Turnaround Leadership for Higher Education by Michael FullanTurnaround Leadership for Higher Education by Michael Fullan

Turnaround Leadership for Higher Education

byMichael Fullan, Geoff Scott

Hardcover | March 23, 2009

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In Turnaround Leadership for Higher Education, international authorities on organizational change Michael Fullan and Geoff Scott reveal how campus leaders can proactively meet the challenges and expectations facing their institutions. They show how certain leadership capabilities and change-capable cultures in higher education institutions must mirror each other—for the benefit of students and their futures, and for the academy and society. The authors draw on a solid knowledge base of change, which advocates for stimulating and integrating strong moral purpose and equally strong partnerships and relationships inside and outside the academy.
The Authors?Michael Fullan is professor emeritus at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto. Recognized as an international authority on organizational change, he is engaged in training, consulting, and evaluating change projects around the world. He is the author of The Six Secrets of Change and the...
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Title:Turnaround Leadership for Higher EducationFormat:HardcoverDimensions:192 pages, 9.3 × 6.4 × 0.75 inPublished:March 23, 2009Publisher:WileyLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0470472049

ISBN - 13:9780470472040

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The greatest chal-)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc 0.0979 Tw [(lenges facing higher education to)-9.9(day \(are\): student)]TJ T* 0.0031 Tc 0.0093 Tw (engagement; institutional accountability; revenue gen-)Tj T* 0.0212 Tc -0.0088 Tw (eration; \(and\) globalization. . . . All of the education)Tj T* 0.0206 Tc -0.0082 Tw (leaders we interviewed understand the importance of)Tj T* -0.0114 Tc 0.0038 Tw (more market-oriented, student-centered and businesslike)Tj T* 0.0164 Tc -0.004 Tw (management and accountability strategies, while pre-)Tj T* -0.0056 Tc -0.002 Tw (serving their academic mission, focus and values. 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As Graham Hugo, an Australian Research)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0016 Tw (Council Federation fellow and professor of demography has noted,)Tj T* 0.0033 Tc 0.0091 Tw (universities will lose between one-?fth and one-third of academic)Tj T* -0.0014 Tc -0.0062 Tw (staff members by 2015 \(Hugo, 2005, p. 20\). In some universities, it)Tj T* -0.004 Tc -0.0036 Tw (is predicted that up to half of their leadership and a signi?cant pro-)Tj T* 0.0037 Tc 0.0087 Tw (portion of line staff may retire in the next ?ve years. Recruitment)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0074 Tw (is going to be excessively dif?cult as this will occur simultaneously)Tj T* 0.0047 Tw (across all developed countries, and the 1970s strategy of ?lling the)Tj T* -0.0016 Tc -0.006 Tw (gap through recruitment of academics from overseas will not work.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0073 Tc 0.0051 Tw (Baby Boomer retirement, combined with other change forces,)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0012 Tc 0.0112 Tw (will have an impact on the education policy priorities for the new)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (Obama administration in the U.S. As Arthur Levine observed:)Tj 2.1818 -2.7273 TD 0.0084 Tc 0.004 Tw (The Obama higher education platform focused on ?ve)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD 0.009 Tc 0.0034 Tw [(critical issues: access, affordability)73.9(, research, economic)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (development, and international competitiveness. . .)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0095 Tc 0.0019 Tw (A number of pressures will now require the new pres-)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0139 Tc 0.0063 Tw (ident to rethink this array of important proposals because)Tj T* 0.0245 Tc -0.0121 Tw [(he won?)17.7(t have the resources to carry out this agenda.)]TJ T* 0.0031 Tc 0.0093 Tw (First, discretionary dollars will be eaten up by the $800)Tj T* 0.0008 Tc 0.0116 Tw (billion bailout, additional federal funding for economic)Tj T* 0.0037 Tc 0.0087 Tw [(relief, the continuing cost of the Iraq war)54.7(, and declines)]TJ T* 0.0249 Tc 0.1123 Tw (in tax revenues. Second, support for education has)Tj T* 0.0199 Tc 0.0492 Tw (diminished as a priority for the American people. . .)Tj T* 0.0173 Tc -0.0049 Tw (Third, . . .the sheer size of the Baby Boom generation)Tj T* -0.0066 Tc -0.001 Tw (ensures that every politician running for any of?ce, from)Tj T* 0.0199 Tc -0.0075 Tw (dogcatcher to president of the United States, quickly)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0027 Tw (develops a platform that emphasizes Boomers? interests.)Tj T* -0.0111 Tc 0.0035 Tw (As a result, elder care, health insurance and Social Secu-)Tj T* -0.0016 Tc -0.006 Tw (rity have become the new priority?and will likely con-)Tj T* -0.0033 Tc -0.0043 Tw (tinue to overshadow education in the years ahead, since)Tj ET Q 41 719 171.239 13.03 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxd 1/21/09 11:04 AM Page 6)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 15 0 obj > endobj 16 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.03 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 138 609.8065 Tm 0 g 0.0249 Tc 0.1215 Tw [(the first Boomers reached retirement age this year)54.7(.)]TJ 0 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw ([Levine, 2008])Tj /F1 1 Tf -2.1818 -4.0909 TD (The IT Revolution)Tj /F2 1 Tf 0 -1.8182 TD 0.0011 Tc 0.0063 Tw (How to handle the relentless development of communication and)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD -0.006 Tc -0.0016 Tw (information technologies, their rapid in?ux into our daily lives, the)Tj T* -0.0337 Tc 0.0061 Tw [(exponential growth in computing power)54.8(, and the rapid growth in )]TJ 24.4646 0 TD -0.0138 Tc 0 Tw (Inter-)Tj -24.4646 -1.3636 TD -0.0062 Tc -0.0014 Tw (net speeds are posing major challenges for universities and colleges.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0019 Tw (The IT revolution is creating new expectations and opportuni-)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0081 Tc 0.0043 Tw (ties for how students want to and can learn. It questions whether)Tj T* -0.0128 Tc 0.0052 Tw (higher education should remain campus-based or become more ?dis-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0037 Tw (tributed,? especially given the increased dif?culty of travel to large)Tj T* -0.0016 Tw [(cities and the potential for people to work pro)-9.9(ductively for at least)]TJ T* -0.0018 Tw [(part of their week at home. Already)73.9(, traditional universities are no)]TJ T* 0.0104 Tc 0.002 Tw [(longer viewed as the sole, or even key)73.9(, repository of leading-edge)]TJ T* 0.0091 Tc 0.0033 Tw (knowledge or necessarily as being the best place to access it. The)Tj T* 0.0157 Tc -0.0033 Tw [(University of Phoenix \(http://www)73.7(.phoenix.edu/\) is the premier)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0058 Tw [(example of thriving online and distance learning. W)36.7(ith a reported)]TJ T* -0.0087 Tc 0.0011 Tw (enrollment of 350,000 students, 200 campuses, and over 100 degree)Tj T* 0.0237 Tc -0.0114 Tw [(programs at the bachelor)54.7(, master?)54.8(s, and doctoral levels, it is the)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (largest private university in North America.