Viruses In Foods by Sagar M. GoyalViruses In Foods by Sagar M. Goyal

Viruses In Foods

bySagar M. GoyalEditorJennifer L. Cannon

Hardcover | September 2, 2016

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Foodborne viruses are an important group of pathogens recognized to cause significant disease globally, in terms of both number of illnesses and severity of disease. Contamination of foods by enteric viruses, such as human norovirus and hepatitis A and E viruses, is a major concern to public health and food safety. Food Virology is a burgeoning field of emphasis for scientific research. Many developments in foodborne virus detection, prevention and control have been made in recent years and are the basis of this publication.

This second edition of Viruses in Foods provides an up-to-date description of foodborne viruses of public health importance, including their epidemiology and methods for detection, prevention and control. It uniquely includes case reports of past outbreaks with implications for better control of future outbreaks, a section that can be considered a handbook for foodborne virus detection, and updated and expanded information on virus prevention and control, with chapters on natural virucidal compounds in foods and risk assessment of foodborne viruses.

Sagar M. Goyal is a Professor of Virology in the Veterinary Population Medicine Department at the University of Minnesota's College of Veterinary Medicine.Jennifer L. Cannon is an Associate Professor of Food Virology at the University of Georgia's Center for Food Safety and in the Department of Food Science and Technology.  
Title:Viruses In FoodsFormat:HardcoverDimensions:512 pagesPublished:September 2, 2016Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:3319307215

