting environ-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.07 Tw (ments, limits the type of data that can be collected. Quantification of various stress)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.014 Tw (tolerances and pest resistances is expensive and prohibitive, particularly on trials that)Tj T* 0.005 Tw (are beginning to approach 200 entries. Environmental stresses such as drought, heat,)Tj T* -0.033 Tw (and cold, must be evaluated under highly controlled conditions in which the number)Tj T* 0.048 Tw (of entries may be highly restricted and little or no environmental replication is pos-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.072 Tw (sible. Furthermore, some of the leading scientific experts in testing turfgrasses for stress)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.042 Tw (tolerances are turfgrass breeders themselves, creating the appearance and potential for)Tj T* 0.106 Tw (conflict-of-interest, which should be avoided \(Voigt, 1996\). The gains made in turf)Tj T* -0.005 Tw (quality, particularly in the mainstream species, will soon begin to plateau as new cul-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.139 Tw (tivars approach levels of color, tiller density, leaf size, and uniformity that will be)Tj T* 0.039 Tw (difficult to surpass. To survive in this highly competitive industry, turfgrass breeders)Tj T* -0.052 Tw (must adapt to improve functionality of these high quality turfgrasses. Development of)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.025 Tw (standards, testing procedures, and evaluation criteria related to important stress toler-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.142 Tw (ances, to be used by governmental testing agencies, will provide a mechanism for)Tj T* -0.011 Tw (turfgrass breeders to develop sound marketing strategies for more functional turfgrass)Tj T* 0.103 Tw [(cultivars. Standard tests to characterize pest resistance of alfalfa \()]TJ /F15 1 Tf 30.948 0 TD 0 Tc 0.105 Tw (Medicago sativa)Tj /F9 1 Tf 7.05 0 TD -0.001 Tc [( L.\))]TJ -37.998 -1.2 TD -0.022 Tw (cultivars were highly successful, resulting in a high level of participation and uniform)Tj T* 0.001 Tw (descriptions of cultivar resistance levels to multiple pests \(Barnes et al., 1974\).)Tj /F7 1 Tf 0 -3 TD 0 Tc 0.01 Tw (New Technologies)Tj /F9 1 Tf 1.2 -1.8 TD -0.006 Tc -0.071 Tw (The technology exists to make pinpoint genetic changes to turfgrasses, using marker-)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.002 Tc (assisted selection or transgenic technology \(Sticklen and Kenna, 1998\). Marker-assisted)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.042 Tw (selection \(MAS\) for quantitative traits consists of \(1\) identifying putative loci for the)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.014 Tw (trait \(quantitative trait loci, QTL\) by correlating phenotypic data to markers within a)Tj T* -0.003 Tw (linkage map, \(2\) determining which putative QTL explain the largest amount of phe-)Tj T* (notypic variance and have the desired effect \(positive or negative\) on the phenotypic)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.109 Tw (trait, and \(3\) selecting plants on the basis of the molecular marker\(s\) linked to the)Tj ET /CS1 CS 0 SCN /GS2 gs 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 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587.757 430.44 586.44 429.123 586.44 427.5 c 586.44 425.877 587.757 424.56 589.38 424.56 c 591.003 424.56 592.32 425.877 592.32 427.5 c f 0 SCN 586.44 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 589.38 430.44 m 589.38 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 0 scn 322.56 49.62 m 322.56 49.62 l 322.56 51.309 321.189 52.68 319.5 52.68 c 317.811 52.68 316.44 51.309 316.44 49.62 c 316.44 47.931 317.811 46.56 319.5 46.56 c 321.189 46.56 322.56 47.931 322.56 49.62 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 1 scn 322.44 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 322.44 51.243 321.123 52.56 319.5 52.56 c 317.877 52.56 316.56 51.243 316.56 49.62 c 316.56 47.997 317.877 46.68 319.5 46.68 c 321.123 46.68 322.44 47.997 322.44 49.62 c f 0 SCN 316.56 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 319.5 52.56 m 319.5 46.68 l S BT /F3 1 Tf 6 0 0 6 81.48 54.06 Tm 0 Tc (001-024.p65)Tj 51.33 0 TD 0 Tw (12/3/2002, 12:29 PM)Tj -30.33 0 TD (14)Tj ET 0.65 scn 81.48 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 1 scn 82.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.9 scn 96.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.8 scn 110.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.7 scn 124.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.6 scn 138.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 scn 152.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.4 scn 166.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.3 scn 180.3 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.2 scn 194.28 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.1 scn 208.26 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 scn 222.24 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.65 scn 403.56 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 0 0 1 0 k 404.52 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 0 0 k 418.5 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 0 0 k 432.48 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 1 0 0 k 446.46 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 1 0 k 460.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 1 0 k 474.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 1 k 488.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0.5 0 k 502.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0.5 0 0 k 516.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 0 0 0 k 530.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 0.5 k 544.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f endstream endobj 56 0 obj > /ExtGState > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 58 0 obj > stream BT /F5 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 271.32 742.5 Tm 0 0 0 rg /GS3 gs 0 Tc 0.119 Tw [(ORIGINS OF TURFGRASSES)]TJ /F7 1 Tf 29.625 0 TD (15)Tj ET 0 0 0 RG 0 J 0 j 0.48 w 10 M []0 d /GS2 gs 1 i 121.5 737.22 m 517.5 737.22 l S BT /F9 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 121.5 715.5 Tm /GS3 gs 0.062 Tw [(putative QTL \(Dudley, 1993\). While the concept of MAS dates back to 1967 \(Smith,)]TJ 0 -1.2 TD 0 Tw (1967\), it has received very little attention in turfgrasses.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc -0.016 Tw (Gresshoff et al. \(1998\) describe turfgrass researchers as being in a \223catch-up\224 mode.)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.039 Tw (Because many turfgrasses are complex polyploids with genomes that derive from mul-)Tj T* -0.049 Tw (tiple progenitors or with polysomic inheritance, development of reliable linkage maps)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.068 Tw (in many turfgrasses is more complicated and expensive than in diploids. Part of the lag)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.047 Tw (observed in use of molecular markers in turfgrass selection strategies may also relate to)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.027 Tw (the \223yield lag\224 phenomenon in crop plants. As limited resources are devoted to devel-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.036 Tw (opment of new selection strategies, the loss of resources devoted to ongoing cultivar)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.016 Tw (development reduces the rate of gain and the frequency with which new cultivars are)Tj T* 0.043 Tw (produced. Organizations dependent on cultivar royalties for their economic survival)Tj T* -0.056 Tw (cannot devote the resources necessary to build efficient, repeatable, and broadly appli-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.044 Tw (cable MAS systems. Marker-assisted selection will most likely become useful in some)Tj T* 0.003 Tw (turfgrass breeding programs, but it may not be widely available to all breeders.