This book is a reference text for all those working in free-electron laser research as well as being a learning aid for physicists and graduate students who wish an introduction to this field. Only a basic understanding of relativistic mechanics and electromagnetism is presupposed. After anoverview of early developments and general principles of operation, the different models that can be used to describe free-electron lasers are presented, organized according to their range of applicability. The relevent conceptual and mathematical constructs are built up from first principles withattention to obtaining the practically important results in a simple but rigorous way. Interaction of the undulator with the driving electron accelerator and the laser cavity and design of undulator magnets are treated and an overview is given of some typical experiments.