ISBN - 13:9783319307213


Table of Contents

. Food Virology: Advances and Needsharles P. Gerbabr>eferencesbr>. Human and Animal Viruses in Food (Including Taxonomy of Enteric Viruses)ail E. Greening, Jennifer L. Cannon.0  Introduction.0  Hepatitis A virus2.1  Distribution and transmission2.2  Taxonomy and morphology2.3  Growth and biological properties2.4  Infection and disease2.5  Foodborne disease.0  Hepatitis E virus3.1  Distribution and transmission3.2  Taxonomy and morphology3.3  Growth and biological properties3.4  Infection and disease3.5  Foodborne disease3.6  Zoonotic transmission.0  Norovirus 4.1  Distribution and transmission4.2  Taxonomy and morphology4.3  Growth and biological properties4.4  Infection and disease4.5  Foodborne disease4.6  Zoonotic transmission.0  Sapovirus.1  Distribution and transmission5.2  Taxonomy and morphology5.3  Growth and biological properties5.4  Infection and disease5.5  Foodborne disease5.6  Zoonotic transmission.0  Rotavirus6.1  Distribution and transmission6.2  Taxonomy and morphology6.3  Growth and biological properties6.4  Infection and disease6.5  Foodborne disease.6  Zoonotic transmission.0  Astrovirus7.1  Distribution and transmission7.2  Taxonomy and morphology7.3  Growth and biological properties7.4  Infection and disease7.5  Foodborne disease.0  Other viruses with potential for foodborne transmission8.1  Adenovirus8.2  Enterovirus8.3  Aichivirus.4  Parvovirus8.5  Coronavirus8.6  Torovirus8.7  Picobirnavirus8.8  Tick-borne encephalitis virus8.9  Other foodborne routes of virus transmission.0   Summary and conclusions0.0   Referencesbr>. The Molecular Virology of Enteric Virusesavier Buesa, Jesús Rodriguez-Díazbr>.0 Caliciviruses: Noroviruses and Sapoviruses1.1. Structure and Composition 
1.2. Genomes and Proteins
1.3. Molecular Diversity of Noroviruses
1.4. Genetic Classification of Sapoviruses
1.5. Virus Replication
1.6. Virus-Cell Interactions
.0 Rotaviruses2.1. Virus Classification2.2. Structure of the Virion2.3. The Genome2.4. Mechanisms of Evolution and Strain Diversity2.5. Genome Replication2.6. Cell infection2.7. The NSP4 Enterotoxin.0 Astroviruses3.1. Structure of the Virion3.2. Genome and Proteins.0 Enteroviruses4.1. Polioviruses4.2. Kobuviruses.0 Hepatitis A Virus5.1. The Genome5.2. Proteins5.3. Virus Replication.0 Hepatitis E Virus&6.1. The Genome6.2. Genetic Variants6.3. Proteins6.4. Replication.0 Enteric Adenovirus.0 Summary.0 Referencesbr>. Epidemiology of Food-borne Virusesron J. Hallbr>.0  Introduction.0  Disease Burden2.1  Challenges and Methods to Estimating Burden2.2  Burden in the United States2.3  Global Burden.0  Outbreak Surveillance3.1  Outbreak Detection Methods.2  Public Health Investigation.3  National Surveillance Systems.4  Descriptive Epidemiology.0  Summary and Conclusions.0  Referencesbr>. Epidemiology of Viral Foodborne Outbreaks: Role of Food Handlers, Irrigation Water, and Surfacesraig Hedbergbr>.0 Introduction.0 Outbreak detection, investigation, and surveillance.0 Role of food handlers.0 Role of irrigation water.0 Role of surface contamination.0 Summary and conclusions7.0 Referencesbr>. Case Studies and Outbreaks - Fresh Producefstathia Papafragkou, Kaoru Hida and Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutritionbr>.0.  Introduction.0.  Case studies and outbreaks2.1  Norovirus outbreaks2.2  Hepatitis A virus outbreaksbr>.0.  Summary and conclusions.0.  Referencesbr>. Shellfish-Associated Enteric Virus Illness: Virus Localization, Disease Outbreaks and Preventionary P. Richardsbr>.0.  Introduction.0.  Virus localization within shellfish.0.  Case studies3.1.  Hepatitis A virus3.2.  Noroviruses3.3.  Hepatitis E virus.0.  Disease prevention4.1.  Routine monitoring and regulations4.2.  Enhanced monitoring and enforcement4.3.  Improved sewage treatment 4.4.  Analytical techniques4.5.  Processing strategies4.6.  Disease reporting and epidemiological follow-up4.7.  Hygienic practices.0.  Summary .0.  Referencesbr>. Outbreaks and case studies - Community and Food Handlersing Wang, Sarah Markland, and Kalmia E. Kniel.0 Introduction.0 Human norovirus2.1 Case study 12.2 Case study 22.3 Case study 32.4 Prevention and controlbr>.0 Rotavirus3.1 Case study 13.2 Case study 23.3 Case study 33.4 Prevention and controlbr>.0 Hepatitis A Virus4.1 Case study 14.2 Prevention and controlbr>.0 Aichivirus.0 Hepatitis E Virus6.1 Case study 16.2 Case study 26.3 Prevention and controlbr>.0 Summary.0 Referencesbr>. Methods for Virus Recovery from Foodsagar M. Goyal and Hamada A. Aboubakr.0 INTRODUCTION.0 FOOD SAMPLING FOR VIRUS DETECTION.0 STRATEGIES FOR RECOVERY OF VIRUSES FROM FOODSbr>3.1 The approach of viral particle recovery3.1.1 Elution of viral particles from food matricesamp; 3.1.2 Clarification of the virus eluate3.1.3 Concentration step3.1.4 Secondary concentration stepbr>3.2 The approach of direct recovery of viral RNA from foodbr>.0 QUALITY ASSURANCE OF VIRUS RECOVERY METHODS FROM FOOD/div>.0 CONCLUSIONS6.0 REFERENCES0. Methods for Virus Recovery in Waterristen E. Gibson and Mark A. Borchardtbr>.0  Introductionbr>.0  Virus recovery methods.1  VIRADEL 2.2  Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration 2.3  Secondary Concentrationbr>2.4  Method Selection: What is important?br>.0  Advantages of virus samplingbr>.0  Summary and conclusionsbr>.0  Referencesbr>1. Molecular Detection Methods of Foodborne Virusesreeti Chhabra & Jan Vinjé.0 Introduction.0 Non-amplification methods2.1 Probe hybridization 2.1.1 Biosensors2.1.2 Nucleic acid aptamers2.1.3 Carbohydrates (Histo-blood group antigens)2.1.4 Quantum dots2.1.5 Microarray.0 Target-specific amplification methods.1 Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR): RT-PCR, nested PCR, multiplex PCR3.1.1 Post amplification analysis and interpretation of results of conventional PCRs3.2 Real-time PCR3.3. Controls: process controls and amplification controls3.3.1 Process controls3.3.2 Amplification controls3.3.3 Interpretation of PCR and qPCR results based on control results.4 Application of conventional and real-time PCRs in detection of viruses in food matrix.5 Isothermal amplification methods3.5.1 Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) Molecular Beacon in NASBA3.5.2 Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).0 Conclusions.0 Referencesbr>2. Methods for Estimating Virus Infectivityoris H. D'Souza