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc 0.022 Tw (Molecular marker technology has resulted in several important scientific advance-)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0.074 Tw (ments toward understanding the genetics and genomics of turfgrasses \(Sticklen and)Tj T* 0.027 Tw (Kenna, 1998\). Molecular markers have served to identify genetic similarities and dis-)Tj T* 0.141 Tw (similarities among cultivars, illustrating patterns of genetic variation that relate to)Tj T* 0.011 Tw (geographic and climatic origin, breeding history, germ plasm collection and explora-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.039 Tw (tion, and phenotype. Markers have also been used to help identify modes of genetic)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.03 Tw (inheritance, information crucial to the plant breeder, but often difficult to identify by)Tj T* -0.004 Tc -0.071 Tw (conventional means. Molecular markers have the potential as tools to identify turfgrass)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.074 Tw (cultivars from unknown seed lots or herbage, but this technology is much closer to)Tj T* -0.016 Tc -0.071 Tw (reality for species which are characterized by homogeneous cultivars \(Barker and Warnke,)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.039 Tw (2001; Huff, 1998, 2001\). A small number of molecular markers can be used to deter-)Tj T* -0.017 Tw (mine if collections of Kentucky bluegrass represent \223new\224 genotypes or existing culti-)Tj T* 0.096 Tw (vars \(D.R. Huff, 1998, personal communication\). This technology saves the breeder)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.01 Tw (from evaluating and possibly selecting a genotype that has already been released as a)Tj T* -0.002 Tc (cultivar.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc -0.048 Tw (Transgenic technology allows specific blocks of chromosomes, the functional genes)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0.137 Tw (themselves, to be transferred among species or among genotypes within a species.)Tj T* -0.011 Tc -0.071 Tw (While there are many potential ecological and sociological arguments against transgenic)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.028 Tw (technology, one argument for this technology is too seldom stated. Transgenic tech-)Tj T* -0.061 Tw (nology will allow turfgrass breeders greater ability to focus on functionally meaningful)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.02 Tw (traits, such as edaphic and climatic stress tolerances, that will improve the adaptation)Tj T* -0.002 Tw (and persistence of a turf cultivar. Transgenic technology is a reality in turfgrasses and)Tj T* -0.008 Tc -0.071 Tw (it will soon become commercialized as it has in numerous grain and food crops. Duncan)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.044 Tw (and Carrow \(1999, 2001\) have provided thorough reviews of potential physiological)Tj T* -0.009 Tw (mechanisms and candidate genes that may be useful in transforming turfgrasses with)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.143 Tw (improved stress tolerances. These authors emphasize the importance of improving)Tj T* 0.026 Tw (root plasticity as a prerequisite to improving stress tolerance of perennial turfgrasses.)Tj T* 0.01 Tw (Care must be taken by breeders to utilize different genes and mechanisms across spe-)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.022 Tw (cies and cultivars within species, avoiding the potential for genetic vulnerability asso-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.091 Tw (ciated with a small number of loci present in a large proportion of cultivated germ)Tj T* 0 Tc (plasm.)Tj /F7 1 Tf 0 -3 TD -0.001 Tc 0.062 Tw (NEW GERM PLASM SOURCES)Tj 0 -1.8 TD 0 Tc 0.015 Tw (Interspecific Hybrids)Tj /F9 1 Tf 1.2 -1.8 TD -0.001 Tc -0.045 Tw (Numerous turfgrass cultivars are a direct or indirect result of interspecific hybridiza-)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0.003 Tc 0.143 Tw (tions. Interspecific and intergeneric hybrids occur naturally in many tribes of the)Tj ET /CS1 CS 0 SCN /GS2 gs 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 580.44 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 580.44 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 58.56 m 571.5 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 58.56 m 571.5 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 580.44 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 580.44 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 67.5 796.44 m 67.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 67.5 796.44 m 67.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 58.56 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 58.56 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 67.5 58.56 m 67.5 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 67.5 58.56 m 67.5 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 58.56 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 58.56 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 44.88 427.5 m 44.88 427.5 l 44.88 424.884 47.004 422.76 49.62 422.76 c 52.236 422.76 54.36 424.884 54.36 427.5 c 54.36 430.116 52.236 432.24 49.62 432.24 c 47.004 432.24 44.88 430.116 44.88 427.5 c h 40.68 427.5 m 58.56 427.5 l 49.62 436.44 m 49.62 418.56 l S /CS1 cs 0 scn 52.68 427.5 m 52.68 427.5 l 52.68 429.189 51.309 430.56 49.62 430.56 c 47.931 430.56 46.56 429.189 46.56 427.5 c 46.56 425.811 47.931 424.44 49.62 424.44 c 51.309 424.44 52.68 425.811 52.68 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 44.88 427.5 m 44.88 427.5 l 44.88 424.884 47.004 422.76 49.62 422.76 c 52.236 422.76 54.36 424.884 54.36 427.5 c 54.36 430.116 52.236 432.24 49.62 432.24 c 47.004 432.24 44.88 430.116 44.88 427.5 c h 40.68 427.5 m 58.56 427.5 l 49.62 436.44 m 49.62 418.56 l S 1 scn 52.56 427.5 m 52.56 427.5 l 52.56 429.123 51.243 430.44 49.62 430.44 c 47.997 430.44 46.68 429.123 46.68 427.5 c 46.68 425.877 47.997 424.56 49.62 424.56 c 51.243 424.56 52.56 425.877 52.56 427.5 c f 0 SCN 46.68 427.5 m 52.56 427.5 l 49.62 430.44 m 49.62 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 0 scn 322.56 805.38 m 322.56 805.38 l 322.56 807.069 321.189 808.44 319.5 808.44 c 317.811 808.44 316.44 807.069 316.44 805.38 c 316.44 803.691 317.811 802.32 319.5 802.32 c 321.189 802.32 322.56 803.691 322.56 805.38 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 1 scn 322.44 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 322.44 807.003 321.123 808.32 319.5 808.32 c 317.877 808.32 316.56 807.003 316.56 805.38 c 316.56 803.757 317.877 802.44 319.5 802.44 c 321.123 802.44 322.44 803.757 322.44 805.38 c f 0 SCN 316.56 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 319.5 808.32 m 319.5 802.44 