Web Services Platform Architecture: Soap, Wsdl, Ws-policy, Ws-addressing, Ws-bpel, Ws-reliable…

Paperback | March 22, 2005

bySanjiva Weerawarana, Francisco Curbera, Frank Leymann

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Preface Preface "Web services are a mess!" "There are more than 150 Web services WS-* specs!" "Simple? This stuff is more complicated than CORBA!" "There is no architecture; just a bunch of competing specs!" "These specs are denser than plutonium!" Those are some of the statements we ve heard from people-including our own colleagues-about Web services. That s why we wrote this book: to show that the WS-* platform is not a random walk through a space of WS-* specifications but rather an organized, structured architecture with well-defined design and architectural objectives. We apply these objectives when working on WS-* specifications and when deciding whether or not we need a new specification in a certain area. The objective of this book is to present the cohesive, structured architecture of the Web services platform that we have been helping to define. The architecture is designed to enable loosely coupled interaction between services with business-quality reliability, security, and transactional capabilities. We start by presenting some of the business world-driving forces that are motivating the creation of the service-oriented computing platform Chapter 1, "Service-Oriented Architectures" . Then we focus on Web services as a realization of this service-oriented computing platform and indicate which specifications contribute to the platform Chapter 3, "Web Services" . After that, we consider each major part of the platform and offer the insight that went into defining the specifications that govern that component. We cover the messaging framework, describing metadata, reliable interaction, security, and service composition in different parts of the book. Before concluding, we consider two case studies to illustrate how the Web services platform can address both intranet and extranet integration scenarios. In the concluding part, we summarize the platform and give our perspectives on why the integrated architecture we present makes sense and will "win" the standards battle. Finally, we present our thoughts on the future of the Web services platform. At the end of this book, you should no longer feel that Web services has no architecture or that the architecture is hidden somewhere between 150+ WS-* specifications. You might not agree with our choice of components that comprise the architecture, but we chose the set based on the fact that those were designed from the ground up to work together to solve a single problem: that of being a ubiquitous platform for integrating heterogeneous systems to enable rich business communication. Who Should Read This Book? We wrote this book for technical professionals and students. Although Chapter 2, "Background," briefly introduces the requisite background material about major XML technologies, we assume that you have a fair grasp of those technologies coming into this book. Developers who want to understand the overall Web services platform will appreciate this book. However, this is not a "developer book" in the sense of providing detailed, code-level understanding. That was not our objective. Architects, consultants, and technically oriented management should find this book useful. Students who have already attended introductory courses in distributed systems or database systems will be able to understand the Web services platform. Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Preface Preface "Web services are a mess!" "There are more than 150 Web services WS-* specs!" "Simple? This stuff is more complicated than CORBA!" "There is no architecture; just a bunch of competing specs!" "These specs are denser than plutonium!" Those are some of the statements we ve heard from people-including our own colleagues-ab...

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"Other books claim to present the complete Web services platform architecture, but this is the first one I've seen that really does. The authors have been intimately involved in the creation of the architecture. Who better to write this book?" —Anne Thomas Manes, Vice President and Research Director, Burton Group "This is a very import...

This book was a team effort by the folks at IBM who have been working on designing and building the Web services platform. The lead authors of this book—Sanjiva, Francisco (Paco), Frank, Tony, and Don—wrote parts of the book and coordinated contributions from the others. We'll start with descriptions of the five lead authors and then t...
Format:PaperbackDimensions:456 pages, 9 × 6.9 × 1 inPublished:March 22, 2005Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

