Womens Realities, Womens Choices

Paperback | February 11, 2014

bySarah Chinn, Linda Martin Alcoff, Jacqueline Nassy Brown

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Examining women as individuals, as family members, and as a force in the greater social fabric, Women's Realities, Women's Choices remains the most timely, comprehensive, and compelling introduction to the field of women's studies. A multidisciplinary approach reflects the trueinterdisciplinary nature of the field of women's and gender studies while providing depth of knowledge and experience, and cutting-edge scholarship.

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Examining women as individuals, as family members, and as a force in the greater social fabric, Women's Realities, Women's Choices remains the most timely, comprehensive, and compelling introduction to the field of women's studies. A multidisciplinary approach reflects the trueinterdisciplinary nature of the field of women's and gende...

The Hunter College Women's Studies Collective is made up of 9 authors from various disciplines, all affiliated with the Hunter College Women's Studies Department. The authors are: Linda Alcoff; Jacqueline Nassy Brown; Sarah Chinn; Florence Denmark; Dorothy O. Helly; Shirley Hune; Rupal Oza; Sarah B. Pomeroy and Carolyn Somerville.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:544 pages, 9.25 × 7.5 × 0.68 inPublished:February 11, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199843600

ISBN - 13:9780199843602

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Table of Contents

Boxes and TablesPrefaceForeword to the Fourth EditionThe AuthorsIntroductionWhy Women's Studies?Adding to our Knowledge About HumansChanging Views of Women and MenGender NowHistory of Women's StudiesThe U.S. Women's Movement: a Brief HistoryHow This Book Presents Women's StudiesI: Defining Women and Gender1. Cultural Representations of WomenCulture, Representation, and GenderExperience, Perception, and the Construction of RealityThe Construction of Gender in Culture and in OurselvesLanguage as a Cultural SystemThe Relationship Between Language and CultureChanges in LanguageEnduring Symbols of WomenImages of Women in Mythical and Religious TextsChanging Representations of Women's SexualityThe "Sexual Revolution" and its LegaciesWomen's Sexuality in Recent Popular CultureCan We Change Reality by Changing Images?Reshaping RepresentationWomen's Search for Self Through ArtHistorical PerspectiveWomen's Search for Self Through LiteratureWomen as HeroesTelling Other StoriesWriting as Political ActivismRepresentation in the Internet AgeGender in Film: A Case StudySummaryDiscussion QuestionsRecommended Readings2. Ideas and Theories about Women and GenderWhy Ideas and Theories Are ImportantAncient and Early Modern Ideas about Women and GenderClassical Liberalism and FeminismWollstonecraftMill and TaylorContemporary Liberal FeminismSocialism and FeminismMarx and EngelsGilmanGoldmanContemporary Socialist FeminismSimone de BeauvoirWoman as "Object"Woman as "Other"Contemporary Feminist DebatesRadical Feminism and Cultural FeminismBlack FeminismPostmodern FeminismPsychoanalytic FeminismEcofeminismTransnational feminismContemporary Feminist PhilosophyRethinking "Knowledge" and Values of InquiryThe Ethics of CareThe Nature of GenderSummaryDiscussion QuestionsRecommended Readings3. IntersectionalitySexism and RacismSexism and HeterosexismHistorical Foundations of IntersectionalityAnna Julia CooperAngela DavisAudre LordeCombahee River CollectiveGloria AnzaldaIntersectional Approaches to Feminist ActivismShifting Policy DemandsGlobal IntersectionsIntersectional Approaches to Feminist ScholarshipIntersectional IdentitiesResearch MethodsDebates over IntersectionalitySummaryDiscussion QuestionsRecommended Readings4. Learning, Making, and Doing GenderWhat is Gender?Sex Versus GenderGender ExpressionTraditional Explanations for Gender DifferencesAnatomical and Evolutionary DifferencesPsychoanalytic TheoryNeurobiological and Hormonal ExplanationsFeminist Critiques of Theories of GenderFeminist PsychoanalysisThe Importance