The goal of this book is to put together some of the main interdisciplinary aspects that play a role in visual attention and cognition. The book is aimed at researchers and students with interdisciplinary interest. In the first chapter a general discussion of the influential scanpath theory and its implications for human and robot vision is presented. Subsequently, four characteristic aspects of the general theme are dealt with in topical chapters, each of which presents some of the different viewpoints of the various disciplines involved. They cover neuropsychology, clinical neuroscience, modeling, and applications. Each of the chapters opens with a synopsis tying together the individual contributions.