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ISBN - 10:0131488740

ISBN - 13:9780131488748

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Preface "Web services are a mess!" "There are more than 150 Web services (WS-*) specs!" "Simple? This stuff is more complicated than CORBA!" "There is no architecture; just a bunch of competing specs!" "These specs are denser than plutonium!" Those are some of the statements we've heard from people—including our own colleagues—about Web services. That's why we wrote this book: to show that the WS-* platform is not a random walk through a space of WS-* specifications but rather an organized, structured architecture with well-defined design and architectural objectives. We apply these objectives when working on WS-* specifications and when deciding whether or not we need a new specification in a certain area. The objective of this book is to present the cohesive, structured architecture of the Web services platform that we have been helping to define. The architecture is designed to enable loosely coupled interaction between services with business-quality reliability, security, and transactional capabilities. We start by presenting some of the business world–driving forces that are motivating the creation of the service-oriented computing platform (Chapter 1, "Service-Oriented Architectures"). Then we focus on Web services as a realization of this service-oriented computing platform and indicate which specifications contribute to the platform (Chapter 3, "Web Services"). After that, we consider each major part of the platform and offer the insight that went into defining the specifications that govern that component. We cover the messaging framework, describing metadata, reliable interaction, security, and service composition in different parts of the book. Before concluding, we consider two case studies to illustrate how the Web services platform can address both intranet and extranet integration scenarios. In the concluding part, we summarize the platform and give our perspectives on why the integrated architecture we present makes sense and will "win" the standards battle. Finally, we present our thoughts on the future of the Web services platform. At the end of this book, you should no longer feel that Web services has no architecture or that the architecture is hidden somewhere between 150+ WS-* specifications. You might not agree with our choice of components that comprise the architecture, but we chose the set based on the fact that those were designed from the ground up to work together to solve a single problem: that of being a ubiquitous platform for integrating heterogeneous systems to enable rich business communication. Who Should Read This Book? We wrote this book for technical professionals and students. Although Chapter 2, "Background," briefly introduces the requisite background material about major XML technologies, we assume that you have a fair grasp of those technologies coming into this book. Developers who want to understand the overall Web services platform will appreciate this book. However, this is not a "developer book" in the sense of providing detailed, code-level understanding. That was not our objective. Architects, consultants, and technically oriented management should find this book useful. Students who have already attended introductory courses in distributed systems or database systems will be able to understand the Web services platform. © Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Table of Contents

Foreword by Steve Mills.

Foreword by Ronald Schmelzer.

Preface.

Acknowledgments.

About the Authors.

I. INTRODUCTION.

1. Service-Oriented Architectures.

    Virtual Enterprises.

      Business Process Optimization.

      Collaborations, Mergers, and Acquisitions.

      Resource Sharing.

     The Need for Loose Coupling.

      Issues with Current Distributed System Technologies.

      Advantages of Message-Oriented Middleware.

      Future Proofing.

    What Is a Service?

      Evolution of Major Software Granules.

      The Software Version of a Service.

    Service-Oriented Architecture.

      Bind/Publish/Find.

      Framework for SOA.

    Summary.

2. Background.

    XML.

      XML Basics.

      DTDs, XML Schema, and RelaxNG.

      XML Namespaces.

    World Wide Web.

      URIs.

      HTTP.

      MIME.

    Summary.

3. Web Services: A Realization of SOA.

    Scope of the Architecture.

    Transport Services.

    Messaging Services.

      SOAP.

      WS-Addressing.

    Service Description.

      WSDL.

      Policy.

    Discovery Services.

      UDDI.

      MetaData Exchange.

    Quality of Service.

      WS-Security.

      Reliable Messaging.

      Transactions.

    Service Components.

      Composition of Web Services.

    Composeability.

    Interoperability.

      WS-I.

    REST.

       “Representational” in REST.

       “State Transfer” in REST.

      REST Interface Structure.

       REST and Web Services.

    Scope of Applicability of SOA and Web Service.

    Summary.

II. MESSAGING FRAMEWORK.

4. SOAP.

    A Brief History of SOAP.

    Architectural Concepts.

      Defining Some Terms.

      The SOAP Processing Model.

      SOAP Roles.

      SOAP Faults.

      Documents and RPC.

      Message Exchange Patterns.

      SOAP Bindings.

    SOAP Attachments.

    Differences Between SOAP 1.1 and 1.2.

    Summary.

5. Web Services Addressing.

    Addressing Web Services.

    Architectural Concepts.

      Endpoint References.

      Comparing Endpoints.

      Message Information Headers.

      Binding Endpoint References to SOAP Messages.

      Request-Reply Pattern in WS-Addressing.

    Example.

    Future Directions.

    Summary.

III. DESCRIBING METADATA.

6. Web Services Description Language (WSDL).

    Role of WSDL in WS-*/SOA.

    History.

    Architectural Concepts.

      Extensibility.

      Support for Multiple Type Systems.

      Unifying Messaging and RPC.

      Separation of “What” from “How” and “Where”.

      Support for Multiple Protocols and Transports.

      No Ordering.

      No Semantics.

    WSDL 1.1.

      Language Structure.

      Best Practices.

      Problems and Limitations.

    WSDL v2.0.

      Overall Language Structure.

      Interface Extensions.

      Elimination of .

      Message Exchange Patterns.

      Services.

      Features and Properties.

    Future Directions.

    Summary.

7. Web Services Policy.

    Motivation for WS-Policy.

    Architectural Concepts.

      Policy Framework.

      Attaching Policies to Web Services.