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0286 Tc -0.0012 Tw [(However)54.8(, there is clear evidence that simply putting a uni-)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0297 Tc -0.0023 Tw (versity online is no guarantee for success. As Richard Garrett,)Tj T* 0.015 Tc 0.0124 Tw (deputy director of the Observatory on Borderless Higher Educa-)Tj T* 0.0034 Tc 0.004 Tw (tion, noted in 2004 when discussing the expensive collapse of the)Tj T* 0.0184 Tc 0.009 Tw (UK e-University: )Tj 7.5792 0 TD -0.0016 Tc (?Along with NYU Online, Scottish Knowledge)Tj -7.5792 -1.3636 TD -0.0029 Tc 0.0103 Tw (and Fathom, UKeU has now failed. 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This may be the)Tj T* -0.0084 Tc -0.0042 Tw (end for UKeU but for online learning it is only the beginning \(Gar-)Tj T* -0.0051 Tc 0 Tw (rett, 2004, p. 3\).)Tj 9 0 0 9 218.3452 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(Universities and the Challenges of the 21st Century)-2277.9(7)]TJ ET Q 41 719 171.239 13.03 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxd 1/21/09 11:04 AM Page 7)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 17 0 obj > endobj 18 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.03 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 83.5 642.7961 Tm 0 g 2.2222 Tc 0 Tw (8T)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 114.0029 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc (URNAROUND)Tj 9 0 0 9 161.6325 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (L)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 166.6357 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(EADERSHIP)-333.5(FO)-19.9(R)]TJ 9 0 0 9 221.5283 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (H)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 228.5288 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc (IGHER)Tj 9 0 0 9 251.7803 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (E)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 256.7834 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc [(DUCA)110.6(TION)]TJ 11 0 0 11 123 609.8065 Tm -0.0008 Tc -0.0068 Tw [(When commenting on the failure of the UK?)54.8(s Open University)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0041 Tw (in America, David Kirp \(2003\) identi?ed some of the reasons why)Tj T* -0.0126 Tc 0.005 Tw [(a purely online mo)-10(del won?)17.6(t work: ?W)36.7(ith so much attention focused)]TJ T* 0.0103 Tc 0.0021 Tw (on high-tech and quick killings, little notice was paid to offering)Tj T* 0.009 Tc 0.0034 Tw (something of value \(p. 186\). . . advising, counseling, and grading)Tj T* 0.0149 Tc -0.0025 Tw [(were done on-line \(thereby negating the very secret of the OU?)54.8(s)]TJ T* -0.0078 Tc 0.0002 Tw (success in the UK?the support offered by its counselors, tutors and)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0062 Tw (group meetings\) \(p. 199\) . . . the network of personal relationships)Tj T* -0.0008 Tc -0.0068 Tw (between students and their tutors may matter as much as the thick)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc 0.0334 Tw (packet of readings and video and audio cassettes that students)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (receive? \(p. 192\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0055 Tw [(The issues of access and equity)73.9(, including those associated with)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0039 Tc -0.0037 Tw (the digital divide, continue to create moral and political dilemmas.)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc 0.0558 Tw (As Sir John Daniel, chair of the Commonwealth of Learning,)Tj T* 0.0004 Tc 0.012 Tw (recently observed at the Council for Higher Education Accredita-)Tj T* 0.0018 Tc 0.0106 Tw [(tion?)54.8(s International Commission Conference in W)54.7(ashington, DC:)]TJ T* 0.0095 Tc 0.0029 Tw [(?T)110.7(o date the growth of higher education in the developing world)]TJ T* 0.0191 Tc -0.0067 Tw [(has been constrained by various factors, notably cost. 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W)54.8(ere that to happen it would generate over a hundred)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (million more students? \(Daniel, 2007\).)Tj /F1 1 Tf 0 -2.2727 TD (Fractious Divisions)Tj /F2 1 Tf 0 -1.8182 TD -0.021 Tc 0.0034 Tw (Divisions in societies seem to be on the rise: the growing gap between)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD 0.0084 Tc -0.006 Tw [(the poor and the rich, the differences between Generation X a)-10(n)-10(d)]TJ T* -0.0038 Tc -0.0038 Tw [(Generation Y)59.7(,)-0.1( the divide between the left and the right, and so on.)]TJ T* -0.0062 Tc -0.0014 Tw (A microcosm of this development can be seen in universities. Even)Tj T* -0.0025 Tc -0.0051 Tw (before the economic crisis and the 2008 U.S. presidential election,)Tj T* 0.0181 Tc -0.0057 Tw [(the University of California?)54.8(s survey of 270,000 entering under-)]TJ T* -0.0019 Tc (graduates at 400 colleges across the country uncovered an interest-)Tj T* -0.0105 Tc 0.0029 Tw (ing trend. 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Fewer)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0017 Tw (than half said they are ?middle of the road,? the lowest percentage)Tj T* -0.0081 Tc 0.0005 Tw (measured since 1970 \(Powers, 2007\). Thus, the middle is leaking to)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (both the left and the right.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.015 Tc 0.0074 Tw [(W)54.8(e)0( argue that change for the future should no longer be one)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0038 Tc -0.0014 Tw (group dominating another \(unless you want a civil war\). And it is)Tj T* 0.0013 Tc 0.0011 Tw (equally clear that ?split the difference? compromises would be dis-)Tj T* 0.0072 Tc -0.0048 Tw (astrous. This is the heart of turnaround leadership. It is not about)Tj T* 0.0349 Tc 0.0108 Tw [(compromise or about overpowering each other)55(. It is not even)]TJ T* 0.0099 Tc 0.009 Tw (about transcending differences. It is about confronting, reconcil-)Tj T* -0.0046 Tc 0.007 Tw (ing, and )Tj /F4 1 Tf 3.5004 0 TD 0 Tw (ful?lling)Tj /F2 1 Tf 3.2659 0 TD 0.0071 Tw [(disparate aspirations through unifying experie)]TJ 18.2427 0 TD -0.0148 Tc 0 Tw (nces)Tj -25.0089 -1.3636 TD 0.01 Tc 0.0024 Tw [(and win-win scenarios; and doing this against clear)54.7(, explicit, and)]TJ T* 0.0249 Tc -0.0001 Tw (widely shared criteria on what constitutes a civil society \(Cox,)Tj T* 0.0002 Tc 0.0122 Tw (1995\) and a clear understanding of what constitutes progress, that)Tj T* -0.0092 Tc 0.0016 Tw (is, change in a positive direction. The capability to lead this process)Tj T* 0.0154 Tc -0.003 Tw (will be as critical for university leaders as it will be for leaders of)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (nations.