l S 0.48 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 0 scn 592.44 427.5 m 592.44 427.5 l 592.44 429.189 591.069 430.56 589.38 430.56 c 587.691 430.56 586.32 429.189 586.32 427.5 c 586.32 425.811 587.691 424.44 589.38 424.44 c 591.069 424.44 592.44 425.811 592.44 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 1 scn 592.32 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 592.32 429.123 591.003 430.44 589.38 430.44 c 587.757 430.44 586.44 429.123 586.44 427.5 c 586.44 425.877 587.757 424.56 589.38 424.56 c 591.003 424.56 592.32 425.877 592.32 427.5 c f 0 SCN 586.44 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 589.38 430.44 m 589.38 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 0 scn 322.56 49.62 m 322.56 49.62 l 322.56 51.309 321.189 52.68 319.5 52.68 c 317.811 52.68 316.44 51.309 316.44 49.62 c 316.44 47.931 317.811 46.56 319.5 46.56 c 321.189 46.56 322.56 47.931 322.56 49.62 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 1 scn 322.44 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 322.44 51.243 321.123 52.56 319.5 52.56 c 317.877 52.56 316.56 51.243 316.56 49.62 c 316.56 47.997 317.877 46.68 319.5 46.68 c 321.123 46.68 322.44 47.997 322.44 49.62 c f 0 SCN 316.56 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 319.5 52.56 m 319.5 46.68 l S BT /F3 1 Tf 6 0 0 6 81.48 54.06 Tm 0 Tc (001-024.p65)Tj 51.33 0 TD 0 Tw (12/3/2002, 12:29 PM)Tj -30.33 0 TD (15)Tj ET 0.65 scn 81.48 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 1 scn 82.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.9 scn 96.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.8 scn 110.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.7 scn 124.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.6 scn 138.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 scn 152.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.4 scn 166.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.3 scn 180.3 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.2 scn 194.28 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.1 scn 208.26 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 scn 222.24 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.65 scn 403.56 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 0 0 1 0 k 404.52 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 0 0 k 418.5 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 0 0 k 432.48 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 1 0 0 k 446.46 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 1 0 k 460.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 1 0 k 474.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 1 k 488.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0.5 0 k 502.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0.5 0 0 k 516.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 0 0 0 k 530.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 0.5 k 544.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f endstream endobj 59 0 obj > /ExtGState > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 61 0 obj > stream BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 121.5 742.5 Tm 0 0 0 rg /GS3 gs 0 Tc (16)Tj /F5 1 Tf 13.522 0 TD 0.108 Tw (TURFGRASS BIOLOGY, GENETICS, AND BREEDING)Tj ET 0 0 0 RG 0 J 0 j 0.48 w 10 M []0 d /GS2 gs 1 i 121.5 737.22 m 517.5 737.22 l S BT /F9 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 121.5 715.5 Tm /GS3 gs -0.001 Tc 0.124 Tw (Poaceae. Most polyploid turfgrasses evolved from natural interspecific hybrids into)Tj 0 -1.2 TD 0.004 Tc 0.142 Tw (stable amphidiploids \(allopolyploids\). These plants carry the diploid chromosome)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.021 Tw (number from both parent genomes, resulting from spontaneous doubling of chromo-)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.013 Tw (somes in the progeny of an \(often\) unstable and infertile first-generation hybrid. Am-)Tj T* 0.142 Tw (phidiploids often possess vigor, competitive ability, and longevity surpassing their)Tj T* 0.007 Tw (parents \(Rieger et al., 1991\). The multiple-genome characteristic of amphidiploids re-)Tj T* -0.072 Tw (sults in genetic redundancy\227multiple copies of functional genes\227which may provide)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.025 Tw (these species with superior phenotypic plasticity. Taxonomists and agronomists agree)Tj T* -0.002 Tc -0.071 Tw (that amphidiploidy is a mechanism of speciation and recognize amphidiploids as sepa-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.03 Tw (rate species from their parents. Examples of amphidiploids include several bluegrasses)Tj T* (\()Tj /F15 1 Tf 0.348 0 TD 0.001 Tc (Poa)Tj /F9 1 Tf 1.614 0 TD -0.002 Tc -0.032 Tw [( spp.\), fescues \()]TJ /F15 1 Tf 6.882 0 TD 0 Tc (Festuca)Tj /F9 1 Tf 3.216 0 TD -0.001 Tc -0.034 Tw [( spp.\), and bentgrasses \()]TJ /F15 1 Tf 10.914 0 TD 0 Tc (Agrostis)Tj /F9 1 Tf 3.444 0 TD -0.001 Tc -0.033 Tw [( spp.\). Many naturalized col-)]TJ -26.418 -1.2 TD -0.07 Tw (lections of )Tj /F15 1 Tf 4.992 0 TD 0 Tc (Zoysia)Tj /F9 1 Tf 2.868 0 TD [( appear to represent natural interspecific hybrids within )]TJ /F15 1 Tf 25.71 0 TD (Zoysia)Tj /F9 1 Tf 2.868 0 TD -0.001 Tc -0.075 Tw (. These)Tj -36.438 -1.2 TD -0.063 Tw (plants are classified as hybrids because they possess half the chromosome complement)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.054 Tw (of their parents and represent intermediate types relative to their parents \(Engelke and)Tj T* 0.002 Tw (Anderson, Chapter 17\).)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD -0.037 Tw (Interspecific and intergeneric hybrids have also been created in numerous breeding)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.013 Tc -0.071 Tw (programs and have contributed to numerous turfgrass cultivars. Perhaps the most promi-)Tj T* 0.023 Tc 0.143 Tw (nent of these is in bermudagrass, )Tj /F15 1 Tf 17.274 0 TD 0.145 Tw (Cynodon dactylon)Tj /F9 1 Tf 8.364 0 TD 0.142 Tw [( \(L.\) Pers. var. )]TJ /F15 1 Tf 7.56 0 TD 0.025 Tc (dactylon)Tj /F9 1 Tf 3.876 0 TD 0.027 Tc [( x )]TJ /F15 1 Tf 1.512 0 TD 0.023 Tc (C.)Tj -38.586 -1.2 TD 0.02 Tc (transvaalensis)Tj /F9 1 Tf 6.438 0 TD 0.019 Tc 0.143 Tw [( Burtt-Davy. Crosses between tetraploid )]TJ /F15 1 Tf 20.178 0 TD 0.02 Tc 0.145 Tw (C. dactylon)Tj /F9 1 Tf 5.322 0 TD 0.143 Tw [( and diploid )]TJ /F15 1 Tf 6.654 0 TD 0.017 Tc (C.)Tj -38.592 -1.2 TD 0 Tc (transvaalensis)Tj /F9 1 Tf 6.168 0 TD -0.001 Tc -0.05 Tw [( produce sterile triploid hybrids which can be vegetatively propagated by)]TJ -6.168 -1.2 TD 0.018 Tc 0.143 Tw (stolons \(Taliaferro, Chapter 15; Busey, 1989\). Numerous sterile, triploid, hybrid)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.003 Tw (bermudagrass cultivars have been developed for use in the golf industry. An interspe-)Tj T* 0.107 Tw (cific hybrid between Kentucky bluegrass and Texas bluegrass \()Tj /F15 1 Tf 29.658 0 TD 0.001 Tc 0.105 Tw (Poa arachnifera)Tj /F9 1 Tf 6.942 0 TD -0.002 Tc 0.11 Tw [( Torr.\))]TJ -36.6 -1.2 TD 0 Tc -0.058 Tw (shows potential for extending the adaptation range of both cool-season grasses, which)Tj T* 0.085 Tw (have dramatically different optimal temperature requirements \(Read and Anderson,)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.142 Tw (Chapter 5\). Numerous interspecific hybrids are possible within )Tj /F15 1 Tf 30.588 0 TD 0 Tc (Agrostis)Tj /F9 1 Tf 3.438 0 TD [( \(Brede and)]TJ -34.026 -1.2 TD 0.005 Tw (Sellmann, Chapter 13\).)