User-Centred Design of Systems by Jan NoyesUser-Centred Design of Systems by Jan Noyes

User-Centred Design of Systems

byJan Noyes, Chris Baber

Paperback | July 16, 1999

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System design has conventionally been the province of engineers, and the approaches taken to the design of systems have conventionally led to formal specification of the system. The past decade or two has seen the rise of another approach, that of human-computer interaction (HCI). Given the number of incidents and accidents which are attributed to 'human error', it is sensible to develop an approach to system design which views humans as an essential element in the system. Thus, an important aspect of designing systems is the study of the interaction between humans and the technology that they use. In terms of bringing computers and computing to a wide audience, the 1980s were the boom years. The first personal computer (PC) was launched onto the market in February 1978, and since then, PCs have become a common-place feature of our homes, offices, schools, retail outlets, hospitals, banks, etc. Within Western society today, there are very few organisations that have not been infiltrated by computer technology, and few individuals who have not had experience of computers. However, the increase in use of computers has not been matched with a corresponding spread of training of users; much of the human-computer interaction research has sought to design systems which do not require special training, i. e. which people can simply walk up to and use. Not surprisingly, this has resulted in a number of difficulties; some of which have yet to be satisfactorily resolved.
Title:User-Centred Design of SystemsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:222 pagesPublished:July 16, 1999Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/Trade

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3540760075

ISBN - 13:9783540760078

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Table of Contents

1 Defining Systems.- 1 What Is a System?.- 1.1 Systems.- 1.2 Levels of Systems.- 1.3 Levels of Design.- 1.4 Paradoxical Technology.- 1.5 Allocation of Function.- 1.6 Mission Analysis.- 1.7 Conclusions.- 1.8 Exercise.- 1.9 Selected References.- 2 Who Will Use the System? 17.- 2.1 Users.- 2.2 Defining Users.- 2.3 Humans as Systems.- 2.4 Eliciting User Knowledge.- 2.5 Conclusions.- 2.6 Exercises 2 and.- 2.7 Selected References.- 3 What Will the System Be Used For? 37.- 3.1 Communication of Information.- 3.2 Presenting Information to the Human.- 3.3 Stimulus-central Processing-Response Compatibility.- 3.4 Conclusions.- 3.5 Exercise.- 3.6 Selected References.- 4 What Are the Main Components of the System? 55.- 4.1 Operational Level Interfaces.- 4.2 Input Technologies.- 4.3 Output Technologies.- 4.4 Control-Display Relationships.- 4.5 Conclusions.- 4.6 Exercise.- 4.7 Selected References 5.- 2 Developing Systems.- 5 How Will the System Be Designed?.- 5.1 Life cycles.- 5.2 Generic Activities in System Development.- 5.3 User involvement.- 5.4 Modelling Engineering Approaches.- 5.5 Conclusions.- 5.6 Selected References.- 6 How Well Do the Users Think the System Works?.- 6.1 The Need for Methods.- 6.2 Subjective Methods.- 6.3 Heuristics.- 6.4 Checklists.- 6.5 Questionnaires.- 6.6 Interviews.- 6.7 Focus Groups.- 6.8 Conclusions.- 6.9 Exercise 6.- 6.10 Selected References.- 7 How Well Does the System Really Work?.- 7.1 Objective Methods.- 7.2 Observation.- 7.3 Requirements' Capture.- 7.4 Task Analysis.- 7.5 Error Identification.- 7.6 Human Reliability Assessment.- 7.7 Conclusions.- 7.8 Exercise.- 7.9 Selected References.- 8 How Well Does the System Under Development Work? 135.- 8.1 Empirical Methods.- 8.2 Experimentation.- 8.3 User Trialling.- 8.4 User Modelling.- 8.5 Analyses and Reporting.- 8.6 Conclusions.- 8.7 Exercise.- 8.8 Selected References.- 9 Can the System Be Improved? 147.- 9.1 Summative Evaluation.- 9.2 Performance Measures.- 9.3 Usability.- 9.4 Modelling and Simulations.- 9.5 Mock-ups, Walkthroughs and Talkthroughs.- 9.6 Verbal Protocols.- 9.7 'Fitting Trials' and Mannequins.- 9.8 Data Collection and Recording Methods.- 9.9 Conclusions.- 9.10 Exercise.- 9.11 Selected References.- 3 Deploying Systems 165.- 10 How Can the System Be Introduced Into a Workplace?.- 10.1 Defining the Workplace.- 10.2 New Technology.- 10.3 Implications for Organisations.- 10.4 Productivity and Computers.- 10.5 Introducing New Technology.- 10.6 Job Design.- 10.7 Health and Safety.- 10.8 Conclusions.- 10.9 Selected References.- 11 How Will the System Be Used in the Workplace?.- 11.1 At the End of the Life Cycle.- 11.2 Assessing Effectiveness.- 11.3 Role of Ergonomics.- 11.4 A Final Comment.- 11.5 Selected References.- 12 Bibliography.- Periodicals.- Magazines and Bulletins.- Conference Proceedings.- 13 References.