Ultra-Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: A New MRI Regime

Hardcover | March 17, 2014

byRobert Kraus, Michelle Espy, Per Magnelind

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This book is designed to introduce the reader to the field of NMR/MRI at very low magnetic fields, from milli-Tesla to micro-Tesla, the ultra-low field (ULF) regime. The book is focused on applications to imaging the human brain, and hardware methods primarily based upon pre-polarizationmethods and SQUID-based detection. The goal of the text is to provide insight and tools for the reader to better understand what applications are best served by ULF NMR/MRI approaches. A discussion of the hardware challenges, such as shielding, operation of SQUID sensors in a dynamic fieldenvironment, and pulsed magnetic field generation are presented. One goal of the text is to provide the reader a framework of understanding the approaches to estimation and mitigation of low signal-to-noise and long imaging time, which are the main challenges. Special attention is paid to the combination of MEG and ULF MRI, and the benefits and challengespresented by trying to accomplish both with the same hardware. The book discusses the origin of unique relaxation contrast at ULF, and special considerations for image artifacts and how to correct them (i.e. concomitant gradients, ghost artifacts). A general discussion of MRI, with specialconsideration to the challenges of imaging at ULF and unique opportunities in pulse sequences, is presented. The book also presents an overview of some of the primary applications of ULF NMR/MRI being pursued.

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This book is designed to introduce the reader to the field of NMR/MRI at very low magnetic fields, from milli-Tesla to micro-Tesla, the ultra-low field (ULF) regime. The book is focused on applications to imaging the human brain, and hardware methods primarily based upon pre-polarizationmethods and SQUID-based detection. The goal of t...

The authors are or have recently been members of the Los Alamos "SQUID Team" that pioneered a variety of Ultra-Low Field MRI applications including ULF MRI in conjunction with MEG (magnetoencephalography) for concurrent imaging of anatomy and function in the human brain, and ULF Relaxometry used to detect dangerous substances in securi...

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Format:HardcoverDimensions:304 pages, 10 × 7 × 0.98 inPublished:March 17, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199796432

ISBN - 13:9780199796434

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Table of Contents

John Clarke: ForewordPrefaceAcknowledgmentsCommon Acronyms and AbbreviationsCommon Constants and Conversions1. Fundamental Principles of NMR and MRI at ULF1.1. Introduction1.2. Characteristics of NMR Signal1.3. Introducing Signal-to-Noise and Contrast-to-Noise1.4. NMR and MRI at Ultra-Low Fields1.5. MRI Effects1.6. New Regimes of Physics Accesible at Ultra-Low Field1.7. Summary of MRI and ULF1.8. Summary of HF and ULF MRI Comparisons2. Nuts and Bolts of ULF MRI2.1. Introduction2.2. General Concepts of Pre-Polarization Field Generation2.3. Generation of Measurement Field, Gradients, and Spin-flip2.4. Sensing the ULF-MR Signals2.5. Magnetic Shielding3. Magnetic Resonance Phenomena at ULF3.1. Interaction between the Electromagnetic Radiation and the Nuclear Spins at ULF3.2. Quantum Mechanical Description of Interaction between the Electromagnetic Radiation and the Nuclear Spins3.3. Theory of Relaxometry (Focused on Magnetic Field Dependence)4. Imaging Techniques at ULF4.1. Introduction4.2. General Imaging Concepts (How to do MRI)4.3. ULF MRI4.4. Imaging Techniques: Making the Most of What You Got4.5. On the Plus Side4.6. Conclusions5. Applications in ULF MRI5.1. Multi-modal imaging of human brain anatomy and function: MEG and ULF MRI5.2. New approaches to image human brain function uniquely enabled by ULF MRI5.3. MagViz and ULF NMR relaxometers5.4. A Final WordDisclosuresIndex