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc 0.1 Tw (Surprisingly, one of the most important interspecific hybrid groups among cool-)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.05 Tw (season forage grasses, fescue-ryegrass hybrids, has not been utilized for turf. Tall fescue)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.071 Tw (and meadow fescue \()Tj /F15 1 Tf 9.972 0 TD 0.07 Tw (Festuca pratensis)Tj /F9 1 Tf 7.416 0 TD 0.072 Tw [( Huds.\) will hybridize with perennial or Italian)]TJ -17.388 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc 0.085 Tw (ryegrass to produce stable amphiploids after chromosome doubling. Fescue-ryegrass)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.143 Tw (amphiploids can combine the rapid establishment of the ryegrass parent with the)Tj T* -0.02 Tw (drought and cold tolerance of the fescue parent \(Thomas and Humphreys, 1991\). Fes-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.098 Tw (cue-ryegrass hybrids have also been useful in backcrossing programs to introgress a)Tj T* 0.097 Tw (limited number of genes from one genus into the other, such as drought tolerance)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.094 Tw (from tall fescue into Italian ryegrass \(Humphreys and Pasakinskiene, 1996\). Fescue-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.038 Tw (ryegrass hybrids represent a vast untapped resource that could be used to combine the)Tj T* -0.028 Tw (favorable traits of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass. To date, introgression of the stay-)Tj T* 0.021 Tw (green gene from meadow fescue into turf-type perennial ryegrass represents the only)Tj T* 0.004 Tw (example of fescue-ryegrass hybridizations used for turf \(Thorogood, Chapter 7\).)Tj /F5 1 Tf 0 -3 TD 0.026 Tc 0.01 Tw (Novel Species)Tj /F9 1 Tf 1.2 -1.8 TD 0 Tc 0.094 Tw (The identification and development of novel turfgrass species is an ongoing and)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc 0.034 Tw (evolutionary process in itself. As discussed throughout this book, all turfgrasses were)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.117 Tw (derived from \223wild\224 species that dominated natural meadows and pastures, largely)Tj T* 0.086 Tw (forage and pasture grasses that humans recognized as having multiple cultural pur-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.021 Tw (poses. Natural variation is often sufficient for humans to recognize the turf potential)Tj T* -0.015 Tw (of a species. A single cycle of selection is often sufficient to create a reasonably homo-)Tj T* 0.053 Tw (geneous population that has commercial potential for particular turf uses. However,)Tj T* 0.06 Tw (numerous cycles of selection or more sophisticated techniques are often required to)Tj ET /CS1 CS 0 SCN /GS2 gs 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 580.44 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 580.44 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 58.56 m 571.5 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 58.56 m 571.5 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 580.44 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 580.44 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 67.5 796.44 m 67.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 67.5 796.44 m 67.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 58.56 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 58.56 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 67.5 58.56 m 67.5 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 67.5 58.56 m 67.5 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 58.56 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 58.56 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 44.88 427.5 m 44.88 427.5 l 44.88 424.884 47.004 422.76 49.62 422.76 c 52.236 422.76 54.36 424.884 54.36 427.5 c 54.36 430.116 52.236 432.24 49.62 432.24 c 47.004 432.24 44.88 430.116 44.88 427.5 c h 40.68 427.5 m 58.56 427.5 l 49.62 436.44 m 49.62 418.56 l S /CS1 cs 0 scn 52.68 427.5 m 52.68 427.5 l 52.68 429.189 51.309 430.56 49.62 430.56 c 47.931 430.56 46.56 429.189 46.56 427.5 c 46.56 425.811 47.931 424.44 49.62 424.44 c 51.309 424.44 52.68 425.811 52.68 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 44.88 427.5 m 44.88 427.5 l 44.88 424.884 47.004 422.76 49.62 422.76 c 52.236 422.76 54.36 424.884 54.36 427.5 c 54.36 430.116 52.236 432.24 49.62 432.24 c 47.004 432.24 44.88 430.116 44.88 427.5 c h 40.68 427.5 m 58.56 427.5 l 49.62 436.44 m 49.62 418.56 l S 1 scn 52.56 427.5 m 52.56 427.5 l 52.56 429.123 51.243 430.44 49.62 430.44 c 47.997 430.44 46.68 429.123 46.68 427.5 c 46.68 425.877 47.997 424.56 49.62 424.56 c 51.243 424.56 52.56 425.877 52.56 427.5 c f 0 SCN 46.68 427.5 m 52.56 427.5 l 49.62 430.44 m 49.62 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 0 scn 322.56 805.38 m 322.56 805.38 l 322.56 807.069 321.189 808.44 319.5 808.44 c 317.811 808.44 316.44 807.069 316.44 805.38 c 316.44 803.691 317.811 802.32 319.5 802.32 c 321.189 802.32 322.56 803.691 322.56 805.38 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 1 scn 322.44 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 322.44 807.003 321.123 808.32 319.5 808.32 c 317.877 808.32 316.56 807.003 316.56 805.38 c 316.56 803.757 317.877 802.44 319.5 802.44 c 321.123 802.44 322.44 803.757 322.44 805.38 c f 0 SCN 316.56 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 319.5 808.32 m 319.5 802.44 l S 0.48 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 0 scn 592.44 427.5 m 592.44 427.5 l 592.44 429.189 591.069 430.56 589.38 430.56 c 587.691 430.56 586.32 429.189 586.32 427.5 c 586.32 425.811 587.691 424.44 589.38 424.44 c 591.069 424.44 592.44 425.811 592.44 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 1 scn 592.32 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 592.32 429.123 591.003 430.44 589.38 430.44 c 587.757 430.44 586.44 429.123 586.44 427.5 c 586.44 425.877 587.757 424.56 589.38 424.56 c 591.003 424.56 592.32 425.877 592.32 427.5 c f 0 SCN 586.44 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 589.38 430.44 m 589.38 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 0 scn 322.56 49.62 m 322.56 49.62 l 322.56 51.309 321.189 52.68 319.5 52.68 c 317.811 52.68 316.44 51.309 316.44 49.62 c 316.44 47.931 317.811 46.56 319.5 46.56 c 321.189 46.56 322.56 47.931 322.56 49.62 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 1 scn 322.44 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 322.44 51.243 321.123 52.56 319.5 52.56 c 317.877 52.56 316.56 51.243 316.56 49.62 c 316.56 47.997 317.877 46.68 319.5 46.68 c 321.123 46.68 322.44 47.997 322.44 49.62 c f 0 SCN 316.56 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 319.5 52.56 m 319.5 46.68 l S BT /F3 1 Tf 6 0 0 6 81.48 54.06 Tm 0 Tc (001-024.p65)Tj 51.33 0 TD 0 Tw (12/3/2002, 12:29 PM)Tj -30.33 0 TD (16)Tj ET 0.65 scn 81.48 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 1 scn 82.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.9 scn 96.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.8 scn 110.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.7 scn 124.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.6 scn 138.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 scn 152.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.4 scn 166.