    Future Directions.

    Summary.

IV. DISCOVERING METADATA.

8. Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI).

    Role of UDDI in SOA and the WS Stack.

      Use of UDDI During Design and Development.

      Use of UDDI at Runtime.

    Motivation for UDDI.

    Architectural Concepts.

      UDDI V3 Data Model.

      UDDI and WSDL.

      UDDI and WS-Policy.

      UDDI V3 Architecture and APIs.

      New Features in UDDI V3.

    Future Directions.

      Standardization of Taxonomy Language.

      Semantic Searching.

      Instance-Based Security.

    Summary.

9. Web Services Metadata Exchange.

    Architectural Concepts.

      Extensibility of Metadata Dialects.

      Use of Indirection: Metadata References and Locations.

      Metadata Request Operations.

      Default Protocol Binding.

    Future Directions.

    Summary.

V. RELIABLE INTERACTION.

10. Reliable Messaging.

    Motivation for Reliable Messaging.

      The Network Is Reliable.

      Latency Is Zero.

      There Is One Administrator.

    Reliable Messaging Scenarios.

      Store and Forward.

      Batch Window.

      Failure Recovery.

      Long-Running Transactions.

    Architectural Concepts.

    Processing Model.

      Sequence Lifecycle.

      Basic Syntax.

      Sequence Element.

      SequenceAcknowledgement Element.

      AckRequested Element.

      SequenceFault Element.

      Delivery Semantics Supported.

      Policy Assertions.

      Inactivity Timeout.

      Retransmission Interval.

      Acknowledgement Interval.

      Basic WS-Reliable Messaging Profile.

    Strengths and Weaknesses.

    Examples.

    Future Directions.

    Summary.

11. Transactions.

    Role of Transactions in Web Services/SOA.

    Motivation for Transactions.

      Classic Transactions.

      Business Transactions.

    Architectural Concepts.

      Definition of Transaction Architectural Terms.

      Services and Protocols.

    Example.

      Travel Agent Scenario Using Atomic Transaction.

      Travel Agent Scenario Using Business Activity.

    Summary.

VI. SECURITY.

12. Security.

    A Motivating Example: Travel Agent Web Services.

    Roles of Security in Web Services.

    Motivation for Using WS-Security.

    End-to-End Security When Intermediaries Are Present.

    Federating Multiple Security Domains.

    A Brief History.

    Architectural Concepts.

    Processing Model.

      XML Signature.

      XML Encryption.

    Putting the Pieces Together.

      The Basic Model.

      Model with Intermediary.

      Trust Relationships.

    Interoperability.

      Basic Security Profile.

    Future Directions.

    Summary.

13. Advanced Security.

    WS-Trust.

      In-Band.

      Out-of-Band.

    WS-SecureConversation.

    WS-Privacy.

    WS-Federation.

    WS-Authorization.

    Web Services Authorization Model.

    Security and Policy.

    Assertion Model.

    Other Security Topics.

      Public-Key Cryptography.

    Non-Repudiation.

      Data Integrity and Data-Origin Authentication.

      Proof of Message Origin.

      Proof of Message Receipt.

      Delivery of Proof of Message Receipt.

    Summary.

VII. SERVICE COMPOSITION.

14. Modeling Business Processes: BPEL.

    Motivation for BPEL.

      A Brief History.

    Architectural Concepts.

      Overview of the Process Composition Model.

      Abstract and Executable Processes.

      Recursive, Type-Based Composition.

      Process Instance Lifecycle.

      Event Handling.

      Dealing with Exceptional Behavior.

      Extensibility and the Role of Web Services Policies.

    BPEL Processing Model.

      Deployment.

      Interacting with the Process.

      Navigating the Process Model.

      Scopes and Handlers.

    Future Directions.

    Summary.

VII. CASE STUDIES.

15. Case Study: Car Parts Supply Chain.

    Scenario Description.

    Architecture.

    Web Service Descriptions.

    Messages and Protocols.

    Summary.

16. Case Study: Ordering Service Packs.

    Scenario Description.

    Architecture.

    Web Service Descriptions.

    Messages and Protocols.

    Summary.

IX. CONCLUSION.

17. Futures.

    Semantics.

    Wiring.

    Ordering Constraints.

    Contracting.

    Summary.

18. Conclusion.

    A Summary of the Web Services Platform.

    Standardization.

      Concerns About the Standardization Process.

    Competing Specifications.

    Perspectives.

      Why Will It Succeed?

      Risks.

    Building on the Core Platform.

    Summary.

References.

Index.