The first comprehensive account of U.S. development aid policies and implementation operations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, this work is a unique contribution to world history and to the extensive literature on "Third World" development. Butterfield begins with the remarkable story of why, in 1949, President Truman surprised Americans with his unprecedented development aid policy. He then describes the major alterations in U.S. development aid strategy and operations from 1950 to 2000. Drawing upon his long experience both in Washington and in country aid missions, Butterfield puts a human face on the story by weaving real world vignettes into his narrative. The survey addresses the role of Congress, important program foundations established in the 1950s, creative initiatives of the 1960s, frustrated promises in Vietnam. It explores the Third World's unexpected population explosion; America's evolving technical assistance work in the core sectors such as agriculture, education, health, and administration; and initiatives to reach the rural poor and promote the development role of women. It also comments upon linkages between policy dialogue and financial aid to promote market-oriented policy reforms, Africa's lagging development, and the decline of U.S. development aid in the 1990s.