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 13 0 0 13 114 332.3065 Tm (Change Forces Speci?c to Higher Education)Tj /F2 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 114 309.8065 Tm 0.0249 Tc 0.0878 Tw (Other changes over the past quarter century have been more)Tj T* -0.0148 Tc 0.0072 Tw (directly connected to the daily operations of the university and have)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0036 Tw (brought with them a wide range of pressures on their funding, sup-)Tj T* 0 Tw (port, and operation. )Tj /F1 1 Tf 0 -2.2727 TD (Opening Up of Access)Tj /F2 1 Tf 0 -1.8182 TD 0.008 Tc -0.0056 Tw (In the developed world, the proportion of the population gaining)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD -0.0215 Tc 0.0039 Tw (access to higher education opportunities has grown dramatically since)Tj T* 0.016 Tc -0.0036 Tw (the 1970s, and the trend is continuing. For example, the OECD)Tj T* -0.0035 Tc -0.004 Tw [(\(2008, T)110.6(able A2.5 at http://ocde.p4.siteinternet.com/publications/)]TJ T* 0.0026 Tc 0.0098 Tw (doi?les/962008041P1G002.xls\) reports that entry rates for type A)Tj T* -0.0098 Tc 0.0022 Tw (tertiary education programs \(programs leading to advanced degrees\))Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.012 Tw [(over the perio)-9.9(d 2000 to 2006 grew from 59% to 84% in Australia,)]TJ T* -0.0237 Tc 0.0061 Tw (from 67% to 76% in Sweden, 43% to 64% in the U.S., and from 47%)Tj 9 0 0 9 218.3452 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(Universities and the Challenges of the 21st Century)-2277.9(9)]TJ ET Q 41 719 171.239 13.03 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxd 1/21/09 11:04 AM Page 9)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 21 0 obj > endobj 22 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.03 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 83.5 642.7961 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(10)-1722.2(T)]TJ 6.75 0 0 6.75 114.0029 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc (URNAROUND)Tj 9 0 0 9 161.6325 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (L)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 166.6357 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(EADERSHIP)-333.5(FO)-19.9(R)]TJ 9 0 0 9 221.5283 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (H)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 228.5288 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc (IGHER)Tj 9 0 0 9 251.7803 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (E)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 256.7834 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc [(DUCA)110.6(TION)]TJ 11 0 0 11 108 609.8065 Tm -0.016 Tc -0.0015 Tw [(to 57% in the U.K. These entry rates are calculated as percentages o)-10(f)]TJ 0 -1.3636 TD -0.0104 Tc 0.0028 Tw (school leavers attending higher education during their lifetime \(see:)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=5359\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0007 Tc -0.0069 Tw (In the developing world the growth in higher education partic-)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0015 Tc -0.0061 Tw (ipation rates has been equally impressive, albeit with some notable)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (exceptions:)Tj 2.1818 -2.7273 TD 0.013 Tc -0.0006 Tw (There is no doubt about the demand. 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By 2005, with 16 million students, China had)Tj T* 0.0059 Tc 0.0065 Tw [(overtaken the U.S. as the world?)54.9(s largest higher educa-)]TJ T* 0.0033 Tc 0.0091 Tw (tion system. Malaysia also illustrates the trend. It plans)Tj T* -0.0003 Tc -0.0073 Tw (to increase enrollments in higher education by 166 per-)Tj T* -0.0025 Tc -0.0051 Tw (cent in the next four years, from 600,000 to 1.6 million,)Tj T* -0.0089 Tc 0.0013 Tw (in order to achieve developed-nation participation rates.)Tj T* -0.0102 Tc 0.0026 Tw (Mauritius has recently passed legislation to create a third)Tj T* -0.0031 Tc -0.0045 Tw (university for its 1.2 million people, having added a sec-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (ond only ?ve years ago.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0084 Tc 0.0008 Tw (Growth has been rapid in other developing countries)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.022 Tc -0.0096 Tw (as well?but usually from a very low base. 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APRs of)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc 0.0524 Tw (around 50 percent are now seen in many developed)Tj T* -0.003 Tc -0.0046 Tw (countries, whereas in numerous countries in South Asia)Tj ET Q 41 719 176.04 13.03 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxd 1/21/09 11:04 AM Page 10)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 23 0 obj > endobj 24 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.03 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 138 609.8065 Tm 0 g -0.0102 Tc 0.0026 Tw (and Sub-Saharan Africa they languish below 10 percent.)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw ([Daniel, 2007])Tj -0.8182 -2.7273 TD 0.0097 Tw (Along with the rapid increase in the percentage of the popula-)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0087 Tw (tion attending university in both developed and developing coun-)Tj T* -0.0029 Tc -0.0047 Tw (tries has come the challenge of managing the transition of many of)Tj T* -0.0067 Tc -0.0009 Tw [(the students who are ?rst in their family to attend university)73.8(. These)]TJ T* -0.0039 Tc -0.0037 Tw [(people are often uncertain about tertiary study)73.9(, but, once alerted to)]TJ T* 0.0142 Tc -0.0018 Tw [(how university learning works, they perform well. However)54.9(,)0( this)]TJ T* -0.0004 Tc -0.0072 Tw (transition assistance comes at a cost and is putting additional pres-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (sure on cash-strapped institutions.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 0 -2.2727 TD (Changes in Funding and Pressure to Generate)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD [(New)-277.9(Sources)-277.9(of)-277.9(Revenue)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 3.2727 -1.8182 TD [(W)55(e)0( simply need a more stable and secure level of)]TJ 0 -1.3636 TD (resources. It is a fact that in our state, like most,)Tj T* [(that)-250.1(Medicare, K?12 and prisons are going to take)]TJ T* (increasingly larger percentages of the budget, while)Tj T* (higher education is seen as being more part of the dis-)Tj T* [(cretionary budget. [Harvey Perlman, chancellor)54.8(,)]TJ T* (University of Nebraska, Lincoln, cited in Segall &)Tj T* (Freedman, 2007, p. 7])Tj /F2 1 Tf -3.2727 -2.7273 TD -0.0187 Tc -0.0039 Tw (The dramatic rise in participation rates has created increased pressure)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD 0.004 Tc -0.0066 Tw (on funding for higher education, especially from state sources. For)Tj T* -0.0131 Tc 0.0105 Tw (example, over the past 25 years there has been a signi?cant decrease)Tj T* 0.0011 Tc -0.0037 Tw (in government funding per capita for higher education students in)Tj T* -0.0167 Tc -0.0059 Tw [(many countries. In the U.S., Kirp reports ?nationwide between 1980)]TJ T* -0.0267 Tc 0.0041 Tw (and 2000, the share of universities? operating expenses paid for by state)Tj T* -0.0102 Tc 0.0076 Tw (tax dollars was cut by 30%? \(2003, pp. 131?132\). 