of CultureThe Importance of RelatednessRethinking BiologyHow Do We Learn Gender?Cognitive-Developmental TheorySocial Learning TheoryGender Schema TheorySocial Interactins and Gender RolesPerformativity TheoryHow Gender is EnforcedAlternative Gender ArrangementsHistorical Challenges to GenderGender Outside the BinaryDiscussion QuestionsRecommended Readings5. Gender and the Politics of The BodyFeminism and the BodyMind/Body DualismThe Body as NaturalThe Nature of Sex DifferencesThe Gendered BrainThe Sexed Body: Hormones, Chromosomes, and GenitaliaDiscourse/Knowledge/PowerGender and The Medicalization of the BodyDiscourses of SexualityFeminist Philosophers and Anthropologists Rethink the BodyThe Female Body on the World Stage: Two Case StudiesBodies as BattlegroundsFemale Genital CuttingSummaryDiscussion QuestionsRecommended ReadingsII: Women's Relationships, Women's Selves6. Families and Their ConfigurationsThe Family as an Evolving Social OrganizationThe Nuclear and Extended FamilyConventional Marriage: Why Marry?Whom to Marry?The Traditional Marital HouseholdThe Incorporated WifeChildren in the FamilyElders in the FamilyMarriage and Gender Roles in the United States in a Historical PerspectiveExtramarital ExperiencesDivorceWidowhoodAlternatives to Conventional Marriage in the PastReligious CommunitiesLaboring CommunitiesUtopian and Experimental CommunitiesFamilies in the Early Twenty-First CenturyChanges in the Global SouthChanges in the Global North"New" Family ConfigurationsBlended/StepfamiliesSingle-Parent FamiliesConsensual Unions: Cohabitation, Domestic PartnersMultiracial FamiliesFamilies We ChooseSame-Sex FamiliesVisiting Unions, Living Apart TogetherTransnational FamiliesRole ReversalsChoosing Not to Mother, Childless CouplesWomen on Their OwnSummaryDiscussion QuestionsRecommended Readings7. MothersImages of MothersRepresentations of Motherhood in the West"The Happy Mother": A Western Image as Political IdeologyThe Impact of Class, Race, and Ethnicity in the United StatesMotherhood and the MediaMothers Speak OutParental Behavior: "Instinct" and CultureMotherhood: Ideology and RealityThe Assignment of Motherhood: Whose Interest Does It Serve?The Cultural Shaping of Biological EventsAttitudes about PregnancyChildbirth: A Cultural or a Natural Event?Breast-Feeding: Attitudes and ChoicesSupport Systems: Fathers, Women's Networks, and Institutionalized and Societal SupportFathersWomen's Networks, Community, and Institutionalized SupportChildrearing ExpertsChoices and Control: The Politics of MotherhoodWhether, When, and How Often to Become a MotherControl over ChildrenWorking for Wages"Unnatural" Mothers: Mothers Who Give Up Their ChildrenWomen Other Than Birth Mothers Who MotherLesbian Co-mothersStepmothersFoster Mothers and Adoptive MothersGodmothersSummaryDiscussion QuestionsRecommended Readings8. Growing Up and Growing OlderGirlhoodDaughter in the FamilyFemale Infanticide and NeglectThe Value of DaughtersNaming the DaughterDaughters' WorkParental RelationshipsDaughters and MothersDaughters and FathersDaughters in Varied Family ConfigurationsSibling RelationshipsSisters as Opposites and CompanionsSister-Brother RelationsSisters as Sources as StrengthInheritanceWomen Growing OldThe Double Standard of AgingLife Events and Role TransitionsMidlife to Later AdulthoodDivorceWidowhoodSinglehoodParenthoodGrandparenthoodHousing TransitionsWork Force ChangesRetirementThe Sisterhood of WomenSummaryDiscussion QuestionsRecommended Readings9. Women's HealthThe Women's Health MovementRedefining and Reframing HealthWhy "Women's" Health?Health, Gender and Human RightsReforming the Health-Care SystemUncovering the Gender Dynamics of Western MedicineWoman as DeviantWoman as "the Weaker Sex"The Gendered Profession of MedicineThe Medicalization of Life ProcessesMenstruation to MenopauseBirth Control to SterilizationAbortionChildbirthSexualityImpact of Social and Cultural Disparities on Women's HealthHealth Status and RisksPovertyRacial/Ethnic DiscriminationOccupational Health RisksViolencePhysical AbuseRape and PTSDWomen and Physical Health: Some Specific ConcernsHeart DiseaseCancerSexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDSHysterectomyOsteoporosisAlzheimer's DiseaseWomen and Mental HealthGendered DifferencesHomophobic BiasDepressionWomen as Special-Risk/Vulnerable PopulationsRefugee WomenWomen with DisabilitiesOlder WomenIncarcerated WomenSummaryDiscussion QuestionsRecommended ReadingsIII: Women in Society10. Women and EducationWomen's Choices, Women's ConstraintsMen as the Measure of KnowledgeThe Rise of Feminist ScholarshipWomen's Choices, Women's ConstraintsEducation as a Contested Arena: Who Should Be Taught?Gender, Educational Participation, and Illiteracy GloballyWomen's Struggles for Formal Education in the PastEuropean Colonization and Women's EducationWomen's Struggles for Education in the Developing World TodayBroadening U.S. Educational Participation: Racial Desegregation and Title IXAffirmative Action and Diversity in Higher Education GloballyEducation as a Contested Arena: What Should Be Taught?Women's Traditional KnowledgeFormal Knowledge Defined by MenThe Goals of Women's Education DebatedThe Debate in the United StatesSchools as Socializers of Gender InequitiesElementary SchoolsSecondary SchoolsHigher EducationEducational Institutions as Gendered WorkplacesEducational Barriers of Girls/Women in Diverse Communities in the Global NorthGender and Cultural AssimilationIndigenous/Native Peoples' ExperiencesAfrican American ExperiencesImmigrant ExperiencesMulticultural Education/Ethnic Studies as ResistanceThe Contemporary Struggle for Equal Access to KnowledgeRe-entry/Adult WomenWomen: The New College Majority?Is There a Male Crisis in Educational Access?Transforming the CurriculumEmpowering Women LearnersEducational Achievements of Women's Colleges DebatedWomen's Struggles to become ScientistsWomen's and Gender StudiesSummaryDiscussion QuestionsRecommended Readings11. Women and ReligionReligious BeliefsWhat Is Religion?Religion and Social ReformEstablished ReligionsReligions in Small-Scale SocietiesWorld ReligionsThe Non-ReligiousOrigin MythsFemales in the Supernatural WorldImmortal Women: Souls, Saints, and GhostsThe Gender of GodReligion and Social ControlsReligion and the FamilyLife-Cycle RitualsSexual ControlsProtection of WomenBeyond the FamilyWomen as WorshipersSyncretistic and Evangelistic ReligionsWomen and Religious MovementsThe Piety MovementVarieties of "Fundamentalism" and Women's Human RightsSecular conservatismWomen as Religious LeadersHealersMissionaries and MartyrsReligious RebelsReligious ExpressionThe Religious Experiences of WomenWomen and PossessionWomen and Religion in the United StatesLeadership by WomenProtestant DenominationsJewish DenominationsCatholicismFeminist Contributions to Religious ChangeSummaryDiscussion QuestionsRecommended Readings12. The Labor of WomenDivision of Labor by GenderMaintenance of the Domestic UnitWomen's Work in the MarketplaceThe Contribution of Women to Economic DevelopmentThe Domestic Mode of ProductionFood ProductionMaintenanceExchange and MarketingThe Capitalist Mode of ProductionUrbanization and Class DistinctionsWorking for Wages: Its Organizational PrerequisitesWomen's WorkGlobalization and the Transformation of WorkSelf-EmploymentUnemploymentThe Politics of Work: Barriers and StrategiesSexual and Gender HarassmentSocial Support for Working WomenLaws Against Sexist Job DiscriminationEqual Pay-Comparable WorthThe Impact of the Women's MovementSummaryDiscussion QuestionsRecommended Readings13. Feminism and PoliticsFeminism and PoliticsPolitical PowerWhat Is Power?Power and AuthorityTypes of GovernmentWomen's Political Power in the PastPatterns of Male DominanceWomen as Political LeadersRecent Political Gains of Women in the United StatesPolitical Gains of Women in Office Around the GlobeDo Women in Office Make a Difference?Right-wing WomenObstacles Facing Women in PoliticsThe 2008 and 2012 US Presidential ElectionsWomen as CitizensThe Struggle for the VoteEqual Rights AmendmentWomen and the LawWomen's Political ParticipationWomen and Peace MovementsGlobal Feminism and Human RightsSummaryDiscussion QuestionsRecommended ReadingsReferencesArts CreditsIndex