Weather and Climate: An Introduction

Paperback | March 11, 2013

bySheila Loudon Ross

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a href="http://www.oupcanada.com/ebrochure/ross/index.html"img src="/images/hed/closer_look_btn.gif"/aThis rigorous yet accessible introduction to weather and climate uses a quantitative approach that incorporates the latest scientific research. Loaded with Canadian examples and extensive pedagogy, this text offers an engaging and relevant treatment of weather and climate to students in thiscountry.

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a href="http://www.oupcanada.com/ebrochure/ross/index.html"img src="/images/hed/closer_look_btn.gif"/aThis rigorous yet accessible introduction to weather and climate uses a quantitative approach that incorporates the latest scientific research. Loaded with Canadian examples and extensive pedagogy, this text offers an engaging and rele...

Sheila Loudon Ross is an instructor at Capilano University in North Vancouver, B.C.
Format:PaperbackDimensions:528 pages, 11 × 8.5 × 0.65 inPublished:March 11, 2013Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195445872

ISBN - 13:9780195445879

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Table of Contents

From the PublisherPreface and Acknowledgements1. The Study of the Atmosphere1.1 Weather and Climate1.2 The Earth-Atmosphere System1.3 The Role of Science1.4 The Role of Math - A Language and a Tool1.5 Dimensions and Units1.6 The Structure of the Atmosphere1.6.1 Pressure and Density1.6.2 Temperature1.7 Chapter Summary2. The Composition of the Atmosphere2.1 The Chemical Composition of Air2.2 Residence Time2.3 Nitrogen (N2)2.4 Oxygen (O2)2.5 Carbon Dioxide (CO2)2.6 Water Vapour2.7 Ozone2.8 Compositional Layers2.9 Atmospheric Aerosols2.9.1 Sources2.9.2 Sinks2.10 The Formation and Evolution of the Atmosphere2.11 Earth as a Habitable Planet2.12 Chapter Summary3. The Behaviour of the Atmosphere3.1 The Kinetic Theory of Matter3.2 Early Contributions to the Kinetic Theory of Gases3.2.1 Constant Temperature (Boyle's Law)3.2.2 Constant Pressure (Charles' Law)3.2.3 Constant Volume3.3 The Ideal Gas Law3.4 Hydrostatic Balance3.5 The Hypsometric Equation3.6 The Influence of Temperature on Pressure Distribution3.7 Weather Maps3.8 Chapter Summary4. Energy4.1 Heat4.1.1 Sensible Heat4.1.2 Latent Heat4.2 Work4.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics4.4 Heat Transfer4.4.1 Conduction4.4.2 Convection4.4.3 Radiation4.4.4 Heat Transfer at the Earth's Surface4.5 Chapter Summary5. Radiation5.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum5.2 Emission of Radiation5.2.1 The Stefan-Boltzmann Law5.2.2 Wien's Law5.2.3 Planck's Law5.2.4 Shortwave Radiation vs Longwave Radiation5.2.5 Kirchhoff's Law5.3 Absorption, Transmission, and Reflection of Radiation5.4 Albedo5.5 Radiation in the Atmosphere: Scattering and Absorption5.5.1 Scattering5.5.2 Absorption5.6 The Greenhouse Effect5.7 The Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere5.8 Solar, or Shortwave, Radiation5.8.1 Sun Angle5.8.2 Seasons5.8.3 Solar Radiation at the Earth's Surface5.9 Chapter Summary6. Energy Balance6.1 Effective Radiating Temperature6.2 Flows of Solar (Shortwave) Radiation6.3 Flows of Terrestrial (Longwave) Radiation6.4 Planetary Energy Balance6.5 Latitudinal Radiative Imbalances6.6 Surface Energy Balance6.6.1 Radiative Heat Transfer6.6.2 Non-radiative Heat Transfer6.6.3 Examples of Two Surface Climates6.7 Chapter Summary7. Water Vapour7.1 Vapour Pressure7.2 Evaporation and Condensation7.3 Saturation Vapour Pressure7.4 The Concept of Saturation7.5 Absolute and Relative Measures of Humidity7.5.1 Absolute Measures7.5.2 Relative Measures7.6 Methods of Measuring Atmospheric Humidity7.7 Human Comfort7.8 Chapter Summary8. Adiabatic Lapse Rates and Atmospheric Stability8.1 Adiabatic Processes8.1.1 The Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate (DALR)8.1.2 Potential Temperature8.1.3 Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate (SALR)8.1.4 Lifting Condensation Level (lcl)8.2 Environmental Lapse Rates (elr)8.3 Thermodynamic Diagrams8.4 Stability Types8.5 Factors Influencing Stability8.5.1 Unstable