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.3 scn 180.3 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.2 scn 194.28 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.1 scn 208.26 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 scn 222.24 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.65 scn 403.56 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 0 0 1 0 k 404.52 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 0 0 k 418.5 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 0 0 k 432.48 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 1 0 0 k 446.46 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 1 0 k 460.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 1 0 k 474.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 1 k 488.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0.5 0 k 502.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0.5 0 0 k 516.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 0 0 0 k 530.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 0.5 k 544.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f endstream endobj 62 0 obj > /ExtGState > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 64 0 obj > stream BT /F5 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 271.32 742.5 Tm 0 0 0 rg /GS3 gs 0 Tc 0.119 Tw [(ORIGINS OF TURFGRASSES)]TJ /F7 1 Tf 29.625 0 TD (17)Tj ET 0 0 0 RG 0 J 0 j 0.48 w 10 M []0 d /GS2 gs 1 i 121.5 737.22 m 517.5 737.22 l S BT /F9 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 121.5 715.5 Tm /GS3 gs 0.077 Tw (convert the \223wild\224 species into something that has multiple turf uses, an expanded)Tj 0 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc -0.04 Tw (range of turf usage, or adaptation to multiple turfgrass managements. Screening geno-)Tj T* 0.03 Tw (types for tolerance to specific and severe edaphic stresses can identify previously un-)Tj T* 0.003 Tc 0.142 Tw (known sources of tolerance \(Ashraf et al., 1986; Lehman et al., 1998; Torello and)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.129 Tw (Symington, 1984\). Transformation may impart stress tolerances not previously ob-)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.003 Tw (served within a particular species \(Duncan and Carrow, 1999, 2000\).)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0.002 Tw (While most novel species may have limited individual adaptation during the early)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc -0.064 Tw (years of the domestication process, they serve to broaden the adaptation of turfgrass in)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.004 Tw (general. Many novel species are niche-adapted, such as the alkali grasses, represented)Tj T* -0.002 Tc (by )Tj /F15 1 Tf 1.422 0 TD 0 Tc -0.01 Tw (Puccinellia distans)Tj /F9 1 Tf 8.046 0 TD -0.001 Tc -0.008 Tw [( \(L.\) Parl. This species is used as a component of turf mixtures for)]TJ -9.468 -1.2 TD 0 Tc -0.049 Tw (roadsides, boulevards, and rights-of-way where winter snows bring about frequent salt)Tj T* (applications and plowed snow is typically deposited on turf, creating localized salinity)Tj T* 0.138 Tw (problems. \221Fairway\222 crested wheatgrass [)Tj /F15 1 Tf 19.092 0 TD 0.14 Tw (Agropyron cristatum)Tj /F9 1 Tf 8.94 0 TD -0.001 Tc [( \(L.\) Gaertn.] is the first)]TJ -28.032 -1.2 TD 0 Tc 0.055 Tw (seeded turfgrass cultivar, released in 1932 and used extensively for multiple dryland)Tj T* 0.08 Tw (purposes, including range \(grazing\), turf, and revegetation \(Asay and Jensen, 1996\).)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.025 Tw (Redtop \()Tj /F15 1 Tf 3.906 0 TD 0 Tc (Agrostis gigantea)Tj /F9 1 Tf 7.338 0 TD -0.001 Tc -0.027 Tw [( Roth\) has a combination of superior seeding vigor and estab-)]TJ -11.244 -1.2 TD 0 Tc 0.119 Tw (lishment capacity, salt tolerance, and heavy metal tolerance, making it superior to)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.135 Tw (most turfgrasses as a component for bioremediation of disturbed lands \(Brede and)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.005 Tw (Sellmann, Chapter 13\).)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD -0.07 Tw (Of the great grasslands of the world, relatively few have contributed the mainstream)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.001 Tc 0.069 Tw (turfgrass species, which largely originate in Europe \(cool-season grasses\) or Asia and)Tj T* 0.098 Tw (Africa \(warm-season grasses\). However, the growing list of turfgrass species that are)Tj T* -0.071 Tw (used for various purposes, as evidenced by several minor species discussed in this book,)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.053 Tw (indicates that the list will continue to grow. As more people with diverse needs and)Tj T* -0.006 Tc -0.071 Tw (opinions become involved in turfgrass research, demonstration, and applications, there)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.073 Tw (is considerable potential that grasslands from additional parts of the world may be-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.001 Tw (come represented among domesticated turfgrasses.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0.084 Tw (Native species hold special value for many people, particularly those who are in-)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc -0.025 Tw (volved in bioremediation of disturbed lands, eradication of invasive species, and rein-)Tj T* (troduction of native plants to recreate natural habitats. Many regions of the world are)Tj T* 0.041 Tw (not naturally inhabited by the mainstream turfgrass species. In these regions, indus-)Tj T* -0.063 Tw (trial and urban development leads directly to introduction of non-native turfgrass spe-)Tj T* -0.037 Tw (cies. Non-native species and/or cultivars are essential components of high-quality turf)Tj T* 0.103 Tw (in all industrialized parts of the world. Unfortunately, this has led many people to)Tj T* 0.001 Tw (view these non-natives as invasive, although humans are entirely responsible for this)Tj T* 0.036 Tw (invasion. While non-native turfgrasses are not necessarily biologically or botanically)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.011 Tw (invasive, there is a growing need for development of native germ plasm to be used by)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.123 Tw (landscapers. Native species provide land developers and landscapers additional op-)Tj T* -0.03 Tw (tions to beautify landscapes with plants that are pleasing to the eye, to the touch, and)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.005 Tw (to the mind.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0.003 Tc 0.02 Tw (Buffalograss \()Tj /F15 1 Tf 6.288 0 TD 0.004 Tc 0.025 Tw (Buchloe dactyloides)Tj /F9 1 Tf 8.55 0 TD 0.023 Tw [( \(Nutt.