This is the first major cross-national study of ethnic minority disadvantage in the labour market. It focuses on the experiences of the 'second generation', that is of the children of immigrants, in a range of affluent western countries (western Europe, north America, Australia, Israel). Standard analyses, using the most authoritative available datasets for each country, enable the reader to make precise comparisons. The study reveals that most groups of non-European ancestry continue to experience substantial ethnic penalties in the second (and later) generations. But the magnitudeof these penalties varies quite substantially between countries, with major implications for social policy.This most authoritative account of minority groups in different countries provides important information for policy makers considering their own responses to ethnic minority disadvantage.