Virtual Lesions: Examining Cortical Function with Reversible Deactivation

Hardcover | June 1, 2002

EditorStephen Lomber, Ralf Galuske

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The study of brain lesions and their impact on cognition and behavior has been the dominant tool used to examine the complex function of the brain for the last three centuries. By testing neuropsychological deficits that correlate with a lesion in a particular part of the brain, it is possibleto hypothesise about the role and cognitive function of that individual brain area. Over the past several decades, the rapid development and implementation of many new technologies to visualize brain activity has greatly augmented our understanding of brain function. However, even now there aremany experimental questions that are difficult, if not impossible to answer in any way other than lesion techniques. Such studies though are not without their own challenges to overcome such as lesion-induced neuroplasticity, widespread degenerative changes, and the permanent nature of a lesion.Recent developments in different fields of neuroscience have provided tools to overcome many of the problems related to conventional lesion techniques and have succeeded to synthesizing these new approaches with a variety of new techniques to visualize brain activity on the level of individualneurons as well as on the level of cognitive performance. These 'virtual lesions' involve the temporary deactivation of a part of the brain, by means of a range of techniques that have been recently developed. Because these deactivations are reversible, and leave the neuronal substrate unaffected, they provide a much more controllable, and rigorous way oftesting subjects. These 'virtual lesion' approaches provide an essential bridge across the gap between basic research and computational approaches and provide mechanisms to test the applicability of models and their annexant hypotheses. 'Virtual Lesions' provides a state of the art guide to thefull range of reversible deactivation techniques available. With each chapter written by experts in their respective field, and providing evidence of the practical applications of their methods, along with potential pitfalls, the book will serve as a valuable and practical guide for futureexperimentation within cognitive neuroscience.

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The study of brain lesions and their impact on cognition and behavior has been the dominant tool used to examine the complex function of the brain for the last three centuries. By testing neuropsychological deficits that correlate with a lesion in a particular part of the brain, it is possibleto hypothesise about the role and cognitive...

Stephen Lomber, Cerebral systems laboratory, University of Texas at Dallas, USA. Ralf Galuske, Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, Germany.
Format:HardcoverDimensions:372 pages, 9.45 × 6.61 × 0.1 inPublished:June 1, 2002Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:019850893X

ISBN - 13:9780198508939

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Table of Contents

Exploring Neural Circuits1. J.M. Crook, Z.F. Kisvarday and U.T. Eysel: Intracortical Mechanisms Underlying Orientation and Direction Selectivity Studied with the GABA-Inactivation Technique2. V. Dragoi, C. Rivadulla and M. Sur: Contributions of Ascending Thalamic and Local Intracortical Connections to Visual Cortical Function3. C. Casanova: In Search of the Role of Extrageniculate Cortico-thalamic Loops in Visual Processing Using Reversible Deactivation Techniques4. A.E.P.Villa: Cortical Modulation of Auditory Processing in the Thalamus5. P. Girard and J. Bullier: Reversible Deactivation of Feedforward and Feedback Pathways in the Visual Cortex of the Monkey6. R.A.W. Galuske, D.S.Kim and K.E. Schmidt: Examining the Basis of Neural Plasticity Using Chronic Pharmacological ApplicationsInvestigating Behaviour in Animals7. B.R. Payne and S.G. Lomber: The Use of Cooling Deactivation to Reveal the Neural Basis of Lesion-Induced Plasticity in the Developing and Mature Cerebral Cortex8. J.H. Martin and C. Ghez: Dissecting the Organization of Cortical and Subcortical Circuits for Skilled Limb Movement Control in Development and Maturity with Reversible Deactivation9. M.A. Segraves: Cerebral Control of Eye Movements10. G. Sierra-Paredes and J.M. Fuster: Reversible Impairment of an Auditory-Visual Association Task During Cooling of Prefrontal CortexProbing the Human Brain11. V. Walsh and A. Pascual-Leone: Case Studies in Virtual Neuropsychology: Reversible Deactivation and Magnetic Brain Stimulation12. A. Pascual-Leone and R.H. Hamilton: Metamodal Cortical Processing in the Occipital Cortex of Blind and Signed Subjects13. B. Boroojerdi and L.G. Cohen: Excitability of Human Visual Cortex Examined with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation14. U. Ziemann: Negative Phenomena Induced by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Human Primary Motor Cortex