Water Resources Management by David StephensonWater Resources Management by David Stephenson

Water Resources Management

byDavid StephensonEditorDavid Stephenson

Hardcover | October 15, 2003

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The world's water resources are being tapped at an ever increasing rate, to the extent that sustainability and water quality are being compromised. This book provides accounts of the technology used for managing water resources to reduce risks. Besides controlling floods, overcoming droughts and reducing pollution, the reader will learn to plan and maintain hydraulic structures, and to appreciate the diverse demands on water, including those of the environment. The topics considered include hydrology and assessment of water resources; drought management and flood management tools; and the interaction between land use and water resources, including surface runoff, groundwater and water quality. The second half of the book focuses on water use, demand management and the infrastructure required to manage water. Consideration is also given to the tools needed for planning, including economics and computer modelling. This book is aimed at a postgraduate level, suitable for students in water engineering and science. It will also serve as a reference for practitioners concerned with water resources and water supply.
Title:Water Resources ManagementFormat:HardcoverDimensions:336 pages, 9.6 × 6.8 × 1 inPublished:October 15, 2003Publisher:Taylor and FrancisLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9058095738

ISBN - 13:9789058095732

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Table of Contents

PREFACE

1 WATER, A MULTI-DIMENSIONAL RESOURCE 1

  • 1.1 Introduction 1
  • 1.2 Water resources planning 4
  • 1.3 Multi- dimensional management 5
  • 1.4 The age of man 8
  • 1.5 Stress 10
  • 1.6 International policy 14
  • 1.7 Climate change 16
  • 1.8 The oceans 18
  • References 19

2 WATER RESOURCES ASSESSMENT 21

  • 2.1 Introduction 21
  • 2.2 Network design 22
  • 2.3 Streamflow gauging 27
  • 2.3.1 Weir design 28
  • 2.3.2 Gauges 32
  • 2.3.3 Current gauging 33
  • 2.3.4 Salt dilution 35
  • 2.4 Hydrological modelling 36
  • References 38

3 DROUGHT MANAGEMENT 41

  • 3.1 Definition of drought 41
  • 3.2 Reservoir yield analysis 42
  • 3.2.1 Definitions 43
  • 3.2.2 Mass flow methods 44
  • 3.2.3 Simulation of reservoir operation 45
  • 3.2.4 Storage-draft-frequency analysis 46
  • 3.3 Operating rules 48
  • 3.4 Probability matrix methods 50
  • 3.4.1 Mutually Exclusive Model 50
  • 3.5 Queuing theory 54
  • 3.6 Conjunctive use of alternative sources 57
  • 3.7 Artificial recharge 59
  • 3.8 Case study 62
  • References 63

4 FLOOD MANAGEMENT 65

  • 4.1 Factors affecting flooding 65
  • 4.2 Flood calculations 66
  • 4.3 Hazard assessment 68
  • 4.4 Analysis of rainfall depth, duration and frequency 70
  • 4.5 Indices of flood magnitude 71
  • 4.5.1 Probability 71
  • 4.5.2 Rainfall 73
  • 4.5.3 Flood parameters 73
  • 4.6 Flood management 74
  • 4.7 Reservoir routing methods 79
  • 4.8 Flood risk analysis 82
  • 4.9 Flood plain management 83
  • 4.9.1 Hazards associated with flooding 84
  • 4.10 Integrated flood plain management 84
  • 4.10.1 Alternative planning zones 86
  • 4.10.2 Warning systems 87
  • References 88

5 EFFECTS OF CATCHMENT DEVELOPMENT ON RUNOFF 89

  • 5.1 Effects of urbanisation 89
  • 5.2 Stormwater management 90
  • 5.2.1. Effects on recurrence interval 93
  • 5.3 Case studies 95
  • 5.3.1 Example: Calculation of peak runoff for various conditions 97
  • 5.4 Detention storage 104
  • 5.4.1 Channel storage 105
  • 5.4.2 Town planning 109
  • 5.5 Water quality 109
  • References 111

6 GROUNDWATER 113

  • 6.1 The extent of groundwater 113
  • 6.2 Flow of groundwater 115
  • 6.2.1 Groundwater parameter 117
  • 6.3 Ground water and well hydraulics 119
  • 6.3.1 Steady radial flow to a well 119
  • 6.3.2 Unsteady radial flow to a well 120
  • 6.4 Groundwater modelling 121
  • 6.5 Groundwater pollution 123
  • 6.5.1 Dispersion 126
  • 6.5.2 Finite difference solution 129
  • 6.6 Groundwater protection 130
  • References 131

7 WATER QUALITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT 133

  • 7.1 Water pollution 133
  • 7.1.1 Public health 134
  • 7.2 Water quality standards 135
  • 7.3 Stormwater pollution 136
  • 7.4 Eutrophication of receiving waters 139
  • 7.5 Mass balance 140
  • 7.5.1 Mixed and plug flow 140
  • 7.5.2 Systems analysis 144
  • 7.5.3 Non-conservative parameters 144
  • 7.5.4 Mass balance equation with non-conservatives 145
  • 7.5.4 Oxygen balance in rivers 147
  • 7.6 Numeral methods 149
  • 7.6.1 Two-step method 150
  • 7.6.2 Demonstration of numerical inaccuracy 151
  • 7.6.3 Implicit finite difference schemes 153
  • 7.7 Soil erosion 154
  • 7.7.1 Desertification 156
  • 7.7.2 Reservoir sedimentation 158
  • 7.8 Environmental and social impact assessment 160
  • 7.8.1 Impacts on water and related sources 162
  • 7.8.2 Impacts on land and related resources 164
  • 7.8.3 Impacts on public health 164
  • 7.8.4 Socio-economic impacts 164
  • 7.8.5 Impacts of dams 165
  • References 165