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What is new)73.9(, and troubling, is the raw power that money)]TJ T* 0.0239 Tc -0.0115 Tw (directly exerts over so many aspects of higher education. . . the)Tj T* 0.0004 Tc 0.012 Tw (American university has been busily reinventing itself in response)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (to intense competitive pressures? \(Kirp, 2003, p. 3\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0105 Tc 0.0019 Tw (A headline story in the Higher Education Supplement of )Tj /F4 1 Tf 23.8428 0 TD 0 Tw (The)Tj -25.2064 -1.3636 TD 0.0098 Tc 0.0026 Tw (Australian Newspaper)Tj /F2 1 Tf 8.9297 0 TD (indicates the impact this trend is having in)Tj -8.9297 -1.3636 TD -0.0026 Tc -0.005 Tw (countries other than the U.S. ?Ferocious competition, a move into)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc 0.0143 Tw (less specialized courses and more local students on full fees are)Tj T* -0.0014 Tc -0.0062 Tw (expected as a shake-out sparked by a \(recently announced\) 40 per-)Tj T* -0.0003 Tc -0.0073 Tw (cent cut in federal funding for university business courses. . . Many)Tj T* 0.0026 Tc 0.0098 Tw (business faculties say the move spells an end to the era of growth?)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (\(Higher Education Supplement, 2007\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0215 Tc -0.0011 Tw (It must be noted that there has always been considerable variation)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0125 Tc 0.0099 Tw (between countries on the extent to which funding for higher educa-)Tj T* -0.0196 Tc -0.003 Tw (tion research comes from government, charitable, or business sources.)Tj T* -0.0234 Tc 0.0008 Tw (For example, the U.S. has a strong tradition of funding for higher edu-)Tj T* -0.0169 Tc -0.0057 Tw [(cation through a range of charitable foundations and a culture of g)-14.9(i)-15(v)-15.1(-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(ing to one?)54.8(s alma mater)54.8(. In other countries, this is not the case.)]TJ 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0064 Tw (The per capita decrease in state funding has triggered a parallel)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0167 Tc -0.0043 Tw (pressure for universities to generate new sources of income. The)Tj T* 0.0124 Tc 0 Tw (drop in the proportion of higher education funding coming from)Tj T* 0.0022 Tc 0.0102 Tw (government and the concomitant pressure to generate alternative)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc -0.0004 Tw (sources of income has been severely felt in some countries. For)Tj T* 0.0096 Tc 0.0028 Tw (example, over the decade 1995 to 2005, the percentage of public)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0079 Tw (expenditure on higher education in Australia fell from 64.8% per-)Tj T* 0.0056 Tc 0.0068 Tw (cent to 47.8%; in the U.K. from 80% to 66.9%; and from a much)Tj T* 0.0031 Tc 0.0093 Tw (lower starting point in the U.S., )Tj 13.3542 0 TD (from 37.4% to )Tj 6.1262 0 TD -0.0069 Tc (34.7%. In Canada)Tj -19.4804 -1.3636 TD -0.0054 Tc 0.0078 Tw (it has been relatively stable at around )Tj 15.1932 0 TD (55% to 56%, )Tj 5.4576 0 TD 0.0045 Tc [(whereas in Ire)-0.2(-)]TJ -20.6507 -1.3636 TD -0.0127 Tc 0.0051 Tw (land it has grown from 69.7% to 84%. In Finland and Sweden it has)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (remained relatively high \(OECD 2007, 2008\).)Tj ET Q 41 719 176.04 13.03 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxd 1/21/09 11:04 AM Page 12)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 27 0 obj > endobj 28 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.03 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 129 609.8065 Tm 0 g -0.0128 Tc 0.0052 Tw [(This has led universities in many countries to focus on pro?t and)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0091 Tc 0.0033 Tw [(commo)-9.9(di?cation of knowledge and its marketing, rather than on)]TJ T* -0.0024 Tc -0.0052 Tw (the traditional conception of a university as a community of schol-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0063 Tw (ars securely funded by the state whose aim is to create new knowl-)Tj T* 0.0115 Tc 0.0009 Tw (edge and seek the truth. David Kirp \(2003\) suggests the way this)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (pressure has played itself out in U.S. higher education:)Tj 2.1818 -2.7273 TD 0.0056 Tw (Entrepreneurial ambition, which used to be regarded in)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD -0.0053 Tc -0.0023 Tw (academe as a necessary evil, has become a virtue. . . The)Tj T* 0.0212 Tc -0.0088 Tw (new vocabulary of customers and stakeholders, niche)Tj T* 0.0024 Tc 0.01 Tw [(marketing and branding and winner)36.7(-take-all, embo)-9.9(dies)]TJ T* 0.0249 Tc -0.0101 Tw (this shift in the higher education ?industry?. . . Each)Tj T* 0.0194 Tc -0.007 Tw [(department is a ?revenue center)54.8(,? each student a cus-)]TJ T* 0.0249 Tc 0.0776 Tw [(tomer)54.8(, each professor an entrepreneur)54.7(, each party a)]TJ T* 0.0047 Tc 0.0077 Tw (?stakeholder? and each institution a seeker after pro?t,)Tj T* -0.006 Tc -0.0016 Tw (whether in money capital or intellectual capital. . . Opt-)Tj T* -0.0032 Tc -0.0044 Tw (ing out of the fray by ?eeing the market is not a realistic)Tj T* -0.0094 Tc 0.0018 Tw [(possibility)73.9(. . . maintaining communities of scholars is not)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (a concern of the market. [pp. 4, 261])Tj -0.8182 -2.7273 TD 0.0107 Tc 0.0017 Tw (Because of this trend, a new range of income-generating ven-)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0117 Tw (tures, many with a much higher risk pro?le than that usually asso-)Tj T* 0.0122 Tc 0.0002 Tw [(ciated with a university)73.8(, has emerged. Risks associated with such)]TJ T* 0.0064 Tc 0.006 Tw (ventures include having to deal with uncertain international and)Tj T* -0.0043 Tc -0.0033 Tw (local full-fee paying student markets, taking ?nancial responsibility)Tj T* -0.0092 Tc 0.0016 Tw (for the commercialization of research or teaching, and holding legal)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (liability for new entities.