Urban Lawyers: The New Social Structure of the Bar

Paperback | July 5, 2005

byJohn P. Heinz

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Over the past several decades, the number of lawyers in large cities has doubled, women have entered the bar at an unprecedented rate, and the scale of firms has greatly expanded. This immense growth has transformed the nature and social structure of the legal profession. In the most comprehensive analysis of the urban bar to date, Urban Lawyers presents a compelling portrait of how these changes continue to shape the field of law today.

Drawing on extensive interviews with Chicago lawyers, the authors demonstrate how developments in the profession have affected virtually every aspect of the work and careers of urban lawyers-their relationships with clients, job tenure and satisfaction, income, social and political values, networks of professional connections, and patterns of participation in the broader community. Yet despite the dramatic changes, much remains the same. Stratification of income and power based on gender, race, and religious background, for instance, still maintains inequality within the bar.

The authors of Urban Lawyers conclude that organizational priorities will likely determine the future direction of the legal profession. And with this landmark study as their guide, readers will be able to make their own informed predictions.

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Over the past several decades, the number of lawyers in large cities has doubled, women have entered the bar at an unprecedented rate, and the scale of firms has greatly expanded. This immense growth has transformed the nature and social structure of the legal profession. In the most comprehensive analysis of the urban bar to date, Urb...

John P. Heinz is the Owen L. Coon Professor of Law at Northwestern University and senior research fellow at the American Bar Foundation. He is coauthor with Edward O. Laumann of Chicago Lawyers: The Social Structure of the Bar. Robert L. Nelson is professor of sociology at Northwestern University and director of the American Bar Founda...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:352 pages, 9 × 6 × 1 inPublished:July 5, 2005Publisher:University Of Chicago PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0226325407

ISBN - 13:9780226325408

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

Contents

List of Tables and Figures

Preface

Part I The Professions of the Bar

Chapter 1 Chicago Lawyers Revisited

Prior Research

The Data

The Issues

Chapter 2 The Changing Character of Lawyers' Work

with Ethan Michelson

The 1975 "Two-Hemispheres" Finding: Methodological Issues

1995 Patterns of Co-practice

Specialization by Field

Client Differentiation by Field

Allocation of Time in 1975 and 1995

Conclusion

Chapter 3 Integration and Separation

Integrative Mechanisms

Bar Associations

Law School Stratification

Ethnoreligious Differences

Race, Gender, and Family Background

Practice Setting

Structure and Opportunity

Part II The Hierarchies of the Bar

Chapter 4 Prestige

Three Theories of Honor

Prestige

Determinants of Prestige

Core Economic Values, or Professional Purity

Participation in Prestigious Work

Conclusion

Chapter 5 Organizations

The Economic Dominance of Large Law Firms

Organization-Linked Advantage

A Typology of Law Firms

Democracy and Participation

Professional Autonomy

Determinants of Compensation

Changing Management Policies

Organizing Principles

Hours Worked

Task Structure

Change and Continuity

Chapter 6 Careers

with Kathleen E. Hull

Work History and Careers

Career Stability

The Golden Age and Its Fading

Paths to Eminence in the Profession

Lawyers Not Practicing

Conclusion

Chapter 7 Income and Income Inequality

Structural Sources of Inequality

Nonpracticing Lawyers

Individual-Level Correlates of Income

Equal Justice

 

Part III Lawyers' Lives

Chapter 8 Divided Opinions

with Monique R. Payne

The Chicago Data

Differences among Types of Lawyers

Adaptation to Client Values?

Social Values

Conclusion

Chapter 9 Community Roles

with Paul S. Schnorr

The Chicago Data

Overall Participation

Correlates of Overall Participation

Who Participates Where?

Correlates of Participation by Organization Type

Leaders

Conclusion

Appendix: Period, Age, and Cohort Effects

Chapter 10 Connections within the Bar

The 1975 Networks

The 1995 Networks

The Structure of the Networks

Ethnoreligious and Political Divisions

Conclusion

Appendix: Notables' Biographies (as of 199495)

Chapter 11 A Satisfying Profession?

with Kathleen E. Hull and Ava A. Harter

Research on Job Satisfaction

The Chicago Findings

Happy Hour at the Bar?

Part IV Transformation

Chapter 12 The Processes of Change

Autonomy and Influence

The Decline of Professional Dominance

Demand

Reasons for Growth

Changes in Firm Structure and Management

Lawyer-Client Relationships

Organizational Boundaries

Business Methods

Conclusion

Notes

References

Index

Editorial Reviews

"Like its predecessor, Urban Lawyers is an excellent and important book. The authors have gathered a vast amount of high-quality data and have painstakingly analyzed it from a variety of angles. The result is a detailed and wide-ranging map of the legal profession during a period of transition. The book will be of great interest to scholars of the legal profession and of the professions more generally. Indeed, it will serve as an indispensable reference point for future research in these areas."