\) Engelm\) is the most successful native spe-)]TJ -16.038 -1.2 TD 0.005 Tc 0.055 Tw (cies domesticated for turf usage in North America \(Riordan and Browning, Chapter)Tj T* -0.012 Tw (16\). Buffalograss is native from central Mexico to southern Canada and cultivars can)Tj T* 0.002 Tc -0.071 Tw (be used for low-maintenance turf throughout that range. Carpetgrass \()Tj /F15 1 Tf 32.316 0 TD -0.075 Tw (Axonopus affinis)Tj /F9 1 Tf -32.316 -1.2 TD 0.005 Tc 0.142 Tw (Chase\), possibly native to the southeastern United States, is adapted to moderate)Tj T* -0.018 Tw (shade \(Busey, 1989\). Texas bluegrass has an extremely limited natural range in Texas)Tj T* 0.004 Tc 0.004 Tw (and Oklahoma, but appears to have considerable potential as a cool-season turfgrass)Tj T* 0.005 Tc -0.003 Tw (adapted to warm climates \(Read and Anderson, Chapter 5\). Idaho bentgrass \()Tj /F15 1 Tf 36.126 0 TD (Agrostis)Tj -36.126 -1.2 TD (idahoensis)Tj /F9 1 Tf 4.602 0 TD 0.063 Tw [( Nash\) is native to the western United States and has potential to replace)]TJ -4.602 -1.2 TD 0 Tw (non-native species for turf applications under moderately dryland conditions \(Brede)Tj T* 0.077 Tw (and Sellmann, Chapter 13\). Grasses native to prairie and alpine regions of western)Tj ET /CS1 CS 0 SCN /GS2 gs 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 580.44 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 580.44 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 58.56 m 571.5 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 58.56 m 571.5 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 580.44 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 580.44 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 67.5 796.44 m 67.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 67.5 796.44 m 67.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 58.56 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 58.56 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 67.5 58.56 m 67.5 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 67.5 58.56 m 67.5 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 58.56 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 58.56 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 44.88 427.5 m 44.88 427.5 l 44.88 424.884 47.004 422.76 49.62 422.76 c 52.236 422.76 54.36 424.884 54.36 427.5 c 54.36 430.116 52.236 432.24 49.62 432.24 c 47.004 432.24 44.88 430.116 44.88 427.5 c h 40.68 427.5 m 58.56 427.5 l 49.62 436.44 m 49.62 418.56 l S /CS1 cs 0 scn 52.68 427.5 m 52.68 427.5 l 52.68 429.189 51.309 430.56 49.62 430.56 c 47.931 430.56 46.56 429.189 46.56 427.5 c 46.56 425.811 47.931 424.44 49.62 424.44 c 51.309 424.44 52.68 425.811 52.68 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 44.88 427.5 m 44.88 427.5 l 44.88 424.884 47.004 422.76 49.62 422.76 c 52.236 422.76 54.36 424.884 54.36 427.5 c 54.36 430.116 52.236 432.24 49.62 432.24 c 47.004 432.24 44.88 430.116 44.88 427.5 c h 40.68 427.5 m 58.56 427.5 l 49.62 436.44 m 49.62 418.56 l S 1 scn 52.56 427.5 m 52.56 427.5 l 52.56 429.123 51.243 430.44 49.62 430.44 c 47.997 430.44 46.68 429.123 46.68 427.5 c 46.68 425.877 47.997 424.56 49.62 424.56 c 51.243 424.56 52.56 425.877 52.56 427.5 c f 0 SCN 46.68 427.5 m 52.56 427.5 l 49.62 430.44 m 49.62 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 0 scn 322.56 805.38 m 322.56 805.38 l 322.56 807.069 321.189 808.44 319.5 808.44 c 317.811 808.44 316.44 807.069 316.44 805.38 c 316.44 803.691 317.811 802.32 319.5 802.32 c 321.189 802.32 322.56 803.691 322.56 805.38 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 805.38 m 314.76 805.38 l 314.76 802.764 316.884 800.64 319.5 800.64 c 322.116 800.64 324.24 802.764 324.24 805.38 c 324.24 807.996 322.116 810.12 319.5 810.12 c 316.884 810.12 314.76 807.996 314.76 805.38 c h 310.56 805.38 m 328.44 805.38 l 319.5 814.32 m 319.5 796.44 l S 1 scn 322.44 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 322.44 807.003 321.123 808.32 319.5 808.32 c 317.877 808.32 316.56 807.003 316.56 805.38 c 316.56 803.757 317.877 802.44 319.5 802.44 c 321.123 802.44 322.44 803.757 322.44 805.38 c f 0 SCN 316.56 805.38 m 322.44 805.38 l 319.5 808.32 m 319.5 802.44 l S 0.48 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 0 scn 592.44 427.5 m 592.44 427.5 l 592.44 429.189 591.069 430.56 589.38 430.56 c 587.691 430.56 586.32 429.189 586.32 427.5 c 586.32 425.811 587.691 424.44 589.38 424.44 c 591.069 424.44 592.44 425.811 592.44 427.5 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 584.64 427.5 m 584.64 427.5 l 584.64 424.884 586.764 422.76 589.38 422.76 c 591.996 422.76 594.12 424.884 594.12 427.5 c 594.12 430.116 591.996 432.24 589.38 432.24 c 586.764 432.24 584.64 430.116 584.64 427.5 c h 580.44 427.5 m 598.32 427.5 l 589.38 436.44 m 589.38 418.56 l S 1 scn 592.32 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 592.32 429.123 591.003 430.44 589.38 430.44 c 587.757 430.44 586.44 429.123 586.44 427.5 c 586.44 425.877 587.757 424.56 589.38 424.56 c 591.003 424.56 592.32 425.877 592.32 427.5 c f 0 SCN 586.44 427.5 m 592.32 427.5 l 589.38 430.44 m 589.38 424.56 l S 0.48 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 0 scn 322.56 49.62 m 322.56 49.62 l 322.56 51.309 321.189 52.68 319.5 52.68 c 317.811 52.68 316.44 51.309 316.44 49.62 c 316.44 47.931 317.811 46.56 319.5 46.56 c 321.189 46.56 322.56 47.931 322.56 49.62 c f 1 SCN 0.24 w 314.76 49.62 m 314.76 49.62 l 314.76 47.004 316.884 44.88 319.5 44.88 c 322.116 44.88 324.24 47.004 324.24 49.62 c 324.24 52.236 322.116 54.36 319.5 54.36 c 316.884 54.36 314.76 52.236 314.76 49.62 c h 310.56 49.62 m 328.44 49.62 l 319.5 58.56 m 319.5 40.68 l S 1 scn 322.44 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 322.44 51.243 321.123 52.56 319.5 52.56 c 317.877 52.56 316.56 51.243 316.56 49.62 c 316.56 47.997 317.877 46.68 319.5 46.68 c 321.123 46.68 322.44 47.997 322.44 49.62 c f 0 SCN 316.56 49.62 m 322.44 49.62 l 319.5 52.56 m 319.5 46.68 l S BT /F3 1 Tf 6 0 0 6 81.48 54.06 Tm 0 Tc (001-024.p65)Tj 51.33 0 TD 0 Tw (12/3/2002, 12:29 PM)Tj -30.33 0 TD (17)Tj ET 0.65 scn 81.48 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 1 scn 82.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.9 scn 96.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.8 scn 110.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.7 scn 124.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.6 scn 138.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 scn 152.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.4 scn 166.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.3 scn 180.3 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.2 scn 194.28 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.1 scn 208.26 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 scn 222.24 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.65 scn 403.56 814.92 153.78 -13.98 re f 0 0 1 0 k 404.52 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 0 0 k 418.5 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 0 0 k 432.48 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 1 0 0 k 446.46 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 1 0 1 0 k 460.44 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 1 1 0 k 474.42 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 1 k 488.4 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0.5 0 k 502.38 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0.5 0 0 k 516.36 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0.5 0 0 0 k 530.34 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f 0 0 0 0.5 k 544.32 813.96 12.06 -12.06 re f endstream endobj 65 0 obj > /ExtGState > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 67 0 obj > stream BT /F7 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 121.5 742.5 Tm 0 0 0 rg /GS3 gs 0 Tc (18)Tj /F5 1 Tf 13.522 0 TD 0.108 Tw (TURFGRASS BIOLOGY, GENETICS, AND BREEDING)Tj ET 0 0 0 RG 0 J 0 j 0.48 w 10 M []0 d /GS2 gs 1 i 121.5 737.22 m 517.5 737.22 l S BT /F9 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 121.5 715.5 Tm /GS3 gs 0.005 Tc 0.015 Tw (Canada have potential as salt-tolerant turfgrasses \(Acharya et al., 1992\). Many other)Tj 0 -1.2 TD 0.004 Tc 0.142 Tw (grasses native to North America have potential as turfgrass species, either as low-)Tj T* -0.046 Tw (maintenance ecovars, regionally deployed seed increases of local ecotypes, or as germ)Tj T* 0.005 Tc 0.127 Tw (plasm for breeding programs aimed at domestication \(Fraser and Anderson, 1980;)Tj T* 0.005 Tw (Smith and Mintenko, 2000\).)Tj /F7 1 Tf 0 -3 TD -0.005 Tc (CONCLUSIONS)Tj /F9 1 Tf 1.2 -1.8 TD -0.001 Tc 0.065 Tw (The turfgrasses are a remarkably diverse and adaptable group of species. Together)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc 0.14 Tw (they inhabit every continent on the planet and nearly every terrestrial ecosystem.)