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0075 Tc 0.0049 Tw (In countries where universities operate under an act of parlia-)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc 0.0104 Tw (ment, the move to generate university income from these less cer-)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc 0.1163 Tw (tain and more risk-prone sources has triggered high levels of)Tj T* -0.0067 Tc -0.0009 Tw (government concern about its own legal liability for failed ?nancial)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0019 Tw [(ventures. This, in turn, has led to the intro)-9.9(duction of a wide range)]TJ T* -0.0011 Tc -0.0065 Tw (of risk management measures including a rapid increase in govern-)Tj T* 0.0063 Tc 0.0061 Tw (ment monitoring, auditing, reporting requirements; shifts of legal)Tj 9 0 0 9 218.3452 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(Universities and the Challenges of the 21st Century)-1777.9(13)]TJ ET Q 41 719 176.04 13.03 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxd 1/21/09 11:04 AM Page 13)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 29 0 obj > endobj 30 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.03 516 -732 re W n BT /F1 1 Tf 10 0 0 10 108 235.0026 Tm 0 g -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(T)110.8(able 1.1. Higher education export trends \(foreign students\) by main)]TJ ET 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 108 216.753 m 402 216.753 l S BT 10 0 0 10 108 221.0026 Tm (exporting countries, 1989?2007 \(U.S. $ billion\))Tj ET 108 200.753 m 402 200.753 l S BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 108 205.0027 Tm [(Country/Y)73.9(ear)-7466.6(1989)-3555.6(1999)-3666.7(2005)-3555.6(2007)]TJ 10 0 0 10 108 187.0027 Tm -0.0001 Tw [(United States )-5770.1($4.6)-3250.1($9.6)-2750.1($14.1)-2750.1($14.5)]TJ 0 -1.4 TD 0 Tc [(United Kingdom )-4489.5($2.2)-3250($4.1)-3250($6.0)-3250($9.0*)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 7.6306 Tw [(Australia $0.6)-3250.1($2.0)-3250.1($5.5)-2750.1($10.4)]TJ T* 0 Tc 8.2406 Tw [(Canada $0.5)-3250($0.6)-3250($1.6)-3250($4.0)]TJ ET 108 126.753 m 402 126.753 l S BT 10 0 0 10 108 131.0027 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(New Zealand )-6056.7(N/A)-3100.1($0.3)-3250.1($1.0)-3250.1($1.4)]TJ 9 0 0 9 120 115.0027 Tm 0.0001 Tw (*2006 data)Tj -4.0556 58.6437 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw [(14)-1722.2(T)]TJ 6.75 0 0 6.75 114.0029 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc (URNAROUND)Tj 9 0 0 9 161.6325 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (L)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 166.6357 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(EADERSHIP)-333.5(FO)-19.9(R)]TJ 9 0 0 9 221.5283 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (H)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 228.5288 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc (IGHER)Tj 9 0 0 9 251.7803 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (E)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 256.7834 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc [(DUCA)110.6(TION)]TJ 11 0 0 11 108 609.8065 Tm -0.0053 Tc -0.0023 Tw [(liability to the governing bo)-9.8(dies of universities; and a wide range of)]TJ 0 -1.3636 TD -0.0041 Tc -0.0035 Tw (external quality monitoring, evaluation and assurance systems, and)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (controlling legislation.)Tj /F1 1 Tf 0 -2.2727 TD (Rapid Growth in the Higher Education Export Market)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD [(and)-277.9(Growing Competition in All Markets)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 0 -1.8182 TD 0.0107 Tw (A key new source of income over the past decade for many higher)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD -0.0118 Tc 0.0042 Tw (education systems has been the ?higher education export market??)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc 0.0376 Tw (the enrollment of international students at a university either)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0044 Tw (onshore or offshore via an in-country partner or at a satellite cam-)Tj T* 0.0073 Tw [(pus. T)110.7(able 1.1, compiled from a triangulated set of sources \(Bashir)54.8(,)]TJ T* 0.025 Tc 0 Tw (2007; )Tj /F4 1 Tf 2.6626 0 TD 0.0126 Tw [(Education T)110.7(ravel Magazine,)]TJ /F2 1 Tf 11.6794 0 TD (2008; Gee, 2007; Institute of)Tj -14.3421 -1.3636 TD 0.0155 Tc -0.0031 Tw (International Education, 2007; Larson, Martin, & Morris, 2002;)Tj T* 0.007 Tc 0.0054 Tw [(Reserve Bank Bulletin, 2008; and Spencer)55(, 2007\), shows the dra-)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (matic increase in the income from this source in many countries.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0076 Tc (At a transnational education conference in May 2007, the chief)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0035 Tc -0.0041 Tw (executive of a higher education quality agency observed, when dis-)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc -0.0079 Tw [(cussing the way the General Agreement on T)110.7(rade and Services)]TJ T* 0.008 Tc 0.0044 Tw [(\(GA)110.7(TS\) is encouraging free trade in the higher education export)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0032 Tw (market, that: ?What is new is that higher education is now seen as)Tj T* 0.0003 Tc 0.0121 Tw [(a service commo)-9.9(dity for pro?t that can be exported and imported.)]TJ T* 0.02 Tc -0.0076 Tw (Furthermore the import-export divide is breaking down? \(Scott)Tj T* 0.0131 Tc -0.0007 Tw [(et)-262.6(al., 2008, p. 35\). At the same conference, it was reported that)]TJ ET Q 41 719 176.04 13.03 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxd 1/21/09 11:04 AM Page 14)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 31 0 obj > endobj 32 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.03 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 114 609.8065 Tm 0 g -0.0106 Tc 0.003 Tw (U.S. regional accreditation boards are now being invited to accredit)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD 0.0249 Tc 0.0146 Tw (university programs in other countries in order to improve the)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (national and international marketability of these programs.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0073 Tc -0.0003 Tw (There are suggestions that the international student market will)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0249 Tc 0.0455 Tw (continue to grow at about 6% per annum into the foreseeable)Tj T* -0.0015 Tc -0.0061 Tw [(future. However)54.8(, the pattern of growth may be quite different from)]TJ T* -0.0061 Tc -0.0015 Tw [(that of the past decade. One new feature is the tendency)73.8(, as domes-)]TJ T* 0.0151 Tc -0.0027 Tw (tic fees escalate, for students from highly developed countries to)Tj T* -0.0094 Tc 0.0018 Tw (choose to take all or part of their degree overseas. This tendency for)Tj T* 0.0027 Tc 0.0097 Tw (two-way internationalization in such countries is seen by many to)Tj T* -0.0019 Tc -0.0057 Tw [(be a desirable development. However)54.9(, it may have an effect on the)]TJ T* -0.0142 Tc 0.0066 Tw (bottom line for some universities as traditional student markets from)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0091 Tw (developing countries ?nd an increasing range of countries offering)Tj T* 0.0245 Tc -0.0121 Tw (to take them in and as the quality and availability of their own)Tj T* 0.0073 Tc 0.0051 Tw [(home country operations grow rapidly)73.9(. 