Unbeknownst to some, Turkish rulers and military commanders dominated vast stretches of Islamic lands for almost a millennium until the beginning of the twentieth century. The papers presented in this volume were delivered at a prestigious Conference in Islamic Studies by some of the finestscholars on Islamic history. From their respective areas of specialization, these scholars reassess the contribution of the Turks in the shaping of the Islamic world and its civilization. The essays are organized into five themes. The first concerns the emergence of the Turks in the Islamic world. Here, the papers move beyond the conventional frames of reference, and investigate issues of identity, consciousness and historical memory among the Turks once they entered the Islamicfold. The second deals with the Seljuq architecture and educational system which reveals the Islamic world as an integrated entity. The third the Turks in the Indian subcontinent addresses neglected themes in Mughal historiography. The fourth scrutinizes the contribution of the Turks in the fieldof cartography and geography. The final essay re-examines the rise of the Safavids in light of new evidence.