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.064 Tw (Turfgrasses have been an integral component of human recreation for thousands of)Tj T* -0.015 Tw (years. They represent a classless commodity, equally enjoyed by and accessible to any)Tj T* 0.073 Tw (class of any society \(albeit in different forms\). Human consciousness, behavior, and)Tj T* -0.045 Tw (habit are linked to Planet Earth as tightly or more so by turfgrasses than by food crops.)Tj T* -0.027 Tw (While food is essential for survival, most humans in industrialized countries have lost)Tj T* -0.067 Tw (their appreciation for the social and economic value, as well as the true source, of food.)Tj T* 0.001 Tw (Conversely, the pervasiveness of turfgrasses in both urban and rural settings creates a)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.002 Tw (level of consciousness and caring that many humans reserve only for their most trea-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.044 Tw (sured possessions. In a true expression of capitalistic legerdemain, these feelings trans-)Tj T* -0.01 Tw [(late to consumerism in industrialized countries, powering growth of the turf industry)]TJ T* 0.075 Tw (and, completing the cycle, delivery of ever-improving products and technologies to)Tj T* 0.005 Tw (the consumer.)Tj 1.2 -1.2 TD 0 Tc 0.143 Tw (Turfgrasses exist as a result of a unique combination of forces that have driven)Tj -1.2 -1.2 TD -0.025 Tw (genetic evolution, including climatic and soil factors; diseases, insects, ungulates, and)Tj T* -0.003 Tc -0.071 Tw (domestic livestock; and humans. Thousands of years of natural evolution, grazing pres-)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.041 Tw (sure, and human domestication events have formed this germ plasm that is so valu-)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.13 Tw (able to the human race. As human recreation and reclamation needs increase and)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.143 Tw (evolve, so too will turfgrasses continue to evolve. Turfgrass phenotypes are highly)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.046 Tw (plastic and pliable, lending themselves to modification by breeding and selection in)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.027 Tw (relatively short periods of time. The current germ plasm base of many turfgrasses con-)Tj T* 0.001 Tc 0.142 Tw (tains considerable genotypic breadth, and genetic vulnerability appears to be low.)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.012 Tw (However, intensive breeding of some species has focused breeding programs toward a)Tj T* 0 Tc -0.072 Tw (common phenotype that has undoubtedly restricted the germ plasm base, creating the)Tj T* -0.001 Tc -0.011 Tw [(potential for future genetic vulnerability. This effect may be magnified as plant trans-)]TJ T* 0.042 Tw (formation becomes more common and efforts focus on a restricted germ plasm base)Tj T* 0.075 Tw (and relatively few transgenes. Turfgrass breeders and germ plasm explorers must re-)Tj T* 0 Tc 0.109 Tw (main diligent and continue to explore, collect, evaluate, preserve, and utilize germ)Tj T* -0.001 Tc 0.004 Tw (plasm from natural habitats and domestic turfs throughout the world.)Tj /F7 1 Tf 0 -3 TD -0.002 Tc (REFERENCES)Tj /F9 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 121.5 224.52 Tm 0 Tc 0.017 Tw (Acharya, S.N., B.A. Darroch, R. Hermesh, and J. Woosaree. 1992. Salt stress tolerance in native)Tj 1.333 -1.227 TD -0.037 Tw (Alberta populations of slender wheatgrass and alpine bluegrass. )Tj /F15 1 Tf 29.493 0 TD -0.038 Tw (Can. J. Plant Sci.)Tj /F9 1 Tf 7.267 0 TD -0.001 Tc [( 72:785\226792.)]TJ -38.093 -1.22 TD 0.001 Tc 0.048 Tw (Ahmad, I., S.J. Wainwright, and G.R. Stewart. 1981. The solute and water relations of )Tj /F15 1 Tf 40.567 0 TD -0.001 Tc (Agrostis)Tj -39.233 -1.22 TD 0 Tc (stolonifera)Tj /F9 1 Tf 4.547 0 TD 0.076 Tw [( ecotypes differing in their salt tolerance)]TJ /F15 1 Tf 19.267 0 TD 0.075 Tw (. New Phytol)Tj /F9 1 Tf 5.687 0 TD 0.077 Tw (. 87:615\226629.)Tj -30.833 -1.227 TD -0.047 Tw (Altham, H.S. and E.W. Swanton. 1926. )Tj /F15 1 Tf 18.02 0 TD (A History of Cricket.)Tj /F9 1 Tf 8.673 0 TD [( George Allen & Unwin Ltd., London.)]TJ -26.693 -1.22 TD 0.09 Tw (Asay, K.H. and K.B. Jensen. 1996. Wheatgrasses. pp. 691\226724. In L.E. Moser et al., Eds. )Tj /F15 1 Tf 41.667 0 TD 0.001 Tc (Cool-)Tj -40.333 -1.22 TD 0 Tc 0.072 Tw (Season Forage Grasses.)Tj /F9 1 Tf 10.013 0 TD 0.073 Tw [( American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.)]TJ -11.347 -1.227 TD 0.081 Tw (Ashraf, M., T. McNeilly, and A.D. Bradshaw. 1986. The response of selected salt-tolerant and)Tj 1.333 -1.22 TD 0.078 Tw (normal lines of four grass species to NaCl in sand culture. )Tj /F15 1 Tf 27.953 0 TD (New Phytol.)Tj /F9 1 Tf 5.327 0 TD -0.001 Tc [( 104:453\226461.)]TJ ET /CS1 CS 0 SCN /GS2 gs 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 787.5 m 598.38 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 598.38 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 67.5 m 598.38 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 598.38 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 787.5 m 40.62 787.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 40.62 796.44 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 67.5 m 40.62 67.5 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 40.62 58.56 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 796.44 m 571.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 796.44 m 580.44 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 796.44 m 580.44 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 571.5 58.56 m 571.5 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 571.5 58.56 m 571.5 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 580.44 58.56 m 580.44 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 580.44 58.56 m 580.44 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 67.5 796.44 m 67.5 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 67.5 796.44 m 67.5 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 796.44 m 58.56 814.38 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 796.44 m 58.56 814.38 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 67.5 58.56 m 67.5 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 67.5 58.56 m 67.5 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 58.56 58.56 m 58.56 40.62 l S 1 SCN 0.24 w 58.56 58.56 m 58.56 40.62 l S 0 SCN 0.48 w 44.88 427.5 m 44.88 427.5 l 44.88 424.884 47.004 422.76 49.62 422.76 c 52.236 422.76 54.36 424.884 54.36 427.5 c 54.36 430.116 52.236 432.24 49.62 432.24 c 47.004 432.24 44.88 430.116 44.88 427.5 c h 40.68 427.5 m 58.56 427.5 l 49.62 436.44 m 49.62 418.56 l S /CS1 cs 0 scn 52.68 427.5 m 52.68 427.5 l 52.68 429.189 51.309 430.56 49.62 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Table of Contents

