War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views

Paperback | February 4, 2015

EditorDouglas P. Fry

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Have humans always waged war? Is warring an ancient evolutionary adaptation or a relatively recent behavior - and what does that tell us about human nature? In War, Peace, and Human Nature, editor Douglas P. Fry brings together leading experts in such fields as evolutionary biology,archaeology, anthropology, and primatology to answer fundamental questions about peace, conflict, and human nature in an evolutionary context. The chapters in this book demonstrate that humans clearly have the capacity to make war, but since war is absent in some cultures, it cannot be viewed as ahuman universal. And counter to frequent presumption the actual archaeological record reveals the recent emergence of war. It does not typify the ancestral type of human society, the nomadic forager band, and contrary to widespread assumptions, there is little support for the idea that war isancient or an evolved adaptation. Views of human nature as inherently warlike stem not from the facts but from cultural views embedded in Western thinking.Drawing upon evolutionary and ecological models; the archaeological record of the origins of war; nomadic forager societies past and present; the value and limitations of primate analogies; and the evolution of agonism, including restraint; the chapters in this interdisciplinary volume refute manypopular generalizations and effectively bring scientific objectivity to the culturally and historically controversial subjects of war, peace, and human nature.

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Have humans always waged war? Is warring an ancient evolutionary adaptation or a relatively recent behavior - and what does that tell us about human nature? In War, Peace, and Human Nature, editor Douglas P. Fry brings together leading experts in such fields as evolutionary biology,archaeology, anthropology, and primatology to answer f...

Douglas P. Fry, Ph.D., is Director of Peace, Mediation and Conflict Research at Abo Akademi University in Vasa, Finland and an adjunct research scientist in the Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology at the University of Arizona. Fry is author of Beyond War (2007, Oxford) and The Human Potential for Peace (2006, Oxford).

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:584 pages, 9.21 × 6.1 × 1.69 inPublished:February 4, 2015Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0190232463

ISBN - 13:9780190232467

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Table of Contents

Frans B. M. de Waal: ForewordAcknowledgmentsList of Contributors1. Douglas P. Fry: War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Challenge of Scientific ObjectivitySection I: Ecological and Evolutionary Models2. David P. Barash: Evolution and Peace: A Janus Connection3. Hanna Kokko: Conflict and Restraint in Animal Species: Implications for War and Peace4. Peter Verbeek: An Ethological Perspective on War and Peace5. Agustin Fuentes: Cooperation, Conflict, and Niche Construction in the genus HomoSection II: Lessons from Prehistory: War and Peace in the Past6. Robert W. Sussman: Why the Legend of the Killer Ape Never Dies: The Enduring Power of Cultural Beliefs to Distort Our View of Human Nature7. R. Brian Ferguson: Pinker's List: Exaggerating Prehistoric War Mortality8. David H. Dye: Trends in Cooperation and Conflict in Native Eastern North America9. Robert Kelly: From the Peaceful to the Warlike: Ethnographic and Archaeological Insights into Hunter-Gatherer Warfare and Homicide10. Jonathan Haas and Matthew Piscitelli: The Prehistory of Warfare: Misled by Ethnography11. R. Brian Ferguson: The Prehistory of War and Peace in Europe and the Near EastSection III: Nomadic Foragers: Insights about Human Nature12. Kirk Endicott: Peaceful Foragers: The Significance of the Batek and Moriori for the Question of Innate Human Violence13. Robert Tonkinson: Social Control and Conflict Management among Australian Aboriginal Desert People Before and After the Advent of Alcohol14. Marina L. Butovskaya: Aggression and Conflict Resolution among the Nomadic Hadza of Tanzania as Compared with their Pastoralist Neighbors15. Peter M. Gardner: South Indian Foragers' Conflict Management in Comparative Perspective16. Christopher Boehm: The Biocultural Evolution of Conflict Resolution between Groups17. Darcia Narvaez: The 99%-Development and Socialization within an Evolutionary Context: Growing Up to Become a "Good and Useful Human Being"Section IV: The Primatological Context of Human Nature18. Michael L. Wilson: Chimpanzees, Warfare and the Invention of Peace19. Frances J. White, Michel T. Waller, and Klaree J. Boose: Evolution of Primate Peace20. Sarah F. Brosnan: Conflicts in Cooperative Social Interactions in Non-Human Primates21. Robert M. Sapolsky: Rousseau with a Tail: Maintaining a Tradition of Peace among Baboons22. Maaike Kempes, E. H. M. Sterck, and B. Orobio de Castro: Conflict Resolution in Non-Human Primates and Human ChildrenSection V: Taking Restraint against Killing Seriously23. Douglas P. Fry and Anna Szala: The Evolution of Agonism: The Triumph of Restraint in Nonhuman and Human Primates24. Paul ("Jim") Roscoe: Social Signaling, Conflict Management, and the Construction of Peace25. Richard J. Hughbank and Dave Grossman: The Challenge of Getting Men to Kill: A View from Military Science26. Jom Evans Pim: Man the Singer: Song Duels as an Aggression Restraint Mechanism for Nonkilling Conflict ManagementSection VI: Conclusions27. Douglas P. Fry: Cooperation for Survival: Creating a Global Peace System

Editorial Reviews

"Douglas Fry has produced another pioneering book of the highest quality and relevance. A distinguished international and interdisciplinary group of authors address the elusive concept of human nature in relation to war and peace rigorously marshalling clear reason and hard data. Together theysystematically and effectively critique the Western cultural myth of the natural inevitability of war while also demonstrating that peace rather than war is ubiquitous. Moreover, practical ways are revealed for creating a more secure and peaceful world." --Leslie E. Sponsel, author of Spiritual Ecology: A Quiet Revolution