Despite the importance of warfare in the collapse of the Roman Empire, there is no modern, comprehensive study available. This book discusses the practice of warfare in Europe, from both Roman and barbarian perspectives, during the late fourth and early fifth centuries. It analyses themilitary practices and capabilities of the Romans and their northern enemies at policy, strategic, operational, and tactical levels, and covers civil wars, sieges, and naval warfare. Dr Elton analyses in depth the issue of barbarization, and shows that it did not affect the efficiency of the Romanarmy. Other sections of the book discuss organization, fortifications, and equipment.