1.0 Introduction.0 RT-PCR for infectious virus detection.1 Enzymatic pretreatments for detection of damaged capsid/loss of infectivity.2 Labelling with biotin hydrazide for detection of oxidatively damaged viral capsids.3 Pretreatment with intercalating dyes followed by molecular assays for  infectivity determination.4 Porcine gastric mucin (PGM) as a method for selective binding of intact viral capsids.5 Other binding-based infectivity assays.6 Cell-culture combinations with molecular based detection (RT-PCR).0 Use of cultivable surrogates for the determination of human norovirus (HuNoV) infectivity3.1 Feline calicivirus as a cultivable HuNoV surrogate to determine infectivity3.2   Murine norovirus as a cultivable surrogate for HuNoV .3 Tulane virus as a cultivable surrogate to determine HuNoV infectivity.4 Porcine sapovirus as a cultivable HuNoV surrogate to determine infectivity.5 Virus-Like particles as surrogates.0 Animal models and human feeding studies 4.1 Animal models4.2 Feeding studies/Human challenge studies.0 Summary and conclusions.0 Referencesbr>3. Survival of Enteric Viruses in the Environment and Food. Sánchez, A. Boschbr>.0 Introductionbr>.0 Methods to study virus persistence in food and the environmentbr>.0 Virus persistence in the environment3.1 Virus persistence in environmental waters 3.2 Virus persistence in soil3.3 Virus persistence in aerosols3.4 Virus persistence on fomites3.5 Virus persistence on hands
4.0 Stability of enteric viruses in food products4.1 Stability of enteric viruses on chilled products 4.2 Stability of enteric viruses under frozen storage 4.3 Effects of relative humidity on enteric virus persistence4.4 Stability of enteric viruses on dried food products4.5 Stability of enteric viruses under modified atmosphere packaging4.6 Effects of acidification on enteric virus survivalbr>.0 Conclusionsbr>.0 Referencesbr>4. Using Microbicidal Chemicals to Interrupt the Spread of Foodborne Virusesyed A. Sattar, Sabah Bidawidbr>.0  Introduction.0 Basic considerations.0 Test methodologies to determine virucidal activity.0 Factors in testing virucidal activity4.1 Test viruses4.2 Nature and design of carriers4.2.1 Environmental surfaces4.2.2 Food items4.2.3 Hands4.3 Nature and level of soil loading4.4 Time and temperature for virus-microbicide contact4.5 Elimination of Cytotoxicity4.6 Neutralization of virucidal activity4.7 Quantitation of virus infectivity4.8 Number of test and control carriers4.9 Product performance criteria.0 Currently available tests5.1 Quantitative suspension tests5.2 Quantitative carrier tests.0 Practical aspects of testing microbicides6.1 Hepatitis A virus strain HM-175 (ATCC VR-1402)6.2 Feline calicivirus strain F9 (ATCC VR-782)6.3 Murine norovirus type 1 (Strain S99)6.4 Human rotavirus - WA strain (ATCC VR-2018)6.5 Additional Controls in virucidal Tests.0 Microbicides in environmental control of foodborne viruses.0 Concluding remarks.0 Referencesbr>5. Virus Inactivation During Food Processinglvin Lee, Stephen Grove.0 Introduction.0 Nonthermal preservation processes2.1 High pressure processing2.1.1 Pressure effects on viruses2.1.2. Comparison of HPP inactivation of various human norovirus surrogates2.1.3 Oyster and bivalve mollusks processing2.2 Irradiation2.3 Pulsed electric field2.4 High-intensity pulsed light2.5 High power ultrasound.0 Sanitizers used in food processing3.1 Chlorine3.2 Organic acid based sanitizers3.3 Electrolyzed water3.4 Chlorine dioxide.0 Summary and conclusions.2 Referencesbr>6. Natural Virucidal Compounds in Foodsright, Damian H. Gilling1.0 Introduction1.1 Types of plant antimicrobials.0 Antiviral activity of compounds from plants2.1 Efficacy of plant antimicrobials against enveloped viruses2.2 Efficacy of plant antimicrobials against non-enveloped virusesbr>.0 Mechanisms of antiviral action3.1 Mechanisms of antiviral activity against enveloped viruses3.2 Mechanisms of antiviral activity against non-enveloped virusesbr>.0 Conclusions.0 Referencesbr>7. Risk Assessment for Foodborne Viruseslizabeth Bradshaw and Lee-Ann Jaykusbr>.0 Introduction to risk analysis1.1 Risk management1.2 Risk communication1.3 Risk assessment.0 Microbial risk assessment.0 Process of risk assessment.0 Structure of risk assessment4.1 Hazard identification4.2 Exposure assessment4.3 Hazard characterization4.4 Risk characterization.0 Elements of risk assessment in food virology5.1 Hazard assessment, risk profiles, and meta analysis5.2 Data for exposure modeling5.3 Predictive microbiology5.4 Hazard characterization.0 Recent risk modeling efforts in food virology6.1 Fresh produce6.1.a Irrigation with wastewater or recycled water6.1.b Fresh produce along the farm-to-fork chain6.2 Molluscan shellfish6.3 RTE foods and food handling6.4 Synthesis comments.0 Conclusions.0 Acknowledgements.0 Referencesbr>ndex