This is a sequel to Strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention by Confidence-Building Measures edited by E. Geissler (OUP/SIPRI 1989). During work on that book, it was felt that there was a need for more concrete discussion of how to provide the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) withuseful verification measures. Since the verification aspects of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) will complement the BWC, and vice versa, it is often argued that the CWC must be finalized before concrete verification measures for the BWC can be addressed. However, it is already rather clearwhat measures will be in effect under the CWC, and this information can be utilized to provide input to the preliminary technical work on verification measures for the BWC. This publication will identify and develop suggestions for verification measures for the BWC, and their possible dual function for verification and confidence-building will also be explored in contributions by ten leading experts in the field.