8 WATER USE 167

  • 8.1 Domestic and urban use 167
  • 8.1.1. Volumes required 169
  • 8.1.2 Consumption pattern 171
  • 8.2 Water demand projections 171
  • 8.2.1 Statistical analysis 172
  • 8.2.2 Planning alternatives 175
  • 8.2.3 Disruptions 175
  • 8.3 Hydro electric power 176
  • 8.3.1 Pumped storage 177
  • 8.4 Energy calculations 178
  • 8.4.1 Example 178
  • 8.5 Development factors 179
  • 8.5.1 Economics of hydropower development 180
  • 8.6 Machine selection 181
  • 8.7 Small hydro 183
  • 8.8 Irrigation 187
  • 8.8.1 Impact of irrigation 187
  • 8.8.2 Irrigation technology 190
  • 8.8.3 Water requirements 192
  • 8.8.4 Factors and objectives in the selection of emitters 194
  • 8.9 Passive use 195
  • References 195

9 DEMAND MANAGEMENT 197

  • 9.1 Balancing supply and demand 197
  • 9.2 Economic theory of supply and demand 199
  • 9.2.1 Effect of metering 201
  • 9.3 Management by use of tariffs 201
  • 9.4 Timing 203
  • 9.4.1 Long-term (planning and design) 203
  • 9.4.2 Operational time-frame 204
  • 9.4.3 Crisis management 206
  • 9.4.4 Notes on management by use of tariffs 207
  • 9.5 The cost of water 207
  • 9.5.1 Future trends 211
  • 9.6 Economic value of water 212
  • 9.7 Loss control 212
  • 9.8 Water harvesting 215
  • References 215

10 HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES 217

  • 10.1 The purpose of hydraulic structures 217
  • 10.2 Measurement structures 218
  • 10.3 Dams 220
  • 10.4 Effects of construction of dams 223
  • 10.4.1 Large dams 223
  • 10.4.2 Problems associated with large dams 225
  • 10.5 Dam construction 227
  • 10.5.1 Impacts during planning and construction 228
  • 10.5.2 Impacts in the catchment 230
  • 10.5.3 Building power lines, canals, roads, etc. 230
  • 10.5.4 Impacts of reservoir management 231
  • 10.5.5 Impacts of supply of hydropower 231
  • 10.6 Water conduits 232
  • 10.6.1 Pipeline design (Stephenson, 1989) 233
  • 10.6.2 Canals 234
  • 10.7 Environmental structures 234
  • 10.8 Hydraulic models 235
  • 10.8.1 Model study of a drop inlet with air entrainment 235
  • 10.8.2 Model objectives 237
  • 10.8.3 Construction and testing of model 238
  • 10.8.4 Air entrainment down drop shaft 238
  • 10.8.5 Comparison of air entrainment rate with theory 241
  • 10.8.6 Model scale effect 241
  • References 242

11 ECONOMICS OF WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT 243

  • 11.1 Economic analysis 243
  • 11.1.1 Definitions 243
  • 11.2 Resource evaluation 244
  • 11.3 Present value analysis 245
  • 11.3.1 Discount rate 245
  • 11.3.2 Inflation 245
  • 11.3.3 Taxation 246
  • 11.3.4 Public projects 247
  • 11.4 Planning horizon and project life 247
  • 11.5 Risk and uncertainty 248
  • 11.6 Formula relating annual cash flow to present value 249
  • 11.7 Methods of project comparison 249
  • 11.8 Systems analysis 252
  • 11.9 Financing water resources projects 252
  • 11.10 International funding agencies 253
  • 11.10.1 The World Bank 254
  • 11.10.2 Investment experience 255
  • 11.10.3 Social impact 257
  • 11.10.4 Technological impact 257
  • 11.10.5 Environmental concerns 258
  • 11.10.6 Sustainability of project benefits 258
  • 11.11 Socio-economics 259
  • 11.11.1 Health and wellbeing 259
  • 11.11.2 Assessing social impacts 260
  • References 264

12 ADMINISTRATION OF WATER PROJECTS 265

  • 12.1 Planning process 265
  • 12.2 Asset management 266
  • 12.2.1 Assets 266
  • 12.3 Public versus private management 269
  • 12.4 Life cycle costing 272
  • 12.4.1 The life of a works 273
  • 12.4.2 Economic evaluation 274
  • 12.4.3 Computation 275
  • 12.5 Vulnerability 278
  • 12.6 Risk 280
  • 12.6.1 Effect of uncertainty in demand estimates 282
  • References 286

13 COMPUTER MODELLING AND OPTIMIZATION 287

  • 13.1 Types of models 287
  • 13.2 Conceptual runoff modelling 288
  • 13.2.1 Sub-catchment arrangement 289
  • 13.2.2 Continuous simulation 289
  • 13.2.3 Routing process 291
  • 13.2.4 A continuous runoff model 291
  • 13.2.5 Rainfall-runoff simulation 294
  • 13.2.6 Sediment yield calculation 294
  • 13.2.7 Infiltration into the unsaturated zone 295
  • 13.2.8 Application 296
  • 13.3 Storage analysis 296
  • 13.3.1 Multiple reservoirs 297
  • 13.4 Water distribution systems 298
  • 13.4.1 Transportation programming 299
  • 13.5 Systems analysis techniques 301
  • 13.5.1 Economic policy 301
  • 13.6 Linear programming by the Simplex method 301
  • 13.7 Decomposition of complex systems 303
  • 13.8 A planning model 307
  • 13.9 Solver 309
  • 13.10 Computer packages 310

References 313

SUBJECT INDEX 315