PART 1. INTRODUCTION.

Origins of the Turfgrasses (M.D. Casler and R.R. Duncan).

PART 2. COOL-SEASON GRASSES.

Kentucky Bluegrass (D.R. Huff).

Annual Bluegrass (D.R. Huff).

Supina Bluegrass (S. Bughrara).

Texas Bluegrass (J.C. Read and S.J. Anderson).

Rough Bluegrass (R. Hurley).

Perennial Ryegrass (D. Thorogood).

Tall Fescue (W.A. Meyer and E. Watkins).

Fine-Leaved Festuca Species (B.A. Ruemmele, et al.).

Creeping Bentgrass (S.E. Warnke).

Colonial Bentgrass (B.A. Ruemmele).

Velvet Bentgrass (L. Brilman).

Three Minor Agrostis Species: Redtop, Highland Bentgrass, and Idaha Bentgrass (A.D. Brede and M.J. Sellman).

Hairgrasses (L. Brilman and E. Watkins).

PART 3. WARM-SEASON GRASSES.

Bermudagrass (C.M. Taliaferro).

Buffalograss (T.P. Riordan and S.J. Browning).

Zoysiagrasses (M.C. Engelke and S. Anderson).

Centipedegrass (W.W. Hanna and J. Liu).

Seashore Paspalum (R.R. Duncan).

St. Augustinegrass (P. Busey).

Bahiagrass (P. Busey).

Index.