In this book, we study, under the name of von Neumann algebras, those algebras generally known as “rings of operators“ or “W*-algebras.“ The new terminology, suggested by J. Dieudonng, is fully justified from the historical point of view. Certain of the results are valid for more general algebras. We have, however systematically avoided this kind of generalization, except when it would facilitate the study of von Neumann algebras themselves. Parts I and I1 comprise those results which at present appear to’be the most useful for applications, although we do not embark on the study of those applications. Part 111, which is more technical, is primarily intended for specialists; it is virtually independent of Part 11.