Air8.5.2 Stable Air8.5.3 Neutral Stability8.6 Stability Conditions over a Clear Day8.7 Chapter Summary9. Condensation9.1 Formation of Cloud Droplets9.1.1 Homogeneous Nucleation9.1.2 Heterogeneous Nucleation9.2 Nucleation below Freezing9.3 Clouds9.3.1 The Formation of Clouds9.3.2 The Classification of Clouds9.3.3 Cirroform Clouds9.3.4 Cumuliform Clouds9.3.5 Stratiform Clouds9.3.6 Clouds Formed by Mixing9.4 Fogs9.4.1 Radiation Fog9.4.2 Advection Fog9.4.3 Fogs Formed by Adding Vapour and Mixing9.5 Chapter Summary10. Precipitation10.1 Cloud Droplets vs Raindrops10.2 Terminal Velocity10.3 Growth of Cloud Droplets10.3.1 Growth by Collision and Coalescence10.3.2 Growth by the Bergeron-Findeisen Process10.4 Precipitation Types10.5 Hail10.6 Snow-Making10.7 The Distribution and Character of Precipitation10.8 Chapter Summary11. Wind11.1 Forces That Influence Atmospheric Motion11.1.1 Pressure Gradient Force11.1.2 Coriolis Force11.1.3 Centripetal Force11.1.4 Friction11.2 The Winds11.2.1 Geostrophic Winds11.2.2 Gradient Winds11.2.3 Surface Winds11.3 Variation of Winds with Height: The Thermal Wind11.4 Local Winds11.5 Chapter Summary12. Planetary Circulation12.1 Transport of Energy and Momentum12.2 Descriptions of the General Circulation12.2.1 The Simple Case12.2.2 The Real Case12.2.3 The Tropical Circulation12.2.4 The Extratropical Circulation12.2.5 The Circulation Aloft12.3 Explanations of the General Circulation12.3.1 Early Conceptual Models12.3.2 Dishpan Models12.3.3 A Complete Conceptual Model12.4 Vorticity12.5 Rossby Waves12.6 Chapter Summary13. Air Masses and Fronts13.1 Air Masses13.1.1 Air Mass Source Regions13.2 Classification of Air Masses13.3 Cold Air Masses13.4 Warm Air Masses13.5 Fronts13.6 Structure of Fronts13.7 Weather Associated with Cold and Warm Fronts13.8 Occluded Fronts13.9 Chapter Summary14. Storms14.1 Characteristics of High- and Low-Pressure Systems14.2 Mid-latitude Cyclones14.2.1 Polar Front Theory14.2.2 Cyclogenesis14.2.3 Lee Cyclogenesis14.2.4 Weather Associated With the Cyclones and Anticyclones of the Mid-latitudes14.3 Tropical Cyclones: Hurricanes14.3.1 Occurrence and Structure of Hurricanes14.3.2 Formation and Dissipation of Hurricanes14.4 Thunderstorms14.4.1 Life Cycle of a Thunderstorm Cell14.4.2 Types of Thunderstorms14.4.3 Atmospheric Soundings and Thunderstorms14.4.4 Lightning and Thunder14.5 Chapter Summary15. Weather Forecasting15.1 The Forecasting Process15.2 Forecasting Methods15.3 The History of Weather Forecasting15.4 Observation15.4.1 Satellite Imagery15.4.2 Radar15.5 Analysis and Diagnosis15.5.1 Surface Maps15.5.2 Upper-Air Maps15.6 Numerical Weather Prediction15.7 Long-Range Forecasting15.8 Chapter Summary16. Global Climate16.1 Climate Controls16.1.1 Latitude16.1.2 Distribution of Land and Water16.1.3 Ocean Currents16.1.4 Pressure Systems16.1.5 Prevailing Winds16.1.6 Mountains16.2 Vegetation and Climate16.3 Climate Classification16.3.1 The Koppen System16.4 Tropical Climates16.4.1 Wet Equatorial Climates (Af)16.4.2 Tropical Monsoon Climates (Am)16.4.3 Wet-Dry Tropical Climates (Aw)16.4.4 Subtropical Desert and Steppe Climates (BWh, BSh)16.5 Mid-latitude Climates16.5.1 Mediterranean Climates (Csa, Csb)16.5.2 Moist Subtropical Climates (Cfa)16.5.3 Marine West Coast Climates (Cfb, Cfc)16.5.4 Moist Continental Climates (Dfa, Dfb, Dwa, Dwb)16.5.5 Subarctic Climates (Dfc, Dfd, Dwc, Dwd)16.5.6 Mid-latitude Desert and Steppe Climates (BWk, BSk)16.6 Polar Climates16.6.1 Polar Tundra Climates (ET)16.6.2 Polar Icecap Climates (EF)16.7 Chapter Summary17. The Changing Atmosphere17.1 Air Pollution17.1.1 Types of Air Pollutants17.1.2 Conditions Affecting the Dispersal of Air Pollutants17.1.3 Air Quality Assessment17.2 Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone17.2.1 The Ozone Hole17.3 Climate Change17.3.1 Natural Climate Change17.3.2 Anthropogenic Climate Change17.4 Chapter SummaryAppendix: Guide to Weather Station SymbolsGlossaryIndexPerforated, fold-out "Cloud Chart"

Editorial Reviews

"A strength of this text is its treatment of how weather and climate processes . . . can be illustrated with specific examples within the Canadian environment and geography." --John Yackel, University of Calgary