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This, along with relatively low unemploy-)Tj T* -0.0035 Tc -0.0041 Tw (ment rates in a number of developed countries, has seen many uni-)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc 0.0173 Tw (versities struggling \(often for the first time\) to meet their load)Tj T* -0.0065 Tc -0.0011 Tw (targets. This, in turn, has had an effect on their bottom line and, in)Tj T* -0.0133 Tc 0.0057 Tw (some instances, has seen the closure of faculties or departments with)Tj T* 0.0038 Tc 0.0086 Tw (signi?cant staff redundancies. 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There are multiple ways of)Tj T* -0.0188 Tc 0.0062 Tw [(obtaining quali?cations, such as through pro)-9.8(duct vendors,)]TJ T* 0.0199 Tc 0.0879 Tw (professional associations, and the training houses of)Tj T* 0.0083 Tc 0.0041 Tw (global corporations. Additionally some non-university)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc 0.1744 Tw (research institutions are seeking authority to offer)Tj T* 0.0247 Tc -0.0123 Tw (degrees. . . . \(In countries like Australia\). . . recently)Tj T* 0.0093 Tc 0.0031 Tw (amended national protocols for the approval of higher)Tj T* -0.0061 Tc -0.0015 Tw (education providers will facilitate the entry of new com-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (petitors. 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The student-as-consumer trend is)]TJ T* 0.0199 Tc 0.0179 Tw (also now resulting in a growth in truth in advertising litigation)Tj T* -0.01 Tc -0.0026 Tw (against universities, as students sue postsecondary institutions under)Tj T* -0.0011 Tc 0.0085 Tw (provisions of statutes like contract law for not delivering what was)Tj T* -0.002 Tc 0.0094 Tw (promised in their prospectus. There are numerous examples of liti-)Tj T* -0.0051 Tc -0.007 Tw (gation against universities around the world \(see, for example, )Tj /F4 1 Tf 24.9098 0 TD 0 Tw (Uni-)Tj -24.9098 -1.3636 TD (versity Affairs Canada)Tj /F2 1 Tf 8.4381 0 TD -0.005 Tc (, 2008\).)Tj -7.0745 -1.3636 TD 0.0247 Tc -0.0073 Tw (In some countries, more and more students are enrolled full)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0094 Tc 0.008 Tw (time but are working a signi?cant number of hours per week. 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[Nimon,)Tj T* 0.005 Tc 0 Tw (2007, p. 40])Tj -0.8182 -2.7273 TD -0.0084 Tc 0.0008 Tw [(Nimon?)54.8(s discussion of the implications for higher education sug-)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (gests, for example, that Generation Y students: )Tj 1.4545 -2.7273 TD [(?)-394.1(Can have a quite different interpretation of what)]TJ 1 -1.3636 TD (access and a timely response mean compared to older)Tj T* -0.0002 Tc (generations)Tj -1 -1.7045 TD -0.0001 Tc [(?)-394.1(Not only expect an institutional response to their con-)]TJ 1 -1.3636 TD (cerns but expect it within a rapid timeframe that insti-)Tj T* (tutions may not traditionally be structured to achieve)Tj -1 -1.7045 TD [(?)-394.1(May be reluctant to engage in long-term planning and)]TJ 1 -1.3636 TD (tend to focus on the more immediate bene?ts of their)Tj T* (education)Tj -1 -1.7045 TD [(?)-394.1(Have limited instructional loyalty and will readily shift)]TJ 1 -1.3636 TD (institutions if not happy)Tj -1 -1.7045 TD [(?)-394.1(Are likely to have different attitudes to W)54.8(eb-based pla-)]TJ 1 -1.3636 TD (giarism and knowledge)Tj ET Q 41 719 176.04 13.03 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxd 1/21/09 11:04 AM Page 18)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 39 0 obj > endobj 40 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.03 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 130 609.8065 Tm 0 g -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(?)-394.1(Can expect to be catered to and may not be as self-)]TJ 1 -1.3636 TD (reliant as previous generations)Tj -1 -1.9091 TD [(?)-394.1(May not comprehend the notion of standards of)]TJ 1 -1.3636 TD (achievement and expect a pass for anything they sub-)Tj T* (mit, irrespective of its quality)Tj -1 -1.9091 TD [(?)-394.1(Use peer group references and word of mouth to decide)]TJ 1 -1.3636 TD (where to enroll rather than traditional marketing tech-)Tj T* (niques, making it vital that currently enrolled Millen-)Tj T* (nials have a positive tertiary experience. [pp. 36?39])Tj -1.0909 -3 TD -0.0032 Tc -0.0044 Tw (The important role played by the peer group for this generation)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0086 Tc 0.001 Tw (can be seen in the widespread use of online sites like Bored of Stud-)Tj T* 0.006 Tc 0.0064 Tw (ies or MySpace to discuss which university to go to and how they)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (perform.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0199 Tc 0.0475 Tw (Handling the challenge posed by this generation of ?digital)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0051 Tc -0.0043 Tw (natives? is now front and center for higher education. For example,)Tj T* -0.0083 Tc (one of the most popular sessions at the 2007 annual meeting of aca-)Tj T* 0.0008 Tc 0.0066 Tw [(demic librarians in W)54.7(ashington, DC, was on how to help students)]TJ T* -0.0054 Tc -0.0072 Tw (who have learned many of their information gathering and analysis)Tj T* -0.0149 Tc 0.0023 Tw [(skills from video games apply that knowledge in the library)74.2(. Speakers)]TJ T* -0.0051 Tc -0.0004 Tw (said that gaming skills are in many ways representative of a broader)Tj T* 0.0028 Tc 0.0046 Tw [(cultural divide between to)-10(day?)54.8(s college students and the librarians)]TJ T* -0.0051 Tc 0 Tw (who hope to assist them.)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0318 Tc 0.0042 Tw (As George M. Needham \(2007\), vice president for member services)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0217 Tc -0.0059 Tw [(of the Online Computer Library Center)54.9(, observed, this does not mean)]TJ T* -0.0191 Tc 0.0115 Tw (that college libraries should ?tear up the stacks to put in arcades,? but)Tj T* -0.0257 Tc -0.0019 Tw (it does mean that they need to rethink many assumptions. ?The librar-)Tj T* -0.0329 Tc 0.0053 Tw (ian as information priest is as dead as Elvis,? Needham said. ?The whole)Tj T* -0.022 Tc -0.0056 Tw (?gestalt? of the academic library has been set up like a church,? he said,)Tj T* -0.0022 Tc -0.0054 Tw [(with various parts of a reading room acting like ?the stations of the)]TJ T* -0.0107 Tc 0.0031 Tw (cross,? all leading up to the ?altar of the reference desk,? where ?you)Tj T* -0.0021 Tc -0.0055 Tw [(make supplication and if you are found worthy)73.7(, you will be helped?)]TJ T* -0.0204 Tc 0 Tw (\(Jaschik)Tj /F4 1 Tf 3.1139 0 TD 0 Tc (,)Tj /F2 1 Tf 0.54 0 TD -0.0205 Tc -0.0021 Tw (2007\). 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These change forces and the concomitant crisis)]TJ T* 0.0098 Tc -0.0074 Tw (are echoed across the recent literature in higher education. Peter)Tj T* -0.0127 Tc -0.0049 Tw (Smith \(2004\) talks about the ?quiet crisis? in U.S. higher education,)Tj T* 0.0061 Tc -0.0037 Tw [(which he de?nes as the reliance on a classic academic mo)-9.9(del that)]TJ T* -0.0201 Tc 0.0025 Tw (??ies in the face of what we know about how people learn, the oppor-)Tj T* -0.0141 Tc -0.0035 Tw (tunities that technology presents to transform the educational enter-)Tj T* 0.0144 Tc -0.012 Tw (prise and our historic record of failure with a rapidly diversifying)Tj T* -0.0142 Tc -0.0034 Tw [(population? \(p. xix\). 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They iden-)]TJ T* -0.0152 Tc -0.0024 Tw (tify four themes: \(1\) ?scal constraints and increased competition; \(2\))Tj T* -0.0171 Tc -0.0005 Tw (calls for accountability; \(3\) growing enrollment and increasing diver-)Tj T* -0.0101 Tc 0 Tw (sity of students; and \(4\) the rise of the information age \(p. 1\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0003 Tc -0.0073 Tw (The literature boils down to two conclusions. One, universities)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0115 Tc 0.0009 Tw (must revisit and rede?ne their public purpose in light of the new)Tj T* -0.0085 Tc (change forces. Second, many universities do not have the focus and)Tj T* -0.002 Tc -0.0056 Tw (wherewithal to take action. 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[pp. 83?84])Tj /F1 1 Tf 13 0 0 13 108 542.8065 Tm -0.0001 Tc (The Moral Imperative for Universities)Tj /F2 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 108 520.3065 Tm 0.0249 Tc 0.1119 Tw (Much of the above traces the links between the exponential)Tj T* 0.0245 Tc -0.0121 Tw (changes in the operating environment of universities and their)Tj T* -0.0039 Tc -0.0037 Tw [(?nancial viability)73.9(. However)54.8(, there is an equally profound set of fac-)]TJ T* 0.009 Tc 0.0034 Tw (tors that relate not just to the ?nancial bene?ts to the individual)Tj T* 0.0078 Tc 0.0046 Tw [(\(PriceW)54.8(aterhouseCoopers, 2007\) but to the personal, moral, and)]TJ T* 0.0009 Tc 0.0115 Tw (societal bene?ts of higher education. Retention at university mat-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.003 Tw [(ters. It matters morally)73.9(, as we know the life chances of people who)]TJ T* 0.0249 Tc 0.0957 Tw (complete a degree are dramatically improved. 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According)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc -0.0106 Tw [(to ACT?)54.8(s ongoing )]TJ 7.9198 0 TD 0.0449 Tc (study of retention and completion, BA/BS)Tj -7.9198 -1.3636 TD 0.0235 Tc 0.0089 Tw (completion rates at )Tj 8.5222 0 TD 0.0035 Tc [(4-year public colleges have been falling from)]TJ -8.5222 -1.3636 TD -0.0055 Tc -0.0021 Tw (a high of 52.8% in 1986 to a 20-year low of 39.5% in 2005? \(Penn-)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (sylvania State University et al., 2006, p. 49\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0064 Tc 0.006 Tw (In short, the new challenge for higher education is not simply)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0121 Tc 0.0003 Tw (to gain students but retain them to graduation. In a detailed his-)Tj T* 0.0151 Tc -0.0027 Tw (torical analysis, two Harvard economists \(Goldin & Katz, 2008\))Tj T* -0.0142 Tc 0.0066 Tw (show that the U.S. outraced the world in education access and com-)Tj T* -0.0106 Tc 0.003 Tw (pletion in secondary schools and in universities for most of the 20th)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc 0.001 Tw [(century until about 1980. During the first perio)-10(d \(up to 1980\),)]TJ T* -0.0122 Tc 0.0046 Tw [(inequality declined. However)54.8(, the gap between those who enter and)]TJ T* 0.006 Tc 0.0064 Tw [(complete postsecondary education and those who enter but don?)17.7(t)]TJ ET Q 41 719 176.04 13.03 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxd 1/21/09 11:04 AM Page 22)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 47 0 obj > endobj 48 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.03 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 11 0 0 11 114 609.8065 Tm 0 g 0.0146 Tc -0.0022 Tw (complete has been increasing over the past 30 years: ?Inequality)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD -0.0034 Tc -0.0042 Tw [(to)-9.9(day is as high as it was during the Great Depression and probably)]TJ T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (for some time before? \(Goldin & Katz, 2008, p. 3\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0114 Tc -0.0012 Tw (And this trend is not just unique to the U.S. For example, in the)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0005 Tc 0.0069 Tw (discussion paper for the 2008 Review of Australian Higher Educa-)Tj T* 0.0038 Tc 0.0036 Tw (tion, it is noted that ?the growth in university-level quali?cations)Tj T* -0.0076 Tc -0.005 Tw (among the general population has not been matched by attainment)Tj T* -0.0053 Tc -0.0073 Tw (of these quali?cations among two of the most disadvantaged groups)Tj T* -0.0161 Tc 0.0035 Tw (in Australia: Indigenous people and people from low socio-economic)Tj T* -0.0081 Tc -0.0045 Tw (status \(SES\) backgrounds? \(Department of Education, Employment)Tj T* -0.0189 Tc 0.0063 Tw [(and W)54.9(orkplace Relations [DEEWR], 2008a, p. 27\). The review high-)]TJ T* 0.0101 Tc -0.0027 Tw (lights that increasing both access and retention of disadvantaged)Tj T* -0.0051 Tc 0.0061 Tw (groups in higher education is crucial not only in terms of the bene-)Tj T* -0.0023 Tw (?ts it brings to the individuals but also to building a prosperous and)Tj T* 0.0033 Tc 0.0041 Tw [(socially inclusive society)73.9(. The ?nal report of the review)73.9(, known as)]TJ T* 0.0133 Tc -0.0059 Tw (the Bradley Report \(Department of Education, Employment and)Tj T* -0.0184 Tc 0.0008 Tw [(W)50.1(ork)-4.8(place Relations, 2008b\),)-237.3(makes wide-ranging recommendations)]TJ T* -0.0042 Tc 0.0066 Tw (which include the establishment of a national independent regula-)Tj T* -0.0232 Tc 0.0056 Tw [(tory bo)-9.9(dy; new indicators and instruments to measure and assure stan-)]TJ T* 0.0149 Tc 0.2986 Tw [(dards; the intro)-9.9(duction of a voucher)36.8(-based ?demand driven)]TJ T* -0.0143 Tc -0.0033 Tw (entitlement system?; and )Tj 9.9665 0 TD -0.01 Tc -0.0026 Tw (a wide range of funding recommendations.)Tj -9.9665 -1.3636 TD -0.0027 Tw [(However)54.8(, of particular interest to us is the review?)55(s focus on improv-)]TJ T* 0.0175 Tc -0.0101 Tw (ing low SES participation and )Tj 12.8344 0 TD 0.0132 Tc -0.0108 Tw (completion rates with key )Tj 11.0203 0 TD 0.0081 Tc 0 Tw (recom-)Tj -23.8547 -1.3636 TD 0.0069 Tc -0.0095 Tw (mendations being that the Australian Government set a national)Tj T* -0.0151 Tc 0.0089 Tw [(target of at least 40 per cent of 25- to 34- year)36.7(-olds having attained a)]TJ T* -0.0039 Tc 0.0013 Tw (quali?cation at )Tj 6.2722 0 TD 0.0011 Tc (bachelor level or )Tj 7.0499 0 TD 0.0062 Tc (above by 2020. \(DEEWR 2008b,)Tj -13.3221 -1.3636 TD -0.0089 Tc -0.0036 Tw [(Recommendation 2, p.)-228.8(20\) )]TJ 10.8644 0 TD -0.0127 Tc -0.0049 Tw (and that the Australian Government set)Tj -10.8644 -1.3636 TD -0.0211 Tc 0.0035 Tw (a national target that, by 2020, 20 per cent of higher education enrol-)Tj T* -0.0224 Tc 0.0048 Tw (ments at undergraduate level are people from low socio-economic sta-)Tj T* -0.0101 Tc 0 Tw (tus backgrounds. \(DEEWR 2008b, Recommendation 4, p. 45\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0288 Tc 0.0062 Tw (So, college participation rates?a function of access?are still prob-)Tj -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0042 Tc 0.0016 Tw (lematic, but far more important are those \(typically from disadvan-)Tj T* -0.0114 Tc 0.0088 Tw (taged groups\) who fail to complete their degrees after they enter the)Tj T* -0.0216 Tc -0.001 Tw (program: ?College )Tj /F4 1 Tf 7.1897 0 TD 0 Tw (completion)Tj /F2 1 Tf 4.0652 0 TD -0.001 Tw (rates have not kept pace and the United)Tj 9 0 0 9 218.3452 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw [(Universities and the Challenges of the 21st Century)-1777.9(23)]TJ ET Q 41 719 176.04 13.03 re f BT /F3 1 Tf 8 0 0 8 45 723 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw (c01.qxd 1/21/09 11:04 AM Page 23)Tj ET 1 G 0 J 0 j 0.5 w 10 M []0 d 1 i 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 0 G 0.25 w 42 732 m 42 708 l 0 690 m 24 690 l 474 732 m 474 708 l 516 690 m 492 690 l 42 0 m 42 24 l 0 42 m 24 42 l 474 0 m 474 24 l 516 42 m 492 42 l S 1 G 0.5 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S 0 G 0.25 w 234 720 m 282 720 l 234 12 m 282 12 l 12 390 m 12 342 l 504 390 m 504 342 l 258 732 m 258 708 l 258 24 m 258 0 l 0 366 m 24 366 l 492 366 m 516 366 l 258 720 m 264 720 l 264 716.688 261.312 714 258 714 c 254.688 714 252 716.688 252 720 c 252 723.312 254.688 726 258 726 c 261.312 726 264 723.312 264 720 c 258 12 m 264 12 l 264 8.688 261.312 6 258 6 c 254.688 6 252 8.688 252 12 c 252 15.312 254.688 18 258 18 c 261.312 18 264 15.312 264 12 c 12 366 m 18 366 l 18 362.688 15.312 360 12 360 c 8.688 360 6 362.688 6 366 c 6 369.312 8.688 372 12 372 c 15.312 372 18 369.312 18 366 c 504 366 m 510 366 l 510 362.688 507.312 360 504 360 c 500.688 360 498 362.688 498 366 c 498 369.312 500.688 372 504 372 c 507.312 372 510 369.312 510 366 c S endstream endobj 49 0 obj > endobj 50 0 obj > stream 1 g /GS2 gs 0 732 m 0 732 l f q 1 i 0 732 516 -732 re 0 732 m W n 0 732.03 516 -732 re W n BT /F2 1 Tf 9 0 0 9 83.5 642.7961 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(24)-1722.2(T)]TJ 6.75 0 0 6.75 114.0029 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc (URNAROUND)Tj 9 0 0 9 161.6325 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (L)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 166.6357 642.7961 Tm -0.0001 Tc [(EADERSHIP)-333.5(FO)-19.9(R)]TJ 9 0 0 9 221.5283 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (H)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 228.5288 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc (IGHER)Tj 9 0 0 9 251.7803 642.7961 Tm 0 Tc (E)Tj 6.75 0 0 6.75 256.7834 642.7961 Tm -0.0002 Tc [(DUCA)110.6(TION)]TJ 11 0 0 11 108 609.8065 Tm -0.0151 Tc 0.0125 Tw (States has fallen to the middle-of-the-pack among OECD nations in)Tj 0 -1.3636 TD -0.0189 Tc -0.0037 Tw [(four)36.7(-year college graduation rates for recent cohorts? \(Goldin & Katz,)]TJ T* -0.0345 Tc 0.0069 Tw [(2)-5.1(0)-5.1(0)-5.1(8, p. 326, emphasis in original\). It is signi?cant that the Gates Foun-)]TJ T* -0.0253 Tc -0.0023 Tw (dation has just retooled its strategy to include a focus on postsecondary)Tj T* -0.0104 Tc 0.0028 Tw (graduation in which the foundation notes that only 20% of )Tj 23.5896 0 TD 0.0045 Tc 0 Tw (African)Tj -23.5896 -1.3636 TD -0.0114 Tc -0.0012 Tw (American and Hispanic students who enroll in a postsecondary pro-)Tj T* -0.0051 Tc -0.0063 Tw (gram actually complete their degrees \(Cech, 2008; Robelen, 2008\). )Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0161 Tc -0.0038 Tw [(In summary)73.8(, it is time that universities moved away from the)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.001 Tc 0.0114 Tw (weak metric of access \(quantity\) to the more revealing measure of)Tj T* 0.0061 Tc 0.0063 Tw (degree completion \(quality\). The real economy of investment for)Tj T* -0.0051 Tc -0.0025 Tw [(society is pro)-9.8(ducing high-quality graduates?anything less is waste-)]TJ T* 0.019 Tc -0.0066 Tw (ful. Whether one argues from an economic or from a moral per-)Tj T* -0.0004 Tc -0.0072 Tw (spective it is clear that the quality of higher education experiences)Tj T* -0.0063 Tc -0.0013 Tw (and outcomes for students, especially disadvantaged ones, is declin-)Tj T* -0.0038 Tc -0.0038 Tw (ing and has been for some time. The interplay of the ?nancial with)Tj T* 0.0026 Tc 0.0098 Tw (the moral has created a core dilemma for many university leaders:)Tj T* 0.0249 Tc -0.0077 Tw (how best to balance catering to market forces \(and, as a conse-)Tj T* -0.0134 Tc 0.0058 Tw (quence, achieving sustained ?nancial viability\) with delivering their)Tj T* -0.0142 Tc 0.0066 Tw (mission of achieving their traditional moral and public purposes \(see)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0 Tw (also Blackmore & Sachs, 2000\).)Tj 1.3636 -1.3636 TD 0.0041 Tc 0.0083 Tw [(Our book is about reversing the 30-year)36.7(-old trend of declining)]TJ -1.3636 -1.3636 TD -0.0001 Tc -0.0019 Tw [(quality)73.9(, especially with respect to learning and outcomes for disad-)]TJ T* -0.0016 Tc -0.006 Tw [(vantaged students. W)54.7(e)0( will argue that turnaround leadership is not)]TJ T* 0.0139 Tc -0.0015 Tw (just about balancing a complex portfolio. It is, in a very real and)Tj T* -0.0063 Tc -0.0013 Tw (multifaceted sense, about leaders fostering change-capable cultures.)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc -0.0048 Tw [(It is about mo)-9.9(deling change leadership, being a learner)54.8(, and giving)]TJ T* 0.0098 Tc 0.0026 Tw (students experiences that develop their leadership capabilities so)Tj T* 0.0013 Tc 0.0111 Tw (that they enter the world of work and citizenry ready to challenge)Tj T* -0.0041 Tc -0.0035 Tw (and respond to other leaders. It is about individual and societal ful-)Tj T* 0.0155 Tc -0.0031 Tw [(?llment through the pro)-9.9(ductive interplay of partisan differences)]TJ T* 0.002 Tc 0.0104 Tw (leading toward greater uni?cation of direction. Many universities,)Tj T* -0.0001 Tc 0.0012 Tw (as we will show in Chapter 2, are not yet ready for this demanding)Tj T* 0.0199 Tc -0.0075 Tw (challenge. 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Table of Contents

Preface.

About the Authors.

1. Universities and the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century.

2. Failed Strategies.

3. The New Agenda.

4. Making It Happen: Building Quality and Capacity.

5. Leadership Capacity for Turnaround.

6. Leadership Selection and Learning.

7. Lead